|República del Perú (Spanish)
Piruw Republika (Aymara)
Piruw Suyu (Quechua)
|Republic of Peru|
|Official language||Spanish ; co-official: Quechua , Aymara|
|Form of government||republic|
|Government system||Semi-presidential system|
|Head of state||
|Head of government||
Ánterno Flores Aráoz
|Population density||24 inhabitants per km²|
|Population development||+ 0.96% per year|
gross domestic product
|Human Development Index||0.759 ( 82nd ) (2019)|
|currency||Peruvian Sol (PEN)|
|independence||July 28, 1821 (from Spain )|
Somos libres, seámoslo siempre
|National holiday||July 28th (Independence Day)|
|Time zone||UTC − 5|
|ISO 3166||PE , PER, 604|
Peru ([ Peru ], Spanish Perú [ peɾu ]; officially the Republic of Peru , Spanish República del Perú , Aymara piruw Republika , Quechua piruw Suyu ) is a country in western South America , bordered to the north by Ecuador and Colombia , on the east by Brazil , on the Southeast on Bolivia , in the south on Chile and in the west on the Pacific . The etymology of the country name is explained in the etymological list of country names .
Peru is the third largest country in South America after Brazil and Argentina. The length of the national border with Ecuador is 1420 km, with Colombia 1626 km, with Brazil 2995 km, with Bolivia 900 km and with Chile 160 km. The total length of the land borders is 7101 kilometers.
Peru lies in three different landscape zones with their climatic peculiarities:
- Costa (coast) - approx. 12% of the state area,
- Sierra ( Andes , highlands ) - approx. 28%,
- Selva ( rainforest , cloud and cloud forest ) approx. 60%.
In the south of Peru, on the border with Chile, begins the driest desert on earth, the Atacama Desert . In the southern area of the Costa to the capital Lima , which is about halfway along the Peruvian coastline, rainfall is very rare throughout the year.
North of Lima, soil quality and rainfall are increasing somewhat, so that agriculture is also possible there outside of river oases. Temperatures vary between 12 ° C in winter and 35 ° C in summer.
The sierra begins behind the narrow coastal region. It consists of several mountain ranges of the Andes, which are interrupted by long valleys (span. Callejón or valle ). Typical for the entire Andean region are deeply cut valleys ( canyons ) and breakthroughs in the mountain ranges (Spanish: Pongo ) through large rivers on the west and east side of the Cordillera .
A typical cross-section of the Andes can be seen in the central region of Ancash : From west to east these are the "Black Cordillera" ( Cordillera Negra , up to approx. 5000 m), followed by the Callejón de Huaylas (around 3000 m). The next mountain range are the "White Cordillera" ( Cordillera Blanca ), here is the highest mountain in Peru, the Huascarán (6768 m). The Callejón de Conchucos (with the Marañón River , a source river of the Amazon ) stretches further east, separated from other mountain ranges.
While in the north of the country the Andes do not reach the snow line and are very rich in vegetation (climatic zone of the Páramo ), in the central area they are very steep, sometimes with wider valleys and high mountains with eternal snow and ice ( glaciers ). In the central south of Peru (from the latitude of the capital Lima) the landscape is rather hilly between 3000 and 4000 meters, with a few striking snow-covered mountain ranges over 5000 meters.
From this latitude to the south there are also volcanic cones with partially sporadic volcanic activity ( Ubinas ), and the Andes chain widens strongly, with a few steep mountain ranges and hilly plateaus in between. In the south of the country (in the regions of Arequipa , Puno , Moquegua and Tacna ) there is a certain flattening of the plateau. The so-called Altiplano is formed , which gets its typical shape around Lake Titicaca .
The mean annual temperature at an altitude of 3300 m is 11 ° C. Sometimes there is heavy rainfall in the rather low-precipitation region from October to April. Major cities in this region are (a selection, from north to south): Cajamarca , Huaraz , Cerro de Pasco , Huancayo , Ayacucho , Cusco , Puno , Arequipa .
The rainforest region (“Selva”) begins east of the Andes. The transition is fluid, as there is a tropical mountain forest with a milder climate.
In the region determined by the time of day climate, the annual mean temperature is approx. 26 ° C and the annual precipitation reaches up to 3800 mm. This is where other headwaters of the Amazon originate , which flows through the Amazon basin towards Brazil .
The Peruvian rainforest is dense and almost impenetrable. The rivers that flow from the chains of the Andes in wide loops to the Amazon are the only traffic arteries through the vast forest areas.
The only larger cities in this region that are also important for tourism are Iquitos and Puerto Maldonado . Iquitos cannot be reached from Lima by land, only by plane or boat. Puerto Maldonado can be reached by boat, plane (1 ½ h to Lima; ½ h from Cusco) and by truck (24–60 h) from Cusco. Other larger cities in this region are (a selection, from north to south) Tarapoto , Tingo María and Pucallpa . The largest nature reserve in Peru Pacaya-Samiria is significant .
Flora and fauna
The flora of Peru is very varied and diverse. With a particularly large variety of species and biodiversity , an extremely large number of endemic species, genera and families of plants and animals as well as diverse ecosystems , Peru is counted among the megadiversity countries on earth. Due to the great threat to nature, the tropical Andes ecoregion is also listed internationally as a biodiversity hotspot .
Only dry plants ( xerophytes ) such as cacti and mesquites grow in the dry and sandy-desert-like coastal plains . In the rainforest regions up to the cloud forest level of the mountains, on the other hand, there is a great abundance of plants. Representatives of this vegetation include rubber and mahogany trees as well as vanilla . In the alpine level of the high mountains there is only a sparse variety of plants due to the natural conditions. Here in the Puna and Páramo ecoregions mainly grass and ground cover grow.
Peru's national plant is the cantua ( Cantua buxifolia ) , a two to three meter high shrub with long, bell-shaped flowers from the family of the herbaceous plants that grows at 1200 to 3800 meters above sea level.
Just like the flora, the fauna of Peru has a great variety of species to offer. Seagulls and terns , lizards , scorpions , seals and penguins live on the coastal plain and offshore islands . In the Peruvian coastal waters you can find sardines , lobsters , mackerel and about 30 species of whales and dolphins . The Peruvian beaked whale (Mesoplodon peruvianus) was discovered here in 1991. Animals of the more fertile regions in the east include armadillos , alligators , jaguars , pumas , parrots and flamingos . In the mountain region the humpless camels live such. B. the llama and alpaca . The national animal of Peru, the red rock cock (Rupicola peruviana), can be found in the Manu National Park .
Peru is considered to be the country with the greatest diversity of birds in the world. More than 1800 species (more than in Europe and North America combined) are native to Peru, and several are endemic . In all parts of Peru the bird fauna is very diverse. Even in the megacity of Lima, Peruvian pigeons and morning hammer are sighted. Different species of flamingos can be found in the salt lakes of the south and on the Bolivian border. In the highlands various live Ibisarten , banks Wippern and Andean geese , Andean woodpeckers , Andenzeisige and Andean swallows . Various species of hummingbirds can be found up to Lake Titikaka and its islands .
Despite the great diversity of birds, there is no bird protection organization in Peru.
National parks, protected areas
The 1993 Constitution of Peru recognizes the natural resources and diversity of this country's ecosystems as national heritage. In 1992 the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales was founded as a department of the Ministry of Agriculture. It is subject to the Sistema Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado which keeps a list of all protected areas in Peru. The areas are looked after by the Servicio Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas por el Estado .
The government has given a total of 40 percent of Peruvian territory to private, profit-oriented companies for the development of natural resources and the large-scale cultivation of agricultural products. 74 areas with a total of 222,297.005 km² or 17.3% of the land area of Peru are protected by the government:
- 15 national parks ( Parques Nacionales (PN) ),
- 15 nature reserves ( Reservas Nacionales (RN) ),
- 9 protected areas ( Santuarios Nacionales (SN) ),
- 4 historical protected areas ( Santuarios Históricos (SH) ),
- 3 protected areas for forest fauna ( Refugios de Vida Silvestre (RVS) ),
- 2 landscape protection areas ( Reservas Paisajísticas (RP) ),
- 6 forest reserves ( Bosques de Protección (BP) ),
- 8 communal protected areas for indigenous peoples ( Refugios Comunales (RC) ),
- 2 hunting reserves ( Cotos de Caza (CC) ) and
- 13 other protected areas ( Zonas Reservadas (ZR) ).
Rural exodus causes the strong immigration of Peruvians to the capital, where around a quarter of the country's population currently lives. A significant part of the indigenous population in particular lives below or on the edge of the poverty line . From a regional perspective, most of the poor are in the peripheral zones of Lima and in the rural areas of the Sierra and the Selva. In 2016, 78.9% of the population lived in cities.
Due to the contrasts in the ethnic cultures, socio-political disparities and the mismanagement and bureaucracy, the population is insufficiently supplied. Food imports and thus high foreign exchange expenditures follow. Around two and a half million Peruvian citizens live abroad as a result of ongoing emigration , mainly in the USA, Europe and Japan.
Peru's population grew from 7.7 million in 1950 to 32.1 million in 2017. The median age of the population in 2016 was 27.7 years. A woman had an average of 2.15 children in the course of her life. In the future, it is assumed that population growth will slow down and the population will age.
Along with Bolivia and Guatemala, Peru is one of the three countries in Latin America with a large proportion of indigenous population groups. 37 percent of the population are mestizo , around 47 percent are indigenous. The latter mainly belong to the Quechua and Aymara speaking peoples. 15 percent are of European descent and four percent are estimated to be Afro-Peruvians. The remaining three percent are of Asian descent, mostly Chinese and Japanese; Peru has the largest proportion of the Chinese population in all of Latin America. A minority of Rhinelander and Tyrolean settlers have lived in Pozuzo and Oxapampa in the Pasco department since the 19th century , most of whom settled in the second half of the 19th century.
Although migration played an important role in the history of Peru, only 0.3% of the population was born abroad in 2017.
Some isolated peoples live in the rainforest of the Peruvian Amazon . They include (presumably) 5000 people who are divided into 12 non-sedentary ethnic groups. In addition, another 1,500 who are already in contact with Peruvian civil society. In Ucayali, special protected areas were created for them, such as those of Murunahua (470,305 ha), Mascho Piro (816.057 ha) and Isconahua (298.487 ha). They are represented by AIDESEP (Asociación Interétnica de Desarrollo de la Selva Peruana). The creation of reserves is making slow progress. So far only these three protected areas have been implemented and five have been waiting for state recognition for 20 years. The existence of the indigenous peoples is threatened by the construction of roads, the felling of the forests and the mining of mineral resources (oil, gold). Peru is a signatory to ILO Convention 169 for the Protection of Threatened Peoples.
The most widely spoken language is Spanish , spoken by 82.9% of the population as their mother tongue. It shows a variety of regional colors. What they all have in common, however, is the Seseo , which is common throughout South America . In second and third place are the indigenous languages Quechua (13.6%) and Aimara (1.6%). Quechua has the highest proportion of native speakers in the Apurímac region with 69.7%, and Aimara in the Puno region on the border with Bolivia (26.6%). In June 2017, it was decided to found an Aimara University (Universidad Nacional Autónoma Pluricultural Aimara (Unapa)).
In the 2017 census, the residents of Peru over twelve years of age indicated which denomination or religion they belong to:
- Catholic : 76.0%
- Evangelical or Evangelical : 14.1%
- Adventists 1.5%
- Jehovah's Witnesses 0.8%
- Other Christian churches: 1.6%
- Mormons 0.5%
- Other religions (including the indigenous religions ): 0.4%
- 5.1% of the population described themselves as non-religious.
This is a consequence of Christian proselytizing in the wake of the conquest by the Spaniards and after independence through missions by mission groups from Peru itself, from Germany, the USA, Italy and other countries. During the course of the conquest, idols and religious objects were continually shifted further east to withdraw them from the Spanish. Starting from the Inkanat Vilcabamba , the old cults flared up again. The Spanish administration under Francisco de Toledo responded by resettling in Jesuit reductions . Monks, including Dominicans and Franciscans, and later also Jesuits (in Maynas , today the Diocese of Chachapoyas ) were involved in the missionary work . Despite centuries of fighting indigenous traditions, not least in rural areas, the Catholic-Christian rites are mixed with ethnic religions from the pre-Columbian era ( syncretism ), which is particularly evident at religious festivals.
Important religious events are the Catholic festival of devotion to Señor de los Milagros in Lima and the Inti Raymi solar festival in Cusco . This originally Inca festival was re-established in the course of a growing return in 1944.
The indigenous people of the Amazon lowlands continue to have their own religions and ideas, for example the religion of the Asháninka .
As in many Latin American countries, evangelical and charismatic churches and faith communities such as Seventh-day Adventists , Assemblies of God and the Evangelical Church of Peru , but also other groups such as Jehovah's Witnesses and Mormons, have enjoyed a large influx of people for some decades , which - partly financially supported by the USA - actively and sometimes aggressively recruiting members.
The first immigrants came around 20,000 to 10,000 BC. In today's Peru. The oldest known monumental buildings date from around 3200 BC. Step-shaped pyramids, processional streets and enclosed courtyards were found in Sechín Bajo in the Casma Valley, 370 kilometers north of the capital Lima . The site, discovered in 1992, has been studied by German archaeologists since 2003. It can be considered certain that corn, peanuts, cassava and pumpkins were planted and that artificial irrigation systems were installed.
In excavation layers from around 1700 BC There were also numerous incised drawings. They represent hybrid creatures of caiman and human. Since French archaeologists found the remains of a culture in eastern Ecuador that also represented the caiman and which dates back to 2450 BC. Chr., Cultural influences from the jungle area may have inspired the culture of Sechin. In any case, no caimans could live in the Andes, so in any case the suspicion that this culture came from the lowlands on the eastern edge of the Andes.
The high culture of Chavín de Huántar was first dated back to 800 BC. Until 300 BC Dated. New investigations meanwhile have an existence as early as 1200 BC. Proven. The Nazca culture , best known today for the Nazca Lines , developed from around 200 BC. BC to around AD 600 in the area around Nazca. The Tiahuanaco culture can be traced around Lake Titicaca , the oldest traces of which date from around 1500 BC. Come from BC. On the coast in the irrigation area of the Andean rivers, different cultures emerged in the first millennium AD, such as those of the Moche in the region around Lambayeque . Before the Inca Empire, Chan Chan, the capital of the Chimú, was a large city with a developed urban culture. In 2018 traces were found of more than 100 children who were ritually killed and laid out, i.e. sacrificed, by the Chimú.
The Inca empire came into being around 1200 and until 1532 spanned large parts of today's states of Colombia , Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia , Argentina and Chile . The city of Cusco , located on the plateaus of Peru, was the capital. On July 24, 1911, an expedition led by Hiram Bingham discovered the ruined city of Machu Picchu in the Andes .
Spanish conquest in the 16th century
The Spaniards conquered this country from 1532 and founded the viceroyalty of Peru for the Spanish crown , which at the time of its greatest expansion reached from today's Panama to the extreme south of the continent. In the 18th century, however, it was reduced in size through the spin-off of the viceroyalty kingdoms of New Granada and La Plata .
Repression against Indians in the 18th century
In 1780 protests against forced labor and the purchase of goods ( reparto ) developed into an uprising movement, led by the indigenous José Gabriel Condorcanqui . Citing his descent from the last Inca ruler, he called himself Tupac Amaru II . Condorcanqui's movement was not actually directed against the ruling Spanish crown and Spanish institutions, but against abuses by the supervisors. He tried to form an alliance between the Indians and the Peruvian-born Spaniards and emphasized that white, mestizo, indigenous and black people were affected by the oppression. Initially, the movement was also supported by urban whites and priests, but they quickly distanced themselves from the comparatively radical goals. The uprising was put down, Condorcanqui, his wife and his closest associates were publicly tortured and executed in Cusco . Subsequently, the Spaniards robbed the indigenous aristocracy of their last privileges and forbade the use of indigenous languages and symbols. The liberation from colonial rule could therefore only be carried out by the whites ( criollos ) and came from outside.
Independence in the 19th century
Many residents of Peru still felt they belonged to Spain. However, at the end of the 18th century, only one in eight immigrants was of Spanish origin. The fact that the Criollos were not involved in the administration of the country was seen as a degradation. Spain appointed envoys for this purpose who did not come from their ranks. The criollos in Madrid also had no voice. The political situation - a liberal regime had come to power in Spain - created a mood of upheaval, but an independence movement did not develop. Only an intervention by Río de la Plata , today's Argentina, and Chile led to independence, as the two states were interested in an independent neighboring state. Río de la Plata was primarily interested in the high plateaus of Bolivia, which at that time still belonged to Peru, while Chile's interests had mainly economic reasons. The Argentine General San Martín landed in 1820 with a mixed Chilean-Argentine army in the Bay of Paracas ( expedition from San Martín ). The viceroy , representative of Spain, then withdrew to Cusco. San Martín tried to exploit the power vacuum and through various measures to improve the conditions for independence. He could not help but appoint himself head of the new state and then hold elections for a representative body. But he did not get the support from Simón Bolívar that would have been necessary to eliminate the Virrey troops still entrenched in central Peru (high plateaus of the Andes). When San Martín left Peru, Simón Bolívar promised the new parliament an intervention. In 1824 he succeeded in defeating the armies loyal to Spain, but had no support in post-colonial Peruvian society. Progress was only made in the coming decades, for example with regard to the integration of the Indians, who made up 60% of the population. In addition, the abolition of slavery was enforced.
Years of post-colonial construction
The decentralized forces were strengthened through independence. In the individual regions, the Caziques were the actual rulers, be it because they owned large estates or because they were former generals with influence in the army. Peru was torn inside. A civil war broke out between the north, which was protectionist and had the approval of Chile, and the south, which brought about a Bolivian-Peruvian coalition. The north eventually won, and years of political instability followed, with a dozen presidents and multiple constitutions. Around the year 1841, the guano obtained from the excrement of the seabirds on the coast was discovered as a fertilizer and first used in England, then exported to all of Europe. For many years guano was the most important export good of the Peruvian economy. The income from its sale was used to modernize the administration of the country. With the guano, the state also had a source of income that made it independent of the domestic economy, and the need to levy taxes to finance state expenditure was reduced. The Caziques lost influence and the Indians no longer had to pay poll tax, slavery was abolished. Science was promoted. The first party, the Partido Civil, was founded, which saw the construction of railway lines as a prerequisite for the development of other branches of the economy such as mining. However, this project could only be partially implemented. Lines were built, but they were not connected to each other.
The saltpeter war
The reason for the saltpeter war that broke out in 1879 was that Bolivia, contrary to contractual agreements, wanted to tax the Chilean and English companies that exploited the saltpeter deposits. Peru also owned several guano and mining companies in the disputed area, Bolivia offered Peru economic privileges in Antofagasta in the event of an alliance . In addition, Peru saw its political and economic supremacy, which the country had taken over from colonial times as the former viceroyalty of Spain, endangered by Chile in the South Pacific. In 1874 a secret pact against Chile was signed with Bolivia. However, this alliance could not prevent Chile from winning. Bolivia withdrew from the war in 1880 after losing several battles and completely renounced its claim to the Antofagasta region.
Chile had meanwhile marched north into the Peruvian region of Tarapaca and offered Peru a ceasefire and a peace treaty. However, Peru refused to cede Tarapaca to Chile. Chile started a war of invasions in the following years and marched into the capital Lima in 1881 after the destruction of the Peruvian army. The official government was dissolved and the Chilean general Patricio Lynch was installed as governor of the country. However, some Peruvian generals like Miguel Iglesias and Andrés Avelino Cáceres had escaped and tried to wage an organized guerrilla war from the eastern and northern Sierra , with rather dubious success. In July 1883, Cáceres managed to assemble a conventional division of 1,500 men in order to strive for a final blow. However, the last hopes in the battle of Huamachuco were shattered by the Chilean Colonel Alejandro Gorostiaga; the war was finally lost.
The Treaty of Ancón in October 1883 sealed the end of the war, Tarapaca and Tacna were ceded to Chile (Tacna was returned in 1929), and the Chilean army withdrew from Peru. The reason for the defeat was also the lack of a functioning state apparatus in Peru. The war increased the foreign debt, which was reduced by selling raw material concessions and land to foreign banks and corporations.
The Electoral Act of 1896 granted the right to vote to all Peruvian men who were at least 21 years old, could read and write, and were paying higher taxes. In 1931 the census right to vote was abolished and at the same time compulsory voting was introduced. All men over 21, provided they could read and write, were now eligible to vote.
Oligarchical rule and political renewal
Peru suffered from the aftermath of the war for another 20 years. It was not until the beginning of the 20th century that the state's revenue from consumption taxes had doubled what it had earned at the end of the war with Chile. The economic structure changed, new products were added, and copper replaced silver from the first place in mining. In terms of exports, agricultural products such as sugar, rubber and, later, cotton were in the lead. The countries of origin of the most important investors were the United States and England. The cause of the lost war was not just the disorganization of the army. The country's indigenous majority did not really take part in this dispute. Peruvian intellectuals pointed out the danger of neglecting this section of the population and called for the Indian heritage to be part of a Peruvian identity, and the indigenism movement emerged . The right to vote excluded illiterate people and women from voting, so that the government was only elected by a small percentage of the population. The political organizations had also agreed on a candidate beforehand, so that the winner of the election was already known before the vote. With the election of President Augusto B. Leguía (1919–1930), a candidate who also represented members of the new middle classes prevailed for the first time.
Leguía lost power during the economic crisis. The reorganized suffrage made participation in elections compulsory, and it also gave minorities the right to be represented.
New opposition movements formed, on the one hand the APRA founded in 1924 by Víctor Raúl Haya de la Torre . This organized its followers outside of the political arena in professional associations and evening schools and created social institutions with their “people's houses”, with which they succeeded in anchoring their organization throughout the country. She wanted to overcome Latin America's dependence on the US through social reforms and nationalization. De la Torre regarded the development of a separate middle class as essential as a preliminary stage to socialism.
This is in contrast to José Carlos Mariátegui , who founded the Communist Party. He saw the seeds of a socialist society in the history of Peru, in the indigenous elements of the communal economy. From 1924 Mariátegui published the magazine Amauta , which was important as an intellectual forum for all of Latin America.
In the 1931 elections, the aprist party and right-wing candidate Sanchez Cerro faced each other. Even in these elections only 392,363 voters took part (out of a total population of approximately 6 million). The winner Cerro was accused of electoral fraud. It came to civil war-like conditions. After an attempted uprising in 1932, President Cerro had around 1,000 APRA supporters shot by the military near the city of Trujillo . The military and APRA have been in irreconcilable hostility ever since. Cerro himself was assassinated in 1933.
A government came about under General Benavides, who remained in power until 1939. He had pursued a policy that was friendly to Germany and which his successor Manuel Prado (1939–1945) did not pursue . Peru supported the Allies in World War II with deliveries of raw materials. The war only entered the war on February 12, 1945, but this meant that all Germans were only allowed to stay in Lima for a few months , including Maria Reiche , the Dresden cartographer of the Nazca lines . Before that, however, in 1941, the Peruvian army marched into the south of Ecuador, triggering the Peruvian-Ecuadorian War . The Peruvian military burned the city of Santa Rosa, occupied the important banana port of Machala and threatened Guayaquil . As a result, Ecuador had to surrender half of its remaining territory to Peru in the Treaty of Rio de Janeiro in 1942, mostly areas in the east and south-east of the Amazon around Iquitos .
The last border war with Peru over the area of the Cordillera del Cóndor on the Río Cenepa was sparked in 1995 by disputes over the interpretation of this treaty and was only officially ended in 1999 by a border and peace treaty now called "final".
On the way to a modern state
Even during the years of the economic crisis, efforts were made to make the economy less dependent on exports. This policy continued during World War II. The import taxes helped to build up a modest industrial production. Finished products such as cotton textiles were made from agricultural products. Social legislation had already been introduced under Manuel Prado.
In 1945 the APRA-supported José Luis Bustamante y Rivero became president, who implemented social reforms and aid programs for the urban poor. The policy of state intervention (exchange control, price freeze) led to high inflation and a black market. Bustamante was overthrown by General Manuel Odría in 1948 after an aprist (by left deviants of the APRA ) rebellion attempt . This banned APRA and other left-wing organizations, but pursued a program of import-substituting industrialization in the economic field .
Women were entitled to vote in 1955 at the behest of General Manuel Apolinario Odría Amoretti , who had ruled as dictator since 1948. He and his wife Maria Delgado de Odría wanted to replicate the success of the Peróns, and women's suffrage was part of their strategy. Thus the active and passive right to vote for women was introduced on September 7, 1955. However, women who could not read and write, most of them Indians, were excluded from the right to vote until the 1980s. Because of this, the turnout of women in the 1956 election was significantly lower than that of men, and the general's plan ended in defeat.
In 1956, former President Prado returned to power with the tacit approval of the APRA. During these years a fishing industry developed in which there were soon as many employees as in mining, which was firmly in the hands of foreign investors. The agricultural industry in the north on the coast lost its importance. In the years after the Second World War, an increasing part of the population moved from the mountains to the cities. A middle class had developed that no longer identified with the revolutionary doctrines of the APRA. She strove for more rights and opposed the authoritarian regimes that were in power. They felt represented by the Acción Popular and their leader Fernando Belaúnde Terry , who emerged victorious from the 1963 presidential elections. Reforms in the countryside seemed necessary under the Prado, but could not be implemented. The Belaunde agrarian reform affected a small part of the large landowners and did not include the estates on the northern coast. At the end of his reign there was the economic crisis that broke out in 1967 and, as a consequence, the shortage of foreign currency (the Sol had to be devalued drastically). Public contracts to industry were suspended and unemployment rose sharply.
Military government from 1968
Dissatisfaction among the younger military with the Belaúnde government, particularly over the control of oil by a North American company, led to a new coup in 1968. A military junta under Juan Velasco Alvarado took over the government.
Until now, the Peruvian elite , consisting of the large landowners in the highlands and the coast, had ruled the country for centuries. The agrarian reform of 1969 under General Juan Velasco Alvarado removed its power base. The military government tried to establish a mixed economy system through land and economic reforms. The company Petroperú , which still exists today, was founded to nationalize the oil reserves . Foreign companies were partially expropriated, but compensated and, if they were willing to cooperate with state institutions, even encouraged to invest. The establishment of a basic industry was taken over by the state. Occupational health and safety was improved, with land reform radically changing the ownership structure in the countryside. The expropriated large estates were transferred to cooperative ownership. Because large estates in the highlands had often been stolen from the village communities, the cooperatives were not accepted there, but viewed as a continuation of the land grabbing.
The military's aim was a third way between capitalism and communism. The school system was expanded, the media were expropriated and given into the hands of popular organizations. The indigenous heritage has been popularized goal was the development of the Mestizentum oriented social consciousness. Quechua became the second official language, making Peru a pioneer in South America. In terms of foreign policy, Peru became involved in the non-aligned movement , which led to tensions with the United States.
General Velasco was overthrown in 1975 by General Francisco Morales Bermúdez , who again took a more conservative political course.
Democratization from 1980
In 1980, Fernando Belaúnde Terry, who was ousted in 1968, took power again as president in free elections and gave some of the nationalized companies back to private ownership. He was followed in 1985 by Alan García .
In the 1980s, the left-wing guerrilla organization Sendero Luminoso ("Shining Path") began an armed struggle against the government under the leadership of philosophy professor Abimael Guzmán . Starting from Ayacucho , the organization now controlled large areas of the country. Both sides carried out massacres of the civilian population in connection with the fight against their political opponent. The activity of Sendero Luminoso lasted until the 1990s. The country's other left-wing guerrilla, Movimiento Revolucionario Túpac Amaru , opposed violence against the civilian population.
In the 1990 elections, the right- wing, led by the writer Mario Vargas Llosa (FREDEMO), a divided left, the ruling APRA party under Alan García, which was blamed for the country's economic troubles, and the independent candidate Alberto Fujimori . Fujimori formed the Cambio 90 coalition, supported by small business owners and freelancers . In the second ballot, the populist candidate Fujimori won a clear victory. First, Fujimori implemented drastic economic measures; high price rises and increased unemployment were the result. The aim was to repay the national debt and thus reintegrate Peru into the world economy.
Domestically, an intense struggle against the Marxist guerrillas began, with the constitutional rights being suspended. Fujimori's political opponents who had no connection with the guerrillas were not spared in this context either. A great success was the capture of the leader of the Sendero Luminoso, Guzmán, who called for a ceasefire. This and the economic recovery brought Fujimori the approval of broad sections of the population. On the other hand, pressure from abroad, which condemned the suppression of the democratic opposition and imposed economic sanctions, weighed on his government. Fujimori could not ignore this and could not help admitting oppositional groups. Finally, the entire political opposition in Peru came together for joint action. Its leader was Alejandro Toledo , who came to power in 2001 with his organization Perú Posible . The years of Fujimori's autocratic dictatorship were dealt with in a court case and the former president was sentenced to life imprisonment for human rights violations. In December 2017, however, Fujimori was pardoned by then President Pablo Pedro Kuczynski.
The government is representative, decentralized and structured according to the principle of the separation of powers. The primary interests of the state include the defense of state sovereignty, the protection of the population from threats to their security, and the promotion of the common good. In reality, however, despite some foreign trade successes, there are serious political, social and economic problems.
According to the 1993 constitution, a president is elected by the people every five years, and he cannot be re-elected in direct succession. The President's wide-ranging responsibilities include representing the state internally and externally, conducting general government policy, calling elections to the office of President and Congress, and enforcing and upholding the constitution and laws. Martín Vizcarra was President of the Republic of Peru from March 2018 to November 2020 . After his impeachment, the President of Parliament Manuel Merino de Lama (* 1961) took over as interim president in accordance with the provisions of the constitution . After his appointment, there were massive protests among the population, which the police countered with violence and the use of irritant gas and rubber bullets. There were also isolated deaths among the demonstrators. He resigned on November 15, 2020. After a first compromise candidate had initially failed in parliament, the central politician Francisco Sagasti was elected as the new speaker of parliament on November 16, 2020, who, according to the constitution, moved up to the office of Peruvian President until July 28, 2021.
Prime Minister and Government
The Prime Minister (Prime Minister) is the coordinator in the Cabinet of Ministers. Legally speaking, Peru is a semi-presidential republic as the constitution provides for the position of head of government who can be overthrown by parliament by a vote of no confidence. However, this regulation has not yet been applied and the reality is therefore more like a presidential republic. The president is also the head of government.
Voting is compulsory in Peru. If a citizen who is entitled to vote does not appear at the presidential election, he must pay a fine afterwards. However, since the elections are secret, the submission of unusable ballots cannot be punished.
On April 8, 2001, presidential and congressional elections were held. Alejandro Toledo , stubborn opponent of Alberto Fujimori , managed to unite 36.51% of the vote, surprisingly followed by ex-President Alan García (25.78%) and the candidate of the right-wing Christian People's Party PPC, Lourdes Flores Nano (24 , 30%). For this reason, on June 3, 2001, a runoff election between Toledo and García was held. The poor Toledo defeated his opponent García by six percentage points. The Toledo party, Perú Posible, has established itself as a political alternative. In Congress, Perú Posible received 45, APRA 26, Unidad Nacional 17 and FIM 11 of the 120 available seats. The election winner received the support of FIM (11), Volksaktion AP (3), SOMOS PERU (4), UPP (6) and Renacimiento Andino (1), giving the ruling party a majority of 70 seats in Congress. Toledo had to react to the growing criticism of his government several times with a cabinet reshuffle (most recently in August 2005, after the resignation of Prime Minister Ferrero). The appointments of Kuczynski as finance minister (already finance minister in the 1st cabinet of Toledo) and of Carlos Ferrero as prime minister, the departure of Jaime Quijandra and Silva Ruete as well as the appointment of Fernando Olivera as foreign minister, which triggered Ferrero's resignation, should be emphasized.
In the local and regional elections of November 2002, APRA succeeded in becoming the first political force in the country. APRA is now at the forefront of politics in twelve of the country's 25 regions and ten major cities.
The presidential elections took place on April 9, 2006. Here was Ollanta Humala 30.9% of the vote. He was followed with 24.7% by former President Alan García. In third place (just under one percent behind García) was the right-wing conservative politician Lourdes Flores Nano, who had been considered a sure winner just a few months earlier. Since none of the candidates had the absolute majority required, there was a runoff election on June 4, 2006 between Ollanta Humala and Alan García. García won with 52.625% of the vote. Ollanta Humala won in the majority of the departments, but García was able to win over a higher proportion of the population overall. Especially in the capital and in the departments on the coast, where the economic situation of the population is better, García was elected by a majority. Ollanta, on the other hand, received the votes of the poorer parts of the country in the Selva and Sierra.
In Parliament, Humalas UPP received 44 seats, Garcías APRA 35 seats. The center-right National Unity (Unidad Nacional) of Lourdes received 19 seats.
In the elections on April 10, 2011, Ollanta Humala and Keiko Fujimori received the most votes in the first ballot . In the second ballot, Humala gained a majority of the votes and became the new president on July 28th.
In the first round of the presidential elections on April 10, 2016, Keiko Fujimori was 40% ahead of Pedro Pablo Kuczynski with 21% and left-wing politician Verónika Mendoza with around 19%. Since none of the candidates was able to achieve the required absolute majority, there was a runoff on June 5, 2016 between the outsider Kuczynski and the politically experienced Fujimori. With the support of Mendoza, who lost in the first ballot, Pedro Pablo Kuczynski was finally able to win the elections with 50.12% of the vote. He took office on July 28, 2016. In March 2018, he resigned after allegations of corruption; He was succeeded by Vice President Martín Vizcarra .
At the end of September 2019, a dispute between Vizcarra and Congress over the appointment of judges at the Peruvian Constitutional Court escalated . He then dissolved the Congress and announced new elections. In response, Congress decided to suspend Vizcarra and appointed Vice President Mercedes Aráoz as interim president, who resigned a day later. Vizcarra returned to office.
After the parliament was dissolved in September 2019, a vote was taken on the new composition of the parliament in January 2020 at the end of the current legislative period. However, since a new electoral law prevents the re-election of MPs, many established politicians did not run for this election. Presidential and congress elections are due again in April 2021.
In the Corruption Perception Index (CPI) of Transparency International , the country, along with Niger , the Philippines , Gabon , Trinidad and Tobago , Thailand and East Timor, was ranked 101st out of 176 countries (as of 2016).
Relations with the USA have traditionally been a foreign policy priority for Peru. Accordingly, the Peruvian President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski was one of the first foreign heads of state to visit the new US President Donald Trump in Washington at the end of February 2017. At the same time, Peru is interested in deepening its relations with the Latin American countries - in particular with the member states of the Pacific Alliance, which is geared towards economic integration -, with the EU , with Russia and with the countries of the Pacific region. This is underlined by the assumption of the pro tempore presidency of the Pacific Alliance (from July 2015 to July 2016), the signing of the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) in February 2016 and the hosting of the APEC summit in November 2016.
The development of relations with Brazil is very important to Peru. Several inter-ocean road links have emerged. The construction of a bio-ocean railway line is also being examined. Brazilian investors have increasingly participated in large infrastructure projects, a commitment that has recently been viewed with increasing criticism by the public due to numerous allegations of corruption.
Peru, along with Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia, is a member of the Andean Community (CAN), whose efforts to integrate the region politically and economically are currently making slow progress, not least because of the different political orientations of the governments of the participating states.
On December 8, 2004, the Community of South American States (CNS), of which Peru is a member, was founded in Cusco / Peru. In April 2007 it was renamed the Union of South American States (UNASUR).
Economically most important is the country's membership in the Pacific Alliance (Alianza del Pacífico). It is a group focused primarily on free trade and economic integration. At the summit in Cartagena / Colombia in February 2014, the member states decided to exempt 92% of goods from tariffs.
Peru is divided into 25 departments, 196 provinces ( Provincias ) and 1828 districts ( Distritos ). However, there is only 15% of the districts with an exact borderline and of the provinces there are only 12. Since the regionalization of the country in 2002, the departments are self-governing units with a gobernador at the head, which is determined by direct election. The first national regional elections took place in November 2002. The division of the country into regions ( regions ) was also planned . In a referendum on October 30, 2005, 78 percent of the population of 16 departments voted against merging them into five regions (Norte, Nor Centro Oriente, Ica-Huancavelica-Ayacucho, Cusco-Apurímac and Arequipa-Puno-Tacna).
|Regions of Peru|
Peru has the fourth largest armed forces in Latin America (after Brazil, Mexico and Argentina). and currently has around 120,660 soldiers and around 272,000 reservists (as of 2016). The country currently has 85 main battle tanks . The air force has 94 combat aircraft . The Navy has around 60 ships, including 7 frigates and 6 submarines . The military budget in 2017 was $ 5,560 million.
In particular the many indigenous peoples of Peru live in many cases still independent of subsistence farming with traditional methods : about tropical horticultural forms in the Selva and in the Andes arable farming and alpaca - remote pasture .
In October 2015, the World Bank and the IMF met in Lima, Peru. On this occasion, the World Bank prepared an analysis of the economic and social development of the country, which is considered a model country for development organizations. The economy has grown by an average of 6.4% over the past ten years, the second-best result of all countries in Latin America and the Caribbean . In the same period, per capita income doubled to $ 6,370. The income of the poorest 40% of all households has risen faster than the average. We have also succeeded in increasing the savings rate from 10% of GDP in the 1990s to 22% in 2014.
Peru is one of the most economically liberal countries in Latin America. In the Global Competitiveness Index , which measures a country's competitiveness, Peru ranks 72nd out of 137 countries (2017-2018). Since 2013, Peru's competitiveness has been falling. This is mainly because other countries have caught up a lot in this regard. Of all Latin American countries, only Chile was able to improve its position by one rank. It is also due to lower foreign investment, tax policy and legal regulations that hinder economic activity.
According to official statistics, income inequality and poverty have fallen in recent years and are currently around 34.8% (2009), while extreme poverty is 11.5%. With a decline of almost 20 percentage points since 2001, poverty in Peru has fallen the most in Latin America after Argentina and Venezuela. Experts, however, doubt that the current statistics adequately reflect the poverty figures in Peru (e.g. hunger has risen according to the same statistics). Child labor can be found in many places: 1,650,000 children under the age of 14 work.
State budget, taxes and finance
The state budget included expenditures in 2016 of the equivalent of 66.4 billion US dollars , which were income equivalent to 60.8 billion US dollar against. This results in a budget deficit of 1.9% of GDP . The national debt was 24.5% of GDP in 2017. For 2018, government spending is planned to increase by 7% with the aim of strengthening the domestic economy. In terms of debt per capita (US $ 1,600), Peru has the third lowest debt in Latin America, ahead of Chile and Mexico (only Paraguay and Bolivia are less indebted).
In 2006, the share of government expenditure (as a percentage of GDP) was as follows:
In Peru, a tax of 18% applies to all financial transactions (Impuesto General a las Ventas (IGV), as of 01/24/2018).
In total, the tax revenue in 2017 was 90,706 million soles, which is 1179 million soles less than in the previous year. The state tax administration SUNAT determined that the outstanding taxes totaled 58 billion soles in 2017, of which the VAT accounted for 22 billion soles and the income tax 35 billion soles. The big companies owe the state 7 billion soles in taxes. The customs authorities also lose the equivalent of 600 million US dollars annually through smuggling.
Economically active population of Peru (in millions):
|Employees without a contract in Peru (in%)|
In 2015, there were 5.1 million jobs, of which 64% were in the private sector, 35% work in the state sector and 2% were self-employed for the state. Half of the 3.4 million contractually secured employees have a fixed-term contract. Non-wage labor costs are the highest in Latin America at 59%. The average salary of a worker in Lima is 1,673 soles (438.79 euros) per month, that is 1.97 times the legal minimum wage of 850 soles (222.93 euros). Wages of more than 29,050 soles must be taxed. However, special expenses can be claimed. 72% of Peruvian workers are not covered by contract. The Peruvian employee changes employers on average every four or five years, be it because they have been laid off or given notice. The employees are entitled to 43 days off in the year, although the weekly working time is 48 hours. The 43 non-working days are made up of 30 vacation days and 13 public holidays.
More than half of Peruvians are freelancers.
According to official sources, unemployment was 4.1% in 2017. 68.6% of workers are not covered by contracts, a higher percentage than in other Latin American countries. (see article Peru - shadow economy) In small businesses 79% of employees are without a contract and 65.3% have no regular or settled earnings.
The majority of employees are not in any pension insurance. Only six out of ten Peruvians receive a pension. There is no unemployment insurance.
The key economic indicators of gross domestic product, inflation, budget balance and foreign trade have developed as follows in recent years:
|Change in gross domestic product (GDP), real|
|in% compared to the previous year|
|Change in% yoy||2.7||0.6||5.5||4.2||5.0||6.3||7.5||8.5||9.1||1.1||8.3||6.3||6.1||5.9||2.4||3.3||3.9||2.5||4.0|
|Source: INEI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática, Peru), figures taken from a diagram published by El Comercio ., World Bank|
|Development of GDP (nominal)|
|absolute (in billion US $)||per inhabitant (in thousands of US $)|
|GDP in billion US $||79||154||192||GDP per inhabitant (in thousands of US $)||2.9||5.2||6.6|
|Source: World Bank|
|Origin and use of GDP (2012)|
|Origin of GDP (in%)||Use of GDP (in%)|
|construction industry||7.1||private consumption||65.9|
|trade||15.3||Gross fixed capital formation||29.4|
|Development of the inflation rate||Development of the budget balance|
|in% of GDP
("minus" means deficit in the national budget)
|inflation rate||4.4||3.2||≈ 1.4||Budget balance||2.5||1.8||1.4|
≈ = estimatedSource: BCR (National Bank of Peru)
|Main trading partner (2012)|
|Export (in%) to||Import (in%) of|
|United States||13.2||United States||19.3|
|People's Republic of China||13.2||People's Republic of China||19.0|
|Development of foreign trade|
|in billion US $ and its change compared to the previous year in%|
|Billion US $||% yoy||Billion US $||% yoy||Billion US $||% yoy|
|export||35.5||31.9||46.2||30.1||45.6||- ,, 4|
A large part of the Peruvian economy is not subject to any state control ( informal sector ). This is particularly pronounced in the construction sector. Between 10% and 15% of the state budget for investments and purchases is lost to corruption. Public procurement is similarly affected by corruption. According to a study by the International Economic Forum on kickbacks for the period between 2017 and 2018, Peru ranks 89th, on a par with Brazil and Colombia. (The study covers 137 states.) As a result, the state loses income of 12,974 million soles annually.
The turnover in drug trafficking amounts to two percent of the gross national product. Peru is the second largest coca producer in the world after Colombia . The area under cultivation in 2016 was 55,000 hectares, a little less than in 2008, and the annual yield is 410 tons. 96,000 tons of coca leaves are harvested, of which the state buys 1,820 tons. Local consumption accounts for eleven percent: the coca plant is used by the indigenous population as a legally permitted luxury food and food supplement because chewing the leaves suppresses hunger, tiredness, cold and altitude sickness .
|Exports - For 2017 it is an estimate.|
|Million US $||42,861||39,533||34,236||36,838||44,435|
In 2017, Peru exported goods worth $ 44,435 million , according to the Asociación de Exportadores (ADEX), the association of the Peruvian export industry. Imports totaled $ 39,714 million in 2017. In 2018, imports rose by 9.7% and exports by 7.1%.
Exports in 2018 by economic sector (in% of the value of goods):
- Mining (ores and minerals, especially phosphates) 59%
- Agricultural products 14%
- Oil and gas 8%
- Fish and fish meal 7%
- Other (chemical products, textiles, machines, among others) 12%
Peru has free trade agreements with 53 countries. They comprise 90% of the country's duty-free trade.
The agreement with the EU was signed on April 13, 2011. The free trade agreement promoted the export of cars and products from the chemical industry from Europe, while the export of agricultural products and natural resources was made easier for Latin American countries. This cut tariffs by 500 million euros. In 2017, the free trade agreement created 474,261 jobs, mainly in agriculture (export of grapes, mangoes, avocados, etc.). In 2010, the European Union exported goods to Peru for 2,300 million euros. This corresponds to an increase of 31% compared to the previous year. Peru's most important trading partner within the European Union is Germany, to which goods worth a total of 1.9 billion US dollars were exported in 2011. 11% of all imports from Peru come from Europe.
The buyers of the traditional export goods are China (copper and fish meal), the United States (gold, gasoline, grapes, asparagus and molybdenum), Japan (copper and zinc) and Spain (natural gas). China, Peru's main trading partner, purchased goods worth $ 11,455 million in 2017. That is 36% more than in the previous year and corresponds to 26% of total exports. The main exports are copper and fish meal, iron ores and silver. Other important trading partners are the USA with a share of 16 percent of exports. In terms of trade with the United States, Peru exported goods worth $ 6185 million in 2016. Imports totaled $ 7083 million. This imbalance existed before the free trade agreement. The European Union, with a 15% share, purchases copper (56%), natural gas (125%), zinc (12%) and avocados (24%). Switzerland's share has decreased from 11% to 5% (buyer of gold). 56% of the exports went to the countries of the APEC (mineral resources and fish meal, but also textiles and agricultural products).
|Period||Life expectancy||Period||Life expectancy|
Most Peruvians, around 36%, are insured through the Servicio Integral de Salud (SIS - state health care, minimal care), followed by Essalud. The remaining 30%, that is 9 million Peruvians, have no health insurance.
Essalud, the state health insurance company, was established under the Fujimori government. In 2016, it reported a loss of 1,464 million soles (approx. 450 million euros). 26.7% of the Peruvian population are insured with it. It is financed by contributions from the employer, who pays 9% of the employee's income to Essalud.
There are 19,779 health care facilities in Peru (as of 2018), of which 10,811, more than half, are privately operated. The national census on the indigenous population in 2007 showed that almost 60 percent of the communities recorded have no access to health facilities. As a result, general health insurance was introduced in 2010. Peru has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in America. The infant mortality rate is 17 per 1000 live births (compared to the mortality rate in Chile located 5). A third of the Peruvian population has no running water, 40% have no sewers and only 20% of the wastewater is treated. Life expectancy in the period from 2010 to 2015 was 74.2 years (men: 71.5, women: 76.8).
With effect from March 16, 2020 to April 12, 2020, the Peruvian government declared a national emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic caused by the coronavirus and imposed “mandatory social isolation (quarantine)”.
In 2015, the literacy rate of the adult population was 94.5% (women: 91.7%, men: 97.3%). In 2013/14, around 1.06 million students studied at universities in Peru (331,000 at state, 729,000 at private universities). There are 142 educational institutions in Peru that claim the title of university. Their number has quadrupled since 1980, and their number increased by 66% between 2000 and 2010. Of the 30 state-recognized universities, most are in Lima (57), followed by Junín (8), La Libertad (8), Arequipa (7), Lambayeque (7), Cusco (5), Loreto (5), Áncash (4), Cajamarca (4), Puno (4), Amazonas (3), Apurímac (3), Ayacucho (3), Huancavelica (3), Huánuco (3), Ica (3), Piura (3), Tacna (3) and others (10). There are 66 private universities in Peru, with branches there are 92. Tuition fees of around 3000 to 6000 euros per year are incurred at the private universities, after graduation the students earn around 1600 euros / month.
In the 2015 PISA ranking , Peruvian students ranked 63rd out of 72 countries in mathematics, 65th in science and 64th in reading comprehension.
Peru has around 72,900 km of roads. Due to the great differences in altitude in the Andes, there are still infrastructural problems, especially with all axes leading into or over the Andes. The expansion is rapid; Within a few years, the proportion of paved roads on these axes rose from around 15 to almost 50 percent. Roads in mountain areas remain very susceptible to maintenance despite the constant expansion (constant landslides). Cities and municipalities connect buses and taxis.
In total there are 70 cars for every 1000 inhabitants, which is fewer than in neighboring countries.
Peru ranks seventh in the road casualty statistics in Latin America. There are 13.9 road deaths for every 100,000 inhabitants. Between 2007 and 2016, the number of buses increased from 4,437 to 6,038 units (32.47% more). During the same period, the number of trucks increased from 96,267 to 277,422 units (an increase of 115.05%). However, the number of road deaths fell from 859 to 812. The number of seriously injured rose from 5,466 to 6,461.
There are two different types of insurance for vehicle owners: SOAT and AFOCAT. AFOCAT insurance is only valid for a certain region. The SOAT also only covers a limited amount of the costs incurred in the event of an accident. In fact, they only have 2 million vehicles out of 5 million, that's 40%. 25% of the vehicles have fully comprehensive insurance.
The number of traffic accidents increased by more than a quarter between 2006 and 2016 - see the following diagram.
The Aeropuerto Internacional Jorge Chávez is located in Callao near Lima and handles almost all international flights. In addition, there are smaller airports for domestic traffic in every city, 40 of them with hard-surfaced slopes and another 100 with natural slopes. In the primeval forest region ( Selva ) there are places which can only be reached on airstrips laid out by the military.
Domestic air traffic grew by 8.2% between 2015 and 2016. Every year 10 million passengers are transported. 47% of domestic air traffic is handled by Lima's Jorge Chávez Airport, followed by Cusco Airport with a share of 14.7%.
The Peruvian rail network consists of several non-interconnected sub-networks. Currently between 2200 and 2300 kilometers are in operation. Around the same number of kilometers by rail were shut down at some point. The three largest networks were operated for decades by the state railway company ENAFER, but largely privatized in the 1990s. There are currently four private operators: Ferrocarril Central Andino (480 kilometers from Callao to Huancayo and from Oroya to Cerro de Pasco), PeruRail and the consortium FTSA led by Orient Express Hotels (1000 kilometers between Puno, Cusco and Machu Picchu) , Southern Copper Corporation (230 kilometers between the ports of Matarani, Mollendo and Ilo and mining areas) and GyM Ferrovías (21 kilometers on Metro Line 1 in Lima). The construction of a railway line connecting most of the individual routes along the coast began once, but is making little progress. One of the most famous railway lines in Peru and one of the few profitable ones is the route of the Peruvian Southern Railway (Ferrocarril del Sur) into the Urubamba Valley to Machu Picchu .
In 2017, Peru generated 52,499 GWh of energy, 1.6% more than in 2016, 50,417 GWh was publicly available (+1.5%). 56.6% of this energy came from hydroelectric plants, 40.7% from thermoelectric energy and 2.7% came from other energy sources. The largest power plant in Peru in terms of installed capacity and annual production is the Mantaro power plant complex (as of March 2015).
Peru has a generation capacity of 11 gigawatts and an actual demand of 6 gigawatts of electricity. The main source of energy is hydropower. Alternative energy generation methods do not yet play a major role. The proportion of biomass is 0.4%, solar energy is 0.6%. In 2018, Enel put the largest Peruvian solar energy plant into operation. It should generate 440 GWh annually, enough to supply 351,177 households with electricity. The first wind turbine will go into operation in 2014.
The Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear in Huarangai has been operating a 10 MW test reactor since the 1980s, which is used to manufacture radiopharmaceuticals for cancer treatment. The plant, originally a joint project with Argentina, is the most efficient in Latin America.
Over the past 20 years the energy sector has grown 8% annually, i.e. H. Supply and demand have doubled every nine years. In 2016 it is planned that 96% of the country will be supplied with electricity (compared to 87% at present (2013)). Since 2011 there have been efforts by Chile to link the energy networks. A first step in this direction is to be a line that connects Peru with Ecuador. This should be operational in 2021, after which it should be connected to the power grid in Chile.
The average electricity price in 2009 was 8.26 US cents per kWh, but varies depending on the region and customer group: The lowest price was 4.09 US cents for industrial customers in the Cusco region , the highest was 16.63 US cents for private consumers in the Huancavelica region .
Most energy supply companies are private companies, a small proportion of the energy generation is in state hands. With almost 1.4 million customers, Enel Distribución Perú is the country's most important electricity company. It serves 57 districts of Lima, Callao and the provinces of Huaura, Huaral, Barranca and Oyón.
In 2016, 71% of Peruvians had a mobile phone, in 2020 it is expected to be 84%. 31% (study by the GSMA, according to IPSOS it is 40%) of Peruvians have a smartphone; by 2020 it will be 56%. The most important operators of the cellular networks are Movistar , Claro and Entel . Out of a total of 9 million mobile phones, 47% are Movistar customers, 32% are Claro customers, 13% are Entel and 8% are Bitel . A total of 42,051 municipalities can be reached by mobile phone. In 2016, 41.0% of the population used the Internet and 15 million people have access.
When, in 2012, broadband networks began to be supplied to those areas where there were no private providers, there were 8897 km of fiber optic network, mainly on the coast. Today (2017), according to the Ministry of Telecommunications (MTC), there is a network of 59,991 km, 76% of which are private and 24% were financed by the state. However, the offer was not accepted, mainly due to the cost. The most important service provider, Azteca, only has 26 customers. A good 500 would be possible. There is a fiber optic network in 188 of the 196 provinces (2017). Only the networks in the Amazon are not connected to it. And 70% of households do not have a wired internet connection.
The cultural life is mainly concentrated in a few large cities, especially the capital Lima . Large areas of culture today are shaped by the imported culture of the Spanish conquerors and the religion they represent.
Uros, Lake Titicaca
The city of Cusco , where many Indian artists lived, was an important center of religious painting for all of South America during the Spanish colonial era. Gold and silversmiths worked there and in Lima mainly for the European market. The painters initially copied European works. However, they developed their own style, mainly by combining saints who were represented in the company of animals, such as John the Baptist with the Lamb or St. Mark with the Lion, with scenes from the lives of the shepherds of the Andean highlands. These pictures were taken by the shepherds on important occasions (e.g. sheep shearing). Figures of stone or plaster (retablos) were made with similar motifs and placed in small wooden boxes, the cajas de Sanmarcos .
Another focus of Peruvian folk art was pumpkin carving . It flourished in the 19th century: jewelery boxes, powder and sugar bowls were decorated with scenes from urban life. The center of the production of carvings and retablos was the city of Ayacucho . In their region, small churches made of clay were placed on the roofs of houses as protective symbols. A ceramic style of its own developed from this, especially in La Quina : red pottery was not glazed and only painted with white paint. From the pre-Columbian times, the production of small sacrificial animals made of clay, the conopas , mostly llamas or alpacas , with alcohol or coca leaves placed on their backs in a recess.
Peru has an old tradition of textile production, mostly at home. During the colonial days, the decorations and patterns on the clothes and wall hangings also served as a secret language that priests and authorities could not understand. After the Tupac Amarus II uprising in 1781, Indian-looking clothing and utensils were banned by the Spanish. Many pre-Columbian arts and crafts have been revitalized by the indigenous movement since the beginning of the 20th century; later there was demand from tourists.
Two well-known contemporary Peruvian painters, Amilcar Salomón Zorilla and Florentino Laime Mantilla, also use Indian-influenced motifs. Folk art also serves to express political conflict: in the 1980s, Nicario Jiménez and other artists created retablos , sculptures and wall hangings depicting the violence perpetrated by both sides in the war with the Sendero Luminoso about which to speak at the time could be life-threatening.
The most famous song in Peru is El Cóndor Pasa by the Peruvian composer Daniel Alomía Robles (composed in 1913), which became internationally popular thanks to numerous cover versions, including by Simon & Garfunkel . The marinera is danced on the north coast of Peru . In addition to traditional music genres such as the music of the Cantos del Pueblo group, rock music has been very popular since the 1950s. Líbido is an example of a Peruvian pop / rock band . Currently popular Peruvian metal / grunge / punk / rock bands include Ni Voz Ni Voto, Por Hablar, Leuzemia, La Sarita. Music styles that are very widespread in Peru are also the Huayno and the Cumbia Andina , also known under the name Chicha.
Famous musicians and singers, for example, Yma Sumac , Susana Baca , chacalon , Chabuca Granda , Lucha Reyes , Cantos del Pueblo , Raúl García Zárate , Sonia Morales , Eva Ayllón , Zambo Cavero , Noséquién y Los Nosécuántos , Pedro Suárez-Vértiz , los shapis and Agua Marina .
The Orquesta Sinfónica Nacional was founded on August 11, 1938. The history of this orchestra is intertwined with German history. His first conductor until 1960 was Theo Buchwald who brought many musicians who fled to Lima before the annexation of Austria. Other conductors included Fritz Busch, Aaron Copland, Erich Kleiber, Igor Markevitch, Hermann Scherchen and Igor Stravinsky. The recent economic crises caused a decline in the work of this orchestra. The most important representative of classical music in Peru today is Juan Diego Flórez .
In the 1920s and 1930s, directors like Ricardo Villarán made a number of silent and black-and-white films, which, however, mostly did not find an audience beyond national borders. In the remainder of the 20th century, Peruvian films received little international attention.
In the early 1980s, several filmmakers formed Grupo Chaski . Their goal was to portray the reality of the country with socially critical documentaries and feature films and to create an alternative to commercial productions from abroad. Her internationally successful films include Gregorio (1985) about a boy who comes to Lima from the Andes, and Juliana (1988) about a girl who lives on the street in Lima. The director Maria Barea continued to work in the women's film group Warmi after the group broke up. The Peruvian Heddy Honigmann , who lives in the Netherlands, filmed the lives of taxi drivers in Lima in 1993 in Metall und Melancholie . The German couple Christine and Kurt Rosenthal lived and worked in Peru for 26 years and made numerous films about Peru and Latin America. a. The Bridge of Grass (1979) and Traditional Medicine in Latin America (1992/93).
Peru's film industry is comparatively small. While in previous years mostly two films were produced per year, the number of productions rose to five in 2004 and eight in 2005. Francisco José Lombardi is considered the most important modern film director in Peru. In 1991 he won for his drama The sky over Lima to Goya . His literary adaptation No se lo digas a nadie was successful at international film festivals. Likewise, Josué Méndez ' Días de Santiago (2006).
In 2009, the Golden Bear of the Berlinale went to Peru for the film Eine Perle Ewigkeit ( The Milk Of Sorrow ) by Claudia Llosa . The film deals with a political topic: the consequences of the Peruvian civil war, in which government troops and paramilitaries fought against the Maoist guerrillas from 1980 to 2000. Her uncle Luis Llosa had some success in the 1990s with thrillers produced partly in Peru and partly in the USA.
The geographical differences between coast, highlands and rainforest and the associated food traditions of the pre-Columbian inhabitants of Peru are combined with the cuisine of the Spanish conquerors . In the middle of the 19th century, Chinese migrants created a Peruvian-Chinese cuisine ( chifa ). African elements were also introduced into Peruvian cuisine through black slaves.
Typical dishes are:
- Ceviche (A kind of sliced meat made from fresh raw fish or seafood, and more rarely meat, which is marinated in lime juice and served with onions that are also marinated in sour.)
- Escabeche de Pescado (fried fish in a vinegar and onion sauce)
- Anticucho (beef heart grilled on a spit)
- Arroz con Pollo (rice with chicken) and Arroz con Pato (rice with duck)
- Ají de Gallina (chicken in a slightly spicy, creamy chili sauce)
- Rocoto Relleno (very hot paprika filled with beef and gratinated with cheese)
- Estofado (a stew made from meat, potatoes, corn and carrots with a spicy cheese and paprika sauce)
- Seco de Carne (beef meat with a coriander sauce)
- Olluquito con Charqui (tubers olluco with dried llama meat)
- Papa a la Huancaina (potato pieces with a spicy cheese sauce)
- Causa Limeña (spiced potato mixture as a coat, filled with tuna or chicken or Russian salad )
- Carapulcra (stew made from dried potatoes and meat)
- Albondigas (meatballs)
- Pachamanca ( Quechua for "earth pot", meat and vegetables cooked in pits)
- Chicharrón de Chancho (roasted pork with a thick bacon rind)
- Lomo saltado ( pieces of beef fried with onions and peppers)
- Chupe de Camarones (soup made from shrimp, potatoes and vegetables)
- Picante de Camarones (prawns in hot tomato sauce, Arequipa specialty)
- Sopa a la Criolla (typical noodle soup with meat)
- Tacacho (plantain and bacon dumplings)
- Choclo con queso (cooked corn on the cob with cheese)
- Cuy chactado (roast guinea pig)
It likes to use fish and seafood, meat (chicken, beef, pork, and guinea pig ( Cuy )), rice and various varieties of potatoes , sweet potatoes , corn , yuca , plantains . Special spices are coriander , especially coriander leaves, which are often referred to as “culantro”, saffron , cumin ( cumin ), rocoto and aji (types of pepper).
The most famous alcoholic drink in Peru is the pisco , a brandy that u. a. Part of Pisco Sour (cocktail made from lime juice, foamed egg white, sugar, with a few drops of Angostura and a little cinnamon on top) and Perú Libre (long drink made from Pisco and Cola). Other drinks that are very popular in Peru are Chicha (a type of beer based on corn), Chicha Morada (non-alcoholic drink made from purple corn, flavored with cinnamon) and Inca Kola ( bright yellow lemonade with a bergamot flavor).
The major daily newspapers all appear in Lima. The oldest that still appears today is El Comercio . It was founded in 1839 and has been owned by the Miro Quesada family for over 100 years. It pursues a bourgeois-conservative but independent line. B. the work of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission against attacks by the government and the army.
Founded in 1961, Expreso is a tabloid and initially supported the liberal-conservative President Belaúnde, then Fujimori in the 1990s. La República , founded in 1981, tends towards the democratic left spectrum. The weekly magazine Caretas is important for the formation of political opinion. It reported critically on fujimori and has made a name for itself by exposing many political scandals. Due to their high price for many Peruvians, newspapers only have a limited readership.
In Lima almost all residents have televisions that allow digital reception; at national level, this applies to 90 percent. 4.1 million households currently have PayTV and 1.75 million households have a regular connection. Of the three operators Movistar, Claro and DirecTv, Movistar has the largest share with 1.2 million households.
In addition to nationwide there are also local radio stations, which are often a reliable source of information for local events and debates. In addition to Spanish, the broadcast is also in Quechua.
In the 2017 press freedom list published by Reporters Without Borders , Peru was ranked 90th out of 180 countries. According to the non-governmental organization, there are still "recognizable problems" with the situation of press freedom in the country.
Football is the country's national sport. The Peruvian national soccer team qualified a total of five times for the soccer world championship and reached the quarter-finals in 1970 and 1978. Teófilo Cubillas was on the team both times, and in 1972 he was named South American Footballer of the Year . Many Peruvian national players ( Carlos Zambrano , Claudio Pizarro , Jefferson Farfán , Yordy Reyna ) play in European football leagues. The mass panic at the Olympic qualifying game in 1964, with 350 deaths, is considered the most devastating misfortune in football history.
In addition to soccer, volleyball is also popular. In the 1980s, the women's national volleyball team unleashed a storm of enthusiasm that was unusual in South America with its international successes. In 1988 she won the Olympic silver medal . In addition, Peru earned several medals in Olympic shooting competitions , including a gold medal .
Another popular sport is surfing . There are several good surfing areas on the Pacific coast south of Lima. The greatest success so far was Sofía Mulánovich's win of the surfing world championships in 2004 and 2019 .
- January 1st: New Year
- February / March: Carnaval (every Sunday)
- March / April: Easter ( Maundy Thursday ( Jueves Santo ) to Easter Sunday )
- May 1st: Dia de los Trabajadores ( Workers' Day )
- May / June: Dia del Corpus ( Corpus Christi )
- June 14: Dia de los Campesinos (Farmers' Day)
- June 29th: El Día de San Pedro y San Pablo ( St. Peter and Paul )
- July 28th: Independence Day
- July 29th: National Day
- August 15: Virgen de la Asunción ( Assumption )
- August 30: Santa Rosa de Lima (Day of Saint Rosa of Lima)
- October 8th: Navy Day
- 1./2. November: All Saints' Day
- December 8: Virgen de la Concepción ( Feast of the Immaculate Conception )
- December 25th: Christmas
- December 31: Noche de San Silvestre ( New Year's Eve )
- Ulrich Goedeking, Eleonore von Oertzen: Peru. 3. completely reworked. Ed., Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-50457-4 .
- Doris Kurella: Cultures and Buildings of Ancient Peru. History in a rucksack (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 505). Kröner, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-520-50501-9 .
- Iken Paap, Friedhelm Schmidt-Welle (ed.): Peru today. Politics, economy, culture. Frankfurt am Main: Vervuert 2016, ISBN 978-3-95487-508-5 .
- Philip Reiser: The drug industry in Peru - From “holy papers” to political curse , KAS-Auslandsinformationen 08/2011 , Berlin 2011, pp. 6–21.
- Christine Rosenthal: 26 years on the road in Peru. History of an emigration. Iatros, Dienheim 2007, ISBN 978-3-937439-40-2 .
- Rafael Sevilla (Ed.): Peru, Land of Promise? Horlemann, Bad Honnef 2001, ISBN 3-89502-131-8 .
- Orin Stern (Ed.): The Peru Reader: history, culture, politics. 2nd ed., Duke University Press, Durham, NC [u. a.] 2005, ISBN 0-8223-3649-9 .
- Johannes Winter, André Scharmanski: Are the Andean states ungovernable? Causes of the political crisis in Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru. In: Zeitschrift Entwicklungspolitik 14 (2005), pp. 30–34.
- Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto: Historia del Peru Contemporaneo. 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013.
- Fernando Rosas: Breve Historia General de los Peruanos. Ediciones El Lector, Arequipa 2009.
- Exhibition catalog: PERU - Through the millennia, art and culture in the land of the Inca, exhibitions in Villa Hügel, Essen and Museum zu Allerheiligen, Schaffhausen. Verlag Aurel Bongers KG, Recklinghausen 1984, ISBN 3-7647-0357-1 .
- Official website of the State of Peru
- Database of indexed literature on the social, political and economic situation in Peru
- Statistical information on all regions, provinces and districts of Peru
- Embassy of the Republic of Peru in Germany
- Peru-econ (Economic and Political News)
- Info point Peru e. V. (current news)
- CIA - The World Factbook
- Goruma review article ( Memento from February 22, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- State development organization GIZ in Peru: (formerly DED) ( Memento of October 22, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), (formerly GTZ) ( Memento of July 10, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), (formerly InWent) ( Memento of 5. August 2011 in the Internet Archive )
References and footnotes
- According to Article 48 of the Constitution, Spanish is the official language; also Quechua and Aimara, “where they predominate”, and other indigenous languages “as far as the law allows”.
- CIA World Factbook, accessed October 13, 2018
- Instituto Nacional de Estadística e Informática: Población del Perú totalizó 31 millones 237 mil 385 personas al 2017 , press release of June 25, 2018 on the results of the 2017 census, accessed on June 27, 2018.
- rounded, more precise value 24.1
- World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020 of the International Monetary Fund
- Human Development Trends of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).
- Dolphin and marine protection project Paracas Peninsula in Peru. Society for the rescue of the dolphins V., accessed April 14, 2015 .
- Mesoplodon peruvianus. CMS, archived from the original on September 30, 2005 ; Retrieved April 14, 2015 .
- Peruvian Territory. Retrieved November 30, 2017 .
-  (PDF) of April 18, 2018.
- World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations (for the years up to 2010) and Población del Perú totalizó 31 millones 237 mil 385 personas al 2017 (result of the 2017 census).
- World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations
- General information about Peru , May 2002
- Urban population (% of total) | Data. Retrieved July 20, 2017 (American English).
- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 25, 2017 .
- Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación
- Conclusiones del presidente de la Comisión de la Verdad y Reconciliación (pag. 4) ( Memento of March 3, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 123 kB)
- [ Compendio de la historia del Perú del historiador peruano Gustavo Pons Muzzo]
- Peru social structure (German Society for International Cooperation GIZ GmbH)
- Migration Report 2017. (PDF) UN, accessed on September 30, 2018 (English).
- Origins and Destinations of the World's Migrants, 1990–2017 . In: Pew Research Center's Global Attitudes Project . February 28, 2018 ( pewglobal.org [accessed September 30, 2018]).
- Luis García Bendezú: En el Perú hay unos 5 mil indígenas en aislamiento o contacto inicial . In: El Comercio of May 17, 2017, accessed on September 24, 2018.
- http://rpp.pe/blog/mongabay/ley-prioriza-construccion-de-carreteras-que-amenazarian-a-pueblos-indigenas-noticia-1101045 - Ley prioriza construcción de carreteras que amenazarían a pueblos indígenas - 23 / 1/2018 by Mongabay
- Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica: Census 2017. Idioma o lengua con el que aprendió hablar. Retrieved September 14, 2018 (Spanish).
- Puno: proponen creación de la primera universidad aimara en la región . In: El Comercio of June 6, 2017, accessed on September 24, 2018.
- Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica: 2017 Census. Religión que profesa. Retrieved September 14, 2018 (Spanish).
- Formulation in the questionnaire: Religón evangélica .
- Lieselotte and Theodor Engl: The conquest of Peru in eyewitness accounts. German paperback publisher, 1975.
- Patrick Johnstone: Prayer for the World , pp. 532 f.
- This and the following according to Berthold Seewald: German researchers find huge pyramids in Peru . In: Die Welt , October 19, 2006.
- Alan Kolata: The Tiwanaku - portrait of an Andean civilization, Cambridge 1993, ISBN 1-55786-183-8
- New traces of child victims found in Peru orf.at, June 9, 2018, accessed on June 9, 2018.
- Book Rags: José Gabriel Túpac Amaru Biography , accessed August 13, 2010
- The Peru Reader, Duke University Press, 1995 pp.157-61. , quoted from: Sarah Cline: Colonial and Neocolonial Latin America (1750–1900) (PDF; 170 kB)
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, pages 40–67 ff.
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, page 80 ff.
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, page 132
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, page 139
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, page 117
- Carlos Contreras, Marcos Cueto: Historia del Peru Contemporaneo. 5th edition. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, p. 166 ff.
- Fernando Tuesta Soldevilla: Peru. In: Dieter Nohlen (Hrsg.): Handbook of the election data of Latin America and the Caribbean (= Political organization and representation in America. Volume 1). Leske + Budrich, Opladen 1993, ISBN 3-8100-1028-6 , pp. 651-677, p. 655.
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, page 191
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, page 213
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, pages 175, 176
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, page 254
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, page 264
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, page 256 ff.
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, page 262
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, page 268
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, page 299
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, page 302
- Jad Adams: Women and the Vote. A world history. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2014, ISBN 978-0-19-870684-7 , page 329.
- Mart Martin: The Almanac of Women and Minorities in World Politics. Westview Press Boulder, Colorado, 2000, p. 303.
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, page 322
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, page 326
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, page 323
- Historia del Peru Contemporaneo, Carlos Contreras / Marcos Cueto, 5th edition, Instituto de Estudios Peruanos, Lima 2013, page 335
- Breve Historia General de los Peruanos, Fernando Rosas, Ediciones El Lector, 2009, Arequipa, Peru
- DIE WELT: South America: President of Peru pardons predecessor Fujimori . In: THE WORLD . December 25, 2017 ( welt.de [accessed January 3, 2018]).
- Democracy-Index 2019 Overview graphic with comparative values to previous years , on economist.com
- Francisco Sagasti elected new President. Retrieved November 16, 2020 .
- Victoria Eglau: Peru's new president - you call him PPK , Deutschlandfunk , information am Morgen , June 11, 2016.
- power struggle in Peru escalates . In: tagesschau.de, October 1, 2019 (accessed October 1, 2019).
- Parliamentary elections in Peru: A success of the bearded world savers . In: faz.net, January 27, 2020 (accessed February 5, 2020).
- Transparency International e. V .: Corruption Perceptions Index 2016 . In: www.transparency.org . 2016 ( transparency.org [accessed February 7, 2018]).
- Ángel Hugo Pilares: ¿Qué ganan los peruanos con la Alianza del Pacífico? . In: El Comercio of February 12, 2014, accessed on September 24, 2018.
- El Comercio, Tuesday, December 24, 2013, page A10
- http://rpp.pe/mundo/latinoamerica/ranking-ubica-al-peru-como-la-cuarta-fuerza-armada-mas-poderosa-de-latinoamerica-noticia-1061135 - from June 29, 2017
- Peru Military Strength Globalfirepower, last viewed July 29, 2016
- Ranking ubica al Perú como la Fuerza Armada cuarta more poderosa de Latinoamérica. Perú se ubica en esta posición solo por debajo México, Brasil y Argentina , Radio Programas del Perú (RPP) from June 29, 2017, accessed on September 24, 2018.
- Axel Borsdorf u. Christoph Stadel: The Andes: A geographical portrait. Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg 2013, ISBN 978-3-8274-2457-0 . Pp. 276-277.
- The World Bank - Country Groups
- Richard Bauer: Peru shows its best side. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung, October 10, 2015, p. 29
- At a Glance: Global Competitiveness Index 2017–2018 Rankings . In: Global Competitiveness Index 2017–2018 . ( weforum.org [accessed December 6, 2017]).
- Perú mejora su competitividad, pero no le alcanza para subir en ránking mundial . In: El Comercio of May 31, 2017, accessed on September 24, 2018.
- Social Panorama of Latin America 2010 - Briefing paper , Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC), pp. 16 and 13
- Information from the government and the National Institute for Statistics and Computer Science from Peru 2009 (PDF; 8.7 MB), p. 18
- Development: Poverty rate has fallen in the Dominican Republic, Venezuela and Peru , LatinaPress, November 21, 2009; Review: Not Everyone in Peru Is Winning “Championship” Against Poverty , IPS, June 24, 2010
- El Comercio, Saturday, December 21, 2013, A4; Encuesta Nacional de Hogares survey (Enaho, 2011)
- The World Factbook
- https://elcomercio.pe/economia/pasara-pbi-dolar-inflacion-otros-indices-2018-noticia-486257?foto=3 article ¿Qué pasará con el PBI, dólar, inflación y otros índices en 2018? El Comercio editorial team, 3 January 2018.
- http://elcomercio.pe/economia/peru/mef-presupuesto-publico-2018-crecera-7-noticia-450063 Redacción El Comercio, August 14, 2017.
- CCL: Perú es el tercer país de la región con menor ratio de deuda pública por habitante Redacción El Comercio, August 24, 2017.
- The Fischer World Almanac 2010: Figures Data Facts, Fischer, Frankfurt, September 8, 2009, ISBN 978-3-596-72910-4
- Report for Selected Countries and Subjects. Retrieved July 17, 2017 (American English).
- http://larepublica.pe/economia/1168728-igv-calculadora-para-sacar-el-impuesto-general-a-las-ventas - 13/01/2018 Article Calculadora IGV: saca el IGV de una boleta o factura
- https://elcomercio.pe/economia/peru/economia-10-noticias-nacionales-semana-490549?foto=10 Article: Economía: Las 10 noticias nacionales que marcaron la semana, January 21, 2018
- http://rpp.pe/economia/economia/nueve-grandes-empresas-le-deben-a-la-sunat-s-7-mil-millones-noticia-1078018 , article online RPP Nueve grandes empresas le deben a la Sunat S / 7 mil millones 09/21/2017
- Más de US $ 2,000 million en contrabando entrará al país este año , Radio Programas del Perú (RPP) of September 25, 2017, accessed on September 24, 2018.
- El Comercio, Lima March 9, 2017, page 23. Source INEI / MTPE Ministerio de Trabajo y Promoción del Empleo.
- El Comercio , Lima, February 26, 2018, Supplement Economía, p. 24, Instituto Peruano de Economia.
- El Comercio, Lima, February 20, 2017, page 19.
- Nicolás Castillo: Financiamiento de la seguridad social en debate. La propuesta de bajar el aporte a Essalud genera opiniones divididas . In: El Comercio of August 10, 2017, accessed on September 24, 2018.
- http://elcomercio.pe/economia/peru/peru-gratificacion-alta-paises-sudamerica-442900 July 17, 2017.
- http://elcomercio.pe/economia/peru/trabajadores-lima-ingreso-promedio-mensual-s-1-673-noticia-450389 August 15, 2017.
- http://larepublica.pe/economia/1169219-trabajadores-con-ingresos-de-mas-de-s-29050-obligados-a-tributar-en-2019 article “Trabajadores con ingresos de más de S / 29.050 obligados a tributar en 2019 ", January 10, 2018.
- Gobierno no descarta aumento de sueldo mínimo este año . In: El Comercio of May 1, 2017, accessed September 24, 2018.
- https://elcomercio.pe/economia/mundo/trabajadores-paises-dias-libres-noticia-474644 Article ¿En qué país te dan más vacaciones y feriados? El Comercio November 17th, 2017.
- http://elcomercio.pe/economia/dia-1/nuevo-ano-laboral-jorge-toyama-noticia-448927 Article by Jorge Toyama August 10, 2017.
- El Comercio, Lima, supplement ECONOMIA, February 16, 2018, p. 20; cited Instituto Nacional de Estadistica.
- El Comercio, Wednesday, December 18, 2013, page B4 (Supplement Economia).
- http://elcomercio.pe/economia/peru/comex-exportaciones-recuperan-faltan-avances-formalizacion-noticia-454165 Comex: Exportaciones se recuperan pero faltan avances en formalización - August 9, 2017 Marcela Mendoza Riofrío quoted, José Luis Noriega Cooper President of ComexPerú.
- El Comercio, December 14, 2013, Supplement Economia, B2
- http://rpp.pe/economia/economia/thorne-solo-seis-de-cada-diez-peruanos-por-jubilarse-tienen-pension-noticia-1046694?ns_source=self&ns_mchannel=portada.home&ns_campaign=content.destacadas&ns_linkname = 1
- El Comercio , Lima, February 16, 2017, p. 2.
- GDP growth (annual%) - Peru | Data. Retrieved May 20, 2020 .
- The World Bank , August 2013
- Use of the GDP of Peru (absolute): gtai 2013, see: Economic data compact
- Development of the inflation rate in Peru: gtai 2013, see: Economic data compact
- Development of the foreign trade of Peru: gtai 2013, see: Economic data compact
- Country profile of human development indicators - Human Development Report 2010
- El costo de la corrupción podría llegar al 58% del PBI per capita en Latinoamérica. elcomercio.pe, November 12, 2010, accessed June 14, 2013 (Spanish).
- Corruption in Peru
- Daniel Macera: ¿Cuánto afecta la corrupción a la economía peruana? . In: El Comercio of May 29, 2018, accessed on September 24, 2018.
- Gerardo Cárdenas: Monzón y VRAEM: dos caras de la estrategia antidrogas. In: RPP.pe. September 18, 2017, Retrieved January 7, 2018 (Spanish).
- https://elcomercio.pe/economia/peru/bcr-deja-economia-peruana-2017-noticia-485546 , El Comercio, Lima editorial December 31, 2017, source BCR (Peruvian National Bank)
- Exportaciones sumarán US $ 43 mil millones este año . In: El Comercio, December 22, 2017.
- Intercambio comercial del Perú con el mundo sumará US $ 91,000 mlls. en 2018 . In: El Comercio, December 27, 2018.
- Sociedad Nacional de Minería, Petróleo y Energía (SNMPE): Reporte estadístico minero energético 2018 . Lima 2019, p. 9.
- Perú concretaría 27 acuerdos de libre comercio al 2025 . In: El Comercio, November 17, 2017.
- State newspaper El Peruano of March 1, 2013, accessed October 27, 2013.
- TLC with Unión Europea fomentó creación de empleos en el Perú . In: El Comercio of March 27, 2018, accessed on September 24, 2018.
-  March 16, 2012.
- TLC con UE se firm el 26 de junio: ¿qué países nos compran más? elcomercio.pe, June 21, 2012, accessed June 14, 2013 (Spanish).
- El Comercio, March 2, 2010, page b2 (Appendix Negocios / Economia)
- Exportaciones tradicionales subieron 37.7% en enero . Radio Programas del Perú (RPP), March 13th 2017.
- Exportaciones peruanas a China superaron los US $ 11,450 million in 2017 . Radio Programas del Perú (RPP), refers to information provided by La Cámara de Comercio de Lima (CCL), February 6, 2018.
- Alberto Nishiyama: Esto es lo que le compra y le vende el Perú a los Estados Unidos . Radio Programas del Perú (RPP), March 7th 2017.
- Exportaciones peruanas a China superaron los US $ 11,450 million in 2017. In: RPP.pe. February 6, 2018, accessed on February 9, 2018 (Spanish, refers to information from La Cámara de Comercio de Lima (CCL)).
- El 31% de exportaciones peruanas fue a EE.UU. y China en el 2010. elcomercio.pe, January 9, 2011, accessed June 14, 2013 (Spanish).
- World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations
- http://elcomercio.pe/economia/peru/nueve-millones-peruanos-cuentan-seguro-salud-195781 August 5, 2015 - 03:18 pm
- Article “CADE | Minsa recibirá S / 1,000 mls. del BID para garantizar servicios de salud "- Source: Ministry of Health of Peru, 29/11/2018 https://elcomercio.pe/cade/minsa-recibira-s-1-000-millones-bid-garantizar-servicios-salud- noticia-nndc-582744
- Government Website - Presentation of Aseguramiento Universal en Salud
- Pedro Pablo Kuczynski: Reforma de agua potable y alcantarillado . In: El Comercio, December 22, 2013, page A24. Pedro Pablo Kuczynski was then chairman of the non-governmental organization Agua Limpia (Clean Water).
- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 12, 2017 (English).
- Foreign Office : Peru: Travel and Safety Instructions. April 1, 2020, accessed April 9, 2020 .
- The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved July 12, 2017 (English).
- https://elcomercio.pe/peru/son-30-universidades-peruanas-cuentan-licencia-sunedu-noticia-475801?foto=10 Article "Estas son las 30 universidades peruanas que cuentan con licencia de Sunedu", 25. January 2018
- http://rpp.pe/politica/congreso/presentan-proyecto-para-que-universidades-privadas-paguen-impuestos-noticia-1104552 article "Presentan proyecto para que universidades privadas paguen impuestos" 11/02/2018 from 11 / 02/2018
- https://elcomercio.pe/economia/peru/top-10-profesiones-son-mejor-remuneradas-peru-noticia-470115?foto=11 - Article Top 10: ¿Qué profesiones son las mejor remuneradas en Perú? - El Comercio reaction, November 1, 2017
- PISA study - Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Accessed April 14, 2018 .
- El Comercio, Lima February 27, 2017, page 4, supplement AL VOLANTE: 180 cars are mentioned here, and this probably means Chile
- https://elcomercio.pe/mundo/actualidad/peru-muertes-accidentes-transito-sudamerica-fotos-noticia-486255?foto=8 El Comercio, 5/1/2018
- https://elcomercio.pe/peru/empresas-transporte-mayor-participacion-accidentes-noticia-486681 , article Las empresas de transporte con mayor participación en accidentes of January 6, 2018
- Figures on road deaths in elcomercio.pe
- http://rpp.pe/economia/economia/cual-es-la-diferencia-entre-el-soat-y-el-seguro-de-las-afocat-noticia-1098109 , article¿Cuál es la diferencia entre el SOAT y el seguro de las AFOCAT? from January 5, 2018
- https://elcomercio.pe/economia/personal/pasamayo-seguros-recurrir-accidente-vehicular-noticia-486653 , article by Lucero Chávez January 5, 2018 / El Comercio
- El Comercio, Lima March 10, 2017, page 2. Note: In the original, the names of the rows seem to be reversed. In 2016 there were 812 injuries, 6561 deaths and 2997 accidents.
- ¿Soportarán los aeropuertos el mayor tráfico de pasajeros? In: ElComercio.pe. March 13, 2017, Retrieved January 6, 2018 (Spanish).
- SCI Verkehr: Peru is one of the most promising rail markets in South America. In: Peru-econ.de , July 31, 2013.
- Producción de electricidad crecería 2.5% in 2018 . In: El Comercio of April 9, 2018, accessed on September 24, 2018.
- ANUARIO ESTADÍSTICO DE ELECTRICIDAD 2009. (PDF; 24.4 MB; pp. 1, 19, 41, 58, 73) (No longer available online.) Ministerio de Energía y Minas, archived from the original on October 29, 2013 ; Retrieved March 24, 2015 (Spanish).
- electroperu.com.pe ( Memento from July 28, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
- El Comercio, Lima March 5, 2017, p. 8, article by Martin Leon Espinosa
- Article “Enel pone en marcha parque eólico de US $ 165 millones” by Daniel Macera, March 20, 2018, https://elcomercio.pe/economia/peru/enel-pone-marcha-primer-parque-eolico-wayra-i -peru-noticia-527847
- El Comercio, Saturday, December 14, 2013, Supplement Economia, B5
- El Comercio, Friday, December 20, 2013, page A27
- El Comercio, Sunday, December 15, 2013, special supplement from the Government of Peru / Ministry of Energy and Mining, Foreword A27
- El Comercio, Lima March 5, 2017, page 24
- Producción eléctrica creció 3.9% en junio, informó el MEM . In: El Comercio of July 27, 2017, accessed on September 24, 2018.
- Enel Américas aumenta participación en Enel Distribución Perú . In: El Comercio of October 4, 2017, accessed on September 24, 2018.
- Marcela Mendoza Riofrío: Al menos 7 de cada 10 latinos usará un smartphone en el 2020. In: ElComercio.pe. October 31, 2017, accessed January 6, 2018 (Spanish).
- El Comercio, Lima February 27, 2017, page 13
- Marcela Mendoza Riofrío: Áncash y Puno lideran alza en cobertura 4G a nivel nacional. In: ElComercio.pe. August 14, 2017. Retrieved January 6, 2018 (Spanish).
- Internet Users by Country (2016) - Internet Live Stats. Retrieved July 12, 2017 (English).
- http://rpp.pe/blog/pc-gaming/dota-crecio-mucho-en-el-peru-porque-el- internet-siempre-ha-sido-un-problema-en-el-pais-noticia -1092582 05/12/2017 - Article “Dota creció mucho en el Perú porque el Internet siempre has sido un problema en el país” by Alberto Nishiyama
- Marcela Mendoza Riofrío: Fibra óptica: ¿Es cierto que la red dorsal está rezagada y es cara? In: ElComercio.pe. September 21, 2017, Retrieved January 6, 2018 (Spanish).
- C. Rosenthal: 26 years on the road in Peru. Iatros Verlag, 2007, ISBN 3-937439-40-4 , Atelier Rosenthal website
- World Film Production Report (excerpt) ( Memento from December 7, 2009 on WebCite ), Screen Digest, June 2006, pp. 205–207 (accessed on July 28, 2007)
- Marcela Mendoza Riofrío: Rusia 2018: Ventas de TV se duplicarían si clasificamos. In: ElComercio.pe. October 4, 2017, Retrieved January 6, 2018 (Spanish).
- Article “Tv Paga pirata crece cinco veces más rápido que el mercado” by Marcela Mendoza Riofrío, April 4, 2018, https://elcomercio.pe/economia/negocios/tv-paga-pirata-crece-cinco-veces-rapido -mercado-noticia-509547
- Ranking list of press freedom. Reporters Without Borders, accessed August 13, 2017 .
- A question of waves. FAZ.net, accessed April 29, 2011 .
- Peru's Sofia Mulanovich Seizes Women's Gold Medal at 2019 ISA World Surfing Games presented by Vans. In: 2019 ISA World Surfing Games presented by Vans. September 10, 2019, Retrieved October 8, 2019 (American English).