Felipe VI. (Born January 30, 1968 in Madrid as Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y Grecia , more rarely German Philip VI. ) Has been King of Spain since June 19, 2014 and thus the country's head of state. He comes from the Bourbon-Anjou dynasty .
|Spanish royal family|
His parents are the former Spanish royal couple Juan Carlos I from the House of Bourbon-Anjou and Sofia from the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg . On his mother's side he is a grandson of King Paul I of Greece and Friederike of Hanover . His sisters are Elena (born December 20, 1963) and Cristina (born June 13, 1965).
Felipe VI. was born on January 30, 1968 in the Clínica de Nuestra Señora de Loreto hospital in Madrid . On February 8, 1968, he was baptized in the Zarzuela Palace by the Archbishop of Madrid, Monseñor Casimiro Morcillo . Godparents were his grandfather, Count of Barcelona, Juan de Borbón y Battenberg, and his great-grandmother, queen widow Victoria Eugénie von Battenberg .
Night of February 23, 1981
During the so-called transition from the Franco regime to democracy in Spain, there was an attempted coup by the Spanish military on February 23, 1981 , against which his father stood as head of state. The then 13-year-old Felipe had to stay with his father in his study while he consulted with his officers for hours. At night, the King made a televised address in the uniform of the Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces in which he spoke out in favor of democracy. Prince Felipe was near him all the time; Juan Carlos later justified this educational measure as follows:
"He should see how I do my job when everything is in question."
After the putschists gave up, the parents sent their son to school as usual the next day.
Prince Felipe began his schooling at Colegio Santa María de los Rosales in Madrid and graduated in 1985 from Lakefield College School , Toronto , Canada . From 1985 to 1988 he went through various stations in the three branches of the army , navy and air force of the Spanish army .
Felipe is a graduate of the Autonomous University of Madrid , where he studied law from 1988 to 1993 , and the Jesuit- led Georgetown University in Washington, DC , where he obtained a master's degree in international relations in 1995 . He is the first Spanish king to graduate.
marriage and family
Felipe married Letizia Ortiz on May 22, 2004 in Madrid . They have two daughters together: Crown Princess Leonor was born on October 31, 2005 in Madrid and baptized on January 14, 2006. The godparents are the grandparents, Juan Carlos I and Sofia . Leonor is number one in line to the Spanish throne . The second daughter, Infanta Sofía , was born on April 29, 2007 in the Ruber Internacional Hospital in Madrid and was baptized on July 15, 2007 in the Palacio de la Zarzuela in Madrid. Her godparents are Paloma Rocasolano, Letizia's mother, and Konstantin Sakskoburggotski, son of the former Tsar Simeon II of Bulgaria. Sofía is named after her grandmother and is second in line to the Spanish throne.
Before marrying Letizia, two of the current king's former friends had rejected his parents as “not befitting”, including the Norwegian lingerie model Eva Sannum. The middle-class Letizia is the daughter of a journalist and a nurse and was briefly married before.
Official duties and interests
Felipe's birth ensured traditional Spanish inheritance, favoring male heirs over women. Since November 22, 1975, the day his father Juan Carlos I was proclaimed King of Spain , he was designated heir to the throne.
As crown prince
On his 18th birthday, January 30, 1986, the Crown Prince was sworn in to the Spanish Constitution in a state ceremony in front of Parliament . He made his first official visit to Germany in the summer of 1991 to see Federal President Richard von Weizsäcker in Bonn. The heir to the throne then opened an exhibition with works by the Catalan Salvador Dalí with Federal Foreign Minister Hans-Dietrich Genscher in the Museum of European Art (NRW) . Felipe later made almost 200 official trips to 60 countries on behalf of his father. In recent years, Felipe has represented the Spanish royal family, often with his wife, at international events such as sporting events or dynastic weddings. He is fluent in French and English, has often traveled to Latin America as his country's envoy and is familiar with its culture.
During the indignados ('indignant') protests in May 2011 , activist Laura Pérez Ruano asked Prince Felipe whether he would “have sufficient decency” to propose a referendum on the form of government in Spain if he took office. Felipe replied that it was not up to him to call such a referendum.
In preparation for the office of king, his father gave him the following advice:
“Here you have to earn the throne over and over again, day after day, month after month, year after year. And if you have the people against you, you can pack up. "
Change of throne
Scandals such as King Juan Carlos' elephant hunt during a luxury safari in 2012 in the midst of the recession, the publicity of his affairs and the financial scandal surrounding his youngest daughter Cristina and her husband Iñaki Urdangarin suffered greatly from the reputation of the monarchy in Spain. At the beginning of 2014, support for the monarchy in surveys fell below 50 percent for the first time.
Against this background and due to health problems, Juan Carlos announced his abdication on June 2, 2014 , which took effect on June 18 at midnight. Felipe VI. ascended the Spanish throne on June 19.
Previously, thousands of people in Madrid demonstrated for the abolition of the monarchy. Left and green parties in particular had called for protests against the monarchy in numerous other cities. Many demonstrators called for a referendum and waved red, yellow and purple flags from the time of the Second Republic. 30,000 people are said to have gathered on Madrid's Puerta del Sol alone . The Spanish media response, however, remained mild.
An organic law that was subsequently drafted by the government regulating the early succession to the throne was passed by parliament and the senate. The complete text reads:
"1. His Majesty King Juan Carlos I de Borbón renounces the Spanish crown.
2. The abdication becomes effective at the moment the present organic law comes into force. "
The organic law came into force on June 19th when it was published in the Spanish Official Gazette. The former royal couple should officially continue to be addressed with the honorary title "Majesty". In the order of precedence of the protocol is Felipe VI. with Letizia and the daughters Leonor and Sofía in front of his parents. Male heirs retain preference in the line of succession.
In view of the Spanish economic crisis, enthronement ceremonies were modest. With around 6,000 security guards, the greatest security precautions have been taken in years. The police banned counter-demonstrations in the city center.
According to a survey by the daily El País , around two thirds of Spanish citizens are in favor of a vote on the continued existence of the monarchy, which, however, according to various polls, is in favor of a majority.
In recent European history there have already been some changes to the throne by renunciation. A precedent is significant in Spain's history: In 1555, Emperor Charles V , King Charles I of Spain, gave his son Philip II a global empire shortly before the height of its expansion.
After Felipe's proclamation as the new king, he was the youngest monarch in Europe at the age of 46. He stayed with his family in a villa that was built for him on the shielded grounds of the Zarzuela Palace . He conducts official business in the old Zarzuela Palace.
As a king
After the controversial Catalan independence referendum in October 2017 , he said in a televised speech that the situation in Catalonia was extremely serious and that the rule of law and proper self-government in Catalonia were in danger. He reaffirmed his unconditional commitment to the unity of Spain, the defense of the constitution and the respect for the law against an intolerable attempt by the pro-independence advocates to usurp the institutions and divide society.
As Crown Prince, Felipe was a member of the Spanish sailing team at the Summer Olympics in Barcelona in 1992 and was the bearer of the Spanish flag at the opening ceremony. In the Soling competition he reached sixth place.
On the subject of football, he identified himself as a supporter of Atlético Madrid , the club from the working-class neighborhoods in the south of the capital, which is more like a club for ordinary people. Unlike his father, Felipe does not believe in hunting or bullfighting .
Funding the royal family
In February 2014 King Juan Carlos announced that he had fixed annual salaries for his family members for the first time. Until then, he had not published the donations in detail and had estimated them depending on the number of public appearances. As in the previous year, he himself received a total of 293,000 euros, son Felipe 146,000 euros. The total budget of the royal family in 2014 was 7.8 million euros. Costs for business trips, vehicles, security measures and building maintenance were not included.
According to press reports, with Felipe's accession to the throne, only the new monarch couple, their two daughters, as well as the previous king and his wife, should take on representative functions and receive a salary from the state treasury. Felipe's older sisters are no longer considered. It can still be assumed that the total cost of maintaining a Spanish royal family will be in the double-digit millions, and taxes must be paid on the royal salaries.
On January 21, 1977, by decree, he was given the title of Prince of Asturias (Spanish Príncipe de Asturias ), along with the following: Prince of Girona (Spanish Príncipe de Gerona, Catal . Príncep de Girona ), heir to the Crown of Aragón , Prince of Viana (Spanish. Príncipe de Viana ), heir of the Kingdom of Navarre and Duke of Montblanc (Catal. Duc de Montblanc ), Count of Cervera (Catal. Comte de Cervera ) and Lord of Balaguer (Catal. Senyor de Balaguer ) . In accordance with Article 57, Paragraph 2 of the Spanish Constitution, these titles passed to his eldest daughter Leonor when he ascended the throne. Since then, Felipe himself has been entitled "King of Spain" under Article 56, Paragraph 2 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978. He can also use “the other titles to which the crown is entitled”.
Felipe has an unusually long list of titles, even for a monarch. The titles traditionally due to the crown, which he called His Majesty Don Felipe VI. de Borbón y Grecia are the following:
- King of Spain ,
- King of Castile , León , Aragon , both Sicilies (Naples-Sicily), Jerusalem , Navarre , Valencia , Galicia , Granada , Cordoba , Jaén , Seville , Toledo , Murcia , Sardinia , Corsica , Algarve , Algeciras , Mallorca , the Canary Islands , the West and East Indies and the New Islands and continental oceans ( America ),
- Archduke of Austria ,
- Duke of Burgundy , Brabant , Milan , Athens and Neopatra ,
- Count of Habsburg , Flanders , Tyrol , Roussillon , Barcelona , Cerdaña and Gocéano ,
- Lord of Biscaya and Molina de Aragón .
Habsburg titles also appear in this title . They are relics from the period of the rule of the Habsburgs until 1700, which were adopted by the subsequent Bourbons.
- Spain 1981: Order of the Golden Fleece (Grand Master since accession to the throne)
- Netherlands 1985: Grand Cross of the Order of Orange-Nassau
- Spain 1986: Grand Cross with Collane of the Order of Charles III. (Grand Master since accession to the throne)
- Spain 1986: Grand Cross of the Military Order of Merit
- Spain 1987: Grand Cross of the Order for Merit at Sea
- Spain 1988: Grand Cross of the Air Force Merit Cross
- United Kingdom 1988: Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
- Portugal 1988: Grand Cross of the Order of Christ
- Portugal 1991: Grand Cross of the Order of Avis
- Sweden 1991: Knight of the Seraphine Order
- Belgium 1994: Grand Cross of the Order of the Leopold
- Austria 1995: Large golden decoration on ribbon for services to the Republic of Austria
- Norway 1995: Grand Cross of the Norwegian Order of St. Olav
- Italy 1996: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic
- Mexico 1996: Grand Cross of the Order of the Aztec Eagle
- Portugal 1996: Grand Officer of the Order of the Tower and the Sword
- Austria 1997: Greatest Star of the Decoration of Honor for Services to the Republic of Austria
- Spain 1999: Grand Cross of the Order of St. Hermenegild (sovereign since accession to the throne)
- Chile 2001: Grand Cross of the Chilean Order of Merit
- Greece 2001: Grand Cross of the Order of the Savior
- Poland 2003: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland
- Latvia 2004: Grand Cross of the Three Star Order
- Peru 2004: Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun
- Hungary 2005: Grand Cross of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Hungary
- Portugal 2006: Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and the Sword
- Estonia 2007: Order of the Marienland Cross 1st class
- Romania 2007: Grand Cross of the Star of Romania
- France 2009: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honor
- Lebanon 2009: Grand Cross of the Lebanese Order of Merit
- 2013: Olympic medal
- Chile 2014: Collane of the Chilean Order of Merit
- Peru 2015: Grand Cross with chain of the Order of the Sun
- Lebanon : Grand Officer of the Cedar Order
- United Kingdom 2017: Stranger Knight of the Garter Order of the Garter
|Pedigree of King Felipe of Spain|
- Felipe VI. , in: Internationales Biographisches Archiv 35/2014 from August 26, 2014, in the Munzinger archive ( beginning of article freely accessible)
- Literature by and about Felipe VI. in the catalog of the German National Library
- Official biography on the website of the Spanish royal family (English)
Spain before the change of the throne. Euronews, June 18, 2014.
Paul Ingendaay: Juan Carlos resigns - More so the outdoor guy. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine , June 3, 2014.
Peter Burghardt: Spain's end at the World Cup - Tiki-Taka goes home. In: Süddeutsche.de , June 18, 2014.
- Biografía de Su Majestad el Rey. In: CasaReal.es (website of the royal family).
- Felipe of Spain: newcomer to the profession at 46. In: Süddeutsche.de. June 3, 2014, accessed June 19, 2014 .
- Martin Dahms: Juan Carlos abdicates, Felipe takes over. In: Frankfurter Rundschau , June 2, 2014.
- Gudrun Springer: Prince Felipe: conscientious son ascends the throne. In: Der Standard , June 2, 2014.
- Nörvenich Castle , Guest Book 1991
- King Felipe VI: How Spain changes with the change of the throne. In: Süddeutsche.de. June 17, 2014, accessed June 19, 2014 .
- Martin Dahms: Change on the Spanish throne - The subjects want to be asked. In: Stuttgarter-Zeitung.de , June 18, 2014.
- Leo Wieland: Everyone has to earn the throne. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , June 2, 2014.
- Support drops below 50 percent. In: ORF.at , January 7, 2014.
- throne: Spain's King Juan Carlos abdicates. In: Spiegel Online , June 2, 2014.
- Thousands take to the streets: Spaniards demand a "republic" after the king's abdication. In: Focus.de , June 3, 2014.
- Konrad Kramar: Tens of thousands of Spaniards are calling for the end of the monarchy. In: Kurier.at , June 3, 2014.
- Martin Dahms: A law like a tweet. In: Frankfurter Rundschau , June 5, 2014.
- Juan Carlos and Sofia retain royal titles even after the change of the throne. In: Tiroler Tageszeitung online , June 13, 2014.
- Spain: King Juan Carlos says goodbye. In: Spiegel Online , June 17, 2014.
- Fernando Vallespín in conversation with André Hatting: “He was always very close to the people”. In: DeutschlandradioKultur.de , June 27, 2014.
- General information: Susan Richter, Dirk Dirbach (Ed.): Renunciation of the throne. The abdication in monarchies from the Middle Ages to modern times. Böhlau, Cologne 2010, ISBN 978-3-412-20535-5 ( preview on Google Books).
- Norbert Conrads : The Abdication of Kaiser Karl V. Farewell Lecture held on July 23, 2003 in the University of Stuttgart. (= Speeches and essays vol. 65). Stuttgart University Library, 2003, urn : nbn: de: bsz: 93-opus-19350 .
- Spain's new royal couple with Pope Francis. In: Rheinische Post , June 30, 2014.
- La Vanguardia: Mensaje íntegro del rey Felipe sobre la situación en Catalunya , full text of the king's televised address , October 4, 2017, accessed on October 19, 2017 (Spanish); La Vanguardia: El Rey acusa a la Generalitat de una “deslealtad inadmisible” y de “dividir la sociedad catalana” , October 4, 2017, accessed on October 19, 2017 (Spanish)
- Su Alteza Real el Príncipe de Asturias ( Memento of January 22, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) on the website of the Spanish royal family (Spanish; accessed August 10, 2008)
- Frankfurter Rundschau: Queen Sofía and Letizia get fixed salaries ( Memento from July 3, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- FAZ February 4, 2014 p. 7: Juan Carlos now pays Sofia a fixed salary
- Cornelia Derichsweiler, Madrid: Felipe relies on a simple crown. In: nzz.ch. June 11, 2014, accessed October 14, 2018 .
- http://www.dw.de/der-könig-der-demokratie- 17677849
- La casa de su Majestad el Rey etc. (Ed.): Abdicación de su Majestad el Rey Juan Calos I y juramento y proclamción de su Majestad el Rey Felipe VI . Madrid 2014, p. 85 (Spanish,  [PDF; accessed July 7, 2015]).
- Felipe VI heredará más de 30 títulos cuando sea proclamado Rey. (No longer available online.) Lainformacion.com, June 4, 2014, archived from the original on January 12, 2015 ; Retrieved January 31, 2015 (Spanish). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- List of all decorations awarded by the Federal President for services to the Republic of Austria from 1952 (PDF; 6.9 MB)
|Juan Carlos of Bourbon and Bourbon-Naples-Sicily
( Juan Carlos I. )
Prince of Asturias
|Leonor of Bourbon and Ortiz|
|Juan Carlos I.||
King of Spain
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y Grecia; Philip VI|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||spanish king|
|DATE OF BIRTH||January 30, 1968|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Madrid|