|Qichwa, Qhichwa, Kichwa, Quechua
Bolivia , Peru , Ecuador , Argentina , Colombia , Chile , Brazil
|speaker||estimated 7.8 million|
|Official language in||
Bolivia , Peru , Ecuador
|ISO 639 -1||
|ISO 639 -2||
Quechua , eingedeutscht Quechua (official in Bolivia Qhichwa in Peru usually Qichwa , in the eastern lowlands of Peru and in Ecuador Kichwa ), is a group of closely related indigenous language varieties, in the Andean region of South America are spoken. There are different views on the extent to which one should speak of a single, dialectically highly differentiated language or a language family of several languages, and if so, how many; this also depends on whether one starts with linguistic structural or sociolinguistic and, in the broadest sense, identitary criteria.
Different Quechua variants were spoken in addition to other languages in the culture of the Inca , but also in pre-Inca cultures, whereby at the end of the Inca period one variant (" classical Quechua ") served as the lingua franca in large parts of the Andean region.
The word Quechua itself (in Quechua depending on the dialect and spelling: Qhichwa , Qichwa , Qiĉwa , Kichwa or Qheswa ) in Quechua denotes "valley" or an altitude including its inhabitants, which is therefore also Qhichwa runa , "people of the Quechua highlands " , from which the language name Qhichwa simi or Kichwa shimi , "language of the high-altitude Quechua", is derived. The Quechua speakers themselves traditionally call their language Runa Simi ( Runasimi ) or Runa Shimi (from runa "man" and simi "mouth, word, language", ie "human language"). In modern Quechua texts, on the other hand, the designation Qhichwa simi , Qheswa simi , Qichwa simi or Kichwa shimi (“Quechua language” or “valley language”) is used.
A genetic relationship between the Quechua languages and languages outside this group has not yet been proven.
Due to the large common vocabulary with the Aymara , Quechua and Aymara (or the Aymara languages ) were placed in a common language family (Quechumaran) . However, recent studies (comparison of languages) indicate that the common vocabulary can be traced back to mutual borrowings due to millennia of contact.
The Quechua language area stretches from southern Colombia across large parts of Ecuador , Peru and Bolivia to the north of Chile and Argentina . Peru has the largest proportion of speakers, followed by Bolivia and Ecuador, while only small minorities speak the language in the other countries.
Today, Quechua is probably the most widely spoken indigenous language in South America, with probably more than 7 million speakers (the estimates vary greatly, however) and thus ranks third in South America in terms of speakers after Spanish and Portuguese.
For most of the language area, namely Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia, census data on the number of speakers are available (Peru: 2017, Bolivia: 2012, Ecuador: 2001). For Colombia, Argentina and Chile such data are completely lacking; there are only estimates that, as mentioned above, vary widely.
Regarding the census results, it should be noted that pre-school children are not recorded. In the 2017 census in Peru, only the mother tongue was recorded. In the 2012 census in Bolivia, up to five languages per person were recorded, but only data on the first language were published. In 2001, there were only around 500,000 Quechua speakers (monolingual and bilingual) in Ecuador. It is unclear whether the tendency often observed in censuses was not to mention a language that was perceived as inferior (underreporting) ; conversely, it must also be noted that a not inconsiderable number of speakers use Spanish in everyday life for various reasons. Quechua speakers in the big cities in particular are unlikely to use the language, and their children grow up speaking Spanish.
The distribution of the speakers among the countries:
- Peru: 3.8 million (native speakers according to 2017 census) - 13.6% of the population; Quechua speakers are in the majority in 4 of the 25 regions
- Bolivia: 1.7 million (native speakers according to 2012 census) - 17.5% of the population
- Ecuador: 500,000 (according to 2001 census; estimates up to over 2 million)
- Argentina: 50,000-120,000 (estimates)
- Colombia: 5,000-20,000 (estimates)
- Chile: few
- Brazil: unknown
Quechua is next to Spanish and Aymara official language in Bolivia and Peru , in the latter, however, the Constitution only in "areas where they [Quechua and Aymara] prevail". In Ecuador , Kichwa (like the other indigenous languages) is the official language "in its areas".
Quechua is taught as a foreign language in most of the major universities in Spanish-speaking South America.
The varieties of Quechua form a dialect continuum . They can be divided into two large groups according to the Peruvian linguist Alfredo Torero as Quechua I and Quechua II are called. The division into the main branches Quechua I (Waywash) and Quechua II (Wampuy) as well as the subdivision of Quechua II into three sub-branches ( Quechua II a , Quechua II b and Quechua II c ) are based on independent studies by Alfredo Torero and Gary Parker in back to the 1960s.
Quechua I (Waywash) is spoken in most of the Quechua-speaking areas of the central and northern Peruvian Andes. The most important dialects are Ankash (Ancashino) (in the Ancash department), Shawsha in the Jauja province (in the Junín department) and Wanka (Huanca) in the Huancayo and Concepción provinces (also in the Junín department); there are also various dialects in the departments Huánuco ( Huallaga-Quechua ), Cerro de Pasco, Tarma (North Junín) and in the north of the department of Lima ( Yaru-Quechua ).
Quechua II (Wampuy) comprises all the varieties spoken in southern Peru, as well as Bolivia , Argentina , Chile , Ecuador and Colombia , as well as a small part of the varieties in the rest of Peru. It is divided into three subgroups. The Yunkay group (Quechua II a) includes the relatively few varieties of Quechua II in central and northern Peru (subgroup Kashamarka-Kañaris in the departments of Cajamarca and Lambayeque and the dialects of Yauyos in the department of Lima, which are almost extinct), the Chinchay -Group (Quechua II b, also known as northern Quechua ) the varieties of Ecuador and Colombia ( Kichwa ), which have developed their own language, as well as some dialects of northern Peru ( Kichwa - language islands in Amazonia ). The southern Quechua (Quechua II c) includes all varieties of the southern Peruvian (dialects Chanka in the departments Ayacucho, Huancavelica and northern Apurímac and Cusco-Collao Quechua in southern Apurímac and the departments Cusco and Puno), Bolivia, Argentina and Chile.
Differences between the two main groups exist in many parts of the grammar and vocabulary, so that communication between native speakers of varieties of Quechua I and Quechua II is difficult without knowledge of other varieties. The varieties of Quechua I differ considerably from one another despite their small distribution area, while Quechua II is relatively uniform in comparison. The differences between the dialects of southern Quechua II in Peru and Bolivia, which numerically comprise the largest group of Quechua speakers, are relatively small and are mainly limited to the area of phonetics.
The imperial language of the Inca Empire, the language of most of the surviving older written documents and the language of the majority of modern Quechua publications from Peru and Bolivia are based on these southern dialects of Quechua II. Many other varieties of Quechua, on the other hand, are only found in modern linguistic specialist literature has been described.
SIL International lists the following 46 languages with corresponding language codes (the third level does not come from SIL, but from Alain Fabre ):
- Quechua languages (46)
Quechua I = Waywash (17)
Wanka Quechua (Quechua Huanca)
- Quechua, Huaylla Huanca [qvw] (Peru): Waylla Wanka, Waycha Wanka
- Quechua, Jauja Huanca [qxw] (Peru): Shawsha Wanka
Ancash Quechua (Quechua Ancashino)
- Quechua, Corongo Ancash [qwa] (Peru)
- Quechua, Huaylas Ancash [qwh] (Peru)
- Quechua, Sihuas Ancash [qws] (Peru)
- Quechua, Chiquián Ancash [qxa] (Peru)
- Quechua, Northern Conchucos Ancash [qxn] (Peru)
- Quechua, Southern Conchucos Ancash [qxo] (Peru)
Huánuco Quechua (Alto Pativilca - Alto Marañón - Alto Huallaga)
- Quechua, Panao Huánuco [qxh] (Peru)
- Huallaga-Huánuco-Quechua (Huallaga-Quechua) [qub] (Peru)
- Quechua, Ambo-Pasco [qva] (Peru)
- Quechua, Huamalíes-Dos de Mayo Huánuco [qvh] (Peru)
- Quechua, Margos-Yarowilca-Lauricocha [qvm] (Peru)
- Quechua, North Junín [qvn] (Peru)
- Quechua, Yanahuanca Pasco [qur] (Peru)
- Quechua, Santa Ana de Tusi Pasco [qxt] (Peru)
- Quechua, Cajatambo North Lima [qvl] (Peru)
- Tomás-Alis / Huancaya-Vitis (separated from SIL- Yauyos [qux])
- Huangáscar-Azángaro-Topará (separated from SIL- Yauyos [qux])
- Wanka Quechua (Quechua Huanca)
Quechua II = Wampuy (29)
Quechua II a = Yunkay (5)
- Yunkay Quechua from Lima (also "Quechua III")
- Pacaraos-Quechua [qvp] (Peru) (put by some as Quechua I)
- Yauyos-Quechua [qux] (Peru): Apurí-Chocos-Madean-Viñac, Cacra-Hongos, Tana-Lincha, Laraos
- Quechua, Chincha [qxc] (Peru) (with Huacarpana , Yauyos Province)
- Cajamarca cañaris
- Cajamarca-Quechua [qvc] (Peru)
- Lambayeque-Quechua (Inkawasi-Kañaris) [quf] (Peru)
- Yunkay Quechua from Lima (also "Quechua III")
Quechua II b = Chinchay (Kichwa) (14)
- Chachapoyas-Quechua [quk] (Peru)
Kichwa of Northern Peru (Peru)
- Quechua, Napo Lowland [qvo] (Peru)
- Quechua, Southern Pastaza [qup] (Peru)
- Quechua, San Martín [qvs] (Peru) ( Lamas-Quechua , with Ucayali-Quechua)
Kichwa of Ecuador and Colombia (Creole-Quechua)
- Inga [inb] (Colombia): see Inga-Kichwa
- Inga, Jungle [inj] (Colombia): see Inga-Kichwa
- Quichua, Tena Lowland [quw] (Ecuador)
- Quichua, Northern Pastaza [qvz] (Ecuador)
- Quichua, Calderón Highland [qud] (Ecuador)
- Quichua, Chimborazo Highland [qug] (Ecuador)
- Quichua, Imbabura Highland [qvi] (Ecuador)
- Quichua, Loja Highland [qvj] (Ecuador): Saraguro
- Quichua, Salasaca Highland [qxl] (Ecuador)
- Quichua, Cañar Highland [qxr] (Ecuador)
Quechua II c = Southern Quechua (10)
- Chanka-Quechua ( Ayacucho-Quechua , Quechua Ayacuchano ) [quy] (Peru)
Qusqu-Qullaw-Quechua (Quechua Cusco-Collao)
- Quechua, South Bolivian [quh] (Bolivia): see Quechua in Bolivia
- Quechua, North Bolivian [qul] (Bolivia): see Quechua in Bolivia
- Cusco-Quechua [quz] (Peru)
- Quechua, Eastern Apurímac [qve] (Peru)
- Quechua, Puno [qxp] (Peru)
- Quechua, Arequipa-La Unión [qxu] (Peru)
- Quechua, Chilean [cqu] (Chile)
- Argentine Quechua (Quichua of Santiago del Estero) [qus] (Argentina)
- Classical Quechua [qwc] (historical in Peru; can be placed alongside quy or quz as a historical stage of development)
- Quechua II a = Yunkay (5)
- Quechua I = Waywash (17)
Language or Language Family - How Many Written Languages?
The dispute as to whether Quechua is a language with many different dialects or a language family , and how many languages this language family includes, arose when field research in the 20th century made it clear that the varieties of Quechua differ partly very different from each other.
The assessment of this question also depends on whether one starts from linguistic structural or from sociolinguistic and in the broadest sense identitary criteria and what position one takes on the codification of standard varieties of Quechua. There are very different points of view, from the position of the Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua in Cusco, that there is only one Quechua language and that all speakers of the same Quechua of the city of Cusco today (i.e. no compensatory variant such as Southern Quechua ) with all should accept its regional, newly developed peculiarities as a written language, up to the position of the Summer Institute of Linguistics (SIL International) , which distinguishes 46 independent languages within the Quechua language family.
Due to the fact that speakers from Wanka and Qusqu-Qullaw, for example , cannot communicate in their own languages, very few people take the one-language position. With its view of separating dialects that are so closely related to one another, such as "Quechua, Cusco" [quz] and "Quechua, Eastern Apurímac" [qve], as independent languages, SIL International is practically alone and therefore has representatives violently attacked by indigenous organizations, especially the Ecuadorian ECUARUNARI , on charges of trying to divide the indigenous peoples.
The Peruvian Ministry of Education established six regional variants in 1975 and had dictionaries and grammars made for these: Cusqueño or Cusco-Collao (Qusqu-Qullaw), Ayacuchano (Chanka), Huanca (Wanka), Ancashino (Ankash), Cajamarca-Cañaris and San Martín ( Lamas Quechua ). However, the differences between Qusqu-Qullaw and Chanka (96% lexical agreement) are smaller than the differences within the Ancashino, between Waylla Wanka and Shawsha Wanka or between Cajamarca and Cañaris (94% lexical agreement between the latter two). Recent developments in writing have resulted in the emergence of a few written languages.
Three written languages or regional orthographic standards with more than just local significance have more or less established themselves:
- Kichwa from Ecuador (for all of Ecuador, also understandable in Colombia) - belongs to Quechua II b.
- Southern Quechua ( Chanka , Qusqu-Qullaw in Peru and Bolivia, theoretically also Argentina) - all of Quechua II c. In practice there are currently three very similar language variants: Chanka (Peru), Qusqu-Qullaw (Peru) and Quechua in Bolivia .
- Ancash-Quechua (in central Peru) - belongs to Quechua I.
All other written Quechua languages only concern Peru. Some smaller, local written Quechua variants are already being used, at least to some extent, in schools:
- Kichwa of Northern Peru (San Martín, Loreto) - belongs to Quechua II b
- Cajamarca-Quechua (in Chetilla and Porcón near Cajamarca) - belongs to Quechua II a
- Inkawasi-Kañaris (Lambayeque) - belongs to Quechua II a (with some elements of Quechua I)
- Wanka (in southern Junín) - belongs to Quechua I.
- Yaru (in northern Junín and Pasco) - belongs to Quechua I.
- Huánuco-Quechua (in South Junín) - belongs to Quechua I.
Other written languages or standards could also develop, for example Shawsha Wanka (Jauja; belongs to Quechua I), Chachapoyas-Quechua (belongs to Quechua II) or Yauyos-Quechua (intermediate position between Quechua I and Quechua II), all of which represent three, however, almost extinct variants. However, it is also possible to integrate these variants into the aforementioned standards.
Studies by the linguists Torero and Parker in the 1960s showed that there is or was the greatest wealth of variation in dialects in the Lima area. Therefore, contrary to earlier assumptions, the origin of the Quechua language is assumed there. It spread in several waves over the past millennium, into the area of Cuzco and Bolivia probably not until the 15th and 16th centuries. Languages of the Aymara language family were displaced.
Over a thousand years ago, Proto-Quechua first split into two languages (see central and peripheral Quechua or Quechua I and II), and later into many variants or related languages. Quechua - more precisely probably a variant that was very similar to today's Quechua of Ayacucho - was at least in the time before the Conquista the state language in the Inca empire ( lengua general ) , but until the 15th century this was probably Aymara.
Quechua achieved its greatest distribution between 1500 and 1700, when it was spoken in many different varieties between central Argentina and southern Colombia, with interruptions throughout the Andean region. There were, however, some areas of the Andes in which it never prevailed: for example in the Aymara-speaking area on Lake Titicaca and south of it, as well as in parts of northern Peru (North Ancash, La Libertad, parts of the department of Cajamarca, where into 20th century among other things Culli was spoken). Quechua was spoken on the coast, especially in the Lima area, but never on the northern Peruvian coast, where variants of the Mochica persisted until the beginning of the 20th century. Missionary work also promoted the spread of Quechua, which in the early colonial times still played the role of "Lengua general". It was not until the end of the colonial period, and even more so from the time of the independent republics ruled by Creoles (whites), that the prestige of the language declined, which has since been displaced more and more from public life by Spanish.
Today there is a situation in which many Quechua dialects, especially in northern Peru, are threatened with extinction and Quechua, more precisely the "large" variants Qusqu-Qullaw, Chanka (Ayakuchu) and Ankash, only exist in the rural Andes south from Huancavelica to the Bolivian-Argentine border, in parts of Ancash and (northern dialect group "Kichwa") in some language islands in the Amazonia and the Ecuadorian Andes is common everyday language.
Use in school
Since the establishment of a broad school system by the states of Latin America, the declared goal of the governments has been to Hispanize the indigenous population (castellanización) . Spanish was therefore the only language of instruction. Quechua either served only as an auxiliary language for simple communication, or in some regions it was even banned in schools.
In Peru, President Juan Velasco Alvarado declared Quechua to be an "official language of the republic" in 1975. Quechua was first introduced as a subject in schools, but initially only as a second or foreign language for Spanish speakers in Lima. This move met with strong opposition and racial reservations. At the instigation of the Peruvian government, dictionaries and grammars were created for six regional Quechua variants recognized by it - Ancash-Huaylas , Ayacucho-Chanca , Cusco-Collao , Junín-Huanca , Cajamarca-Cañaris and San Martín . After Velasco's fall, practically all Quechua school trials ended. At the beginning of the 1980s, a regional project on the use of Quechua and Aymara in the Peruvian department of Puno came about with the support of the German Society for Technical Cooperation (GTZ), which was only continued under pressure from the German side.
Since the 1990s there have been international agreements between Latin American countries on so-called intercultural bilingual education (Educación Intercultural Bilingüe) IZE (Spanish: EIB). In Ecuador and Bolivia, and for a few years also in Peru, the IZE has become an integral part of the educational system at primary level, but has not yet even provided comprehensive care for the indigenous population. It is currently limited - with a few exceptions - to the rural Quechua and Aymara-speaking population and does not, in reverse, include Spanish speakers or cities. This also applies to the further promotion of Quechua as an equal language in the middle and upper grades. In fact, Quechua can only be successful in school if its use is necessary and natural in modern professional life. There are often reservations from parents who fear that their children will not learn Spanish well enough (which they will need later at work) if they are literate in their mother tongue. Scientific research shows that the opposite is true. This actual better success of the students as well as the subjective better feeling have partly silenced such reservations.
At the EIB, reading and writing is only taught in the indigenous language in the first year of school. In the second school year, you will also learn Spanish spelling. From the third grade onwards, the proportion of Spanish-language teaching increases and subjects are taught in both Quechua and Spanish. The teaching should be intercultural in that the content is geared towards the indigenous culture and aspects of European (“white”) culture are also learned, so it is not a simple “translation” of the traditional Eurocentric educational concept.
Initial approaches to bilingual teaching in Latin America were primarily aimed at optimizing Spanish learning. The aim of the EIB, however, is to enhance the Quechua language and indigenous culture in general and thus secure its existence. In some cases it is also about relearning Quechua, for example with the Quechuas Lamistas in Peru or the Saraguros in Ecuador.
In Ecuador there are a number of bilingual schools with Kichwa, which are run under the responsibility of the indigenous communities.
In Bolivia , the “Education Council of the Quechua Nation” ( Consejo Educativo de la Nación Quechua , CENAQ) is responsible for Quechua teaching at the national level. So far, the EIB covers around half of the Quechua population here. The 1994 Act on Education Reform in Bolivia (Ley 1565) stipulated two linguistic modalities in Article 9: monolingual in Spanish with learning an indigenous language (as a subject, for Spanish speakers) and bilingual with the indigenous language as the first language and Spanish as a second language. The law Ley educativa 070 "Avelino Siñani - Elizardo Pérez" passed under Evo Morales on December 20, 2010, on the other hand, stipulates in Article 7 that in sections of the population and communities with an indigenous mother tongue, the first language in school is indigenous and the second is Spanish, if the mother tongue is Spanish, the first language must be Spanish and the second the indigenous language spoken in the region. Bolivia is an exception in Latin America with the compulsory learning of an indigenous language in schools. Due to the lack of suitable teachers, the stipulation was not yet enforced everywhere in the cities in 2016, but all schools in Bolivia should be reached by 2018 through the training of appropriate teachers. In addition, for some years now, all government employees in Bolivia have had to speak an indigenous language in addition to Spanish, Quechua in the Quechua-speaking areas. Quechua and Aymara are also used increasingly on television. According to the linguist Rosaleen Howard (2014), these are important prerequisites for the preservation of Quechua, since the EIB alone does not offer a sufficient incentive to use it. The linguist Inge Sichra from Cochabamba, however, complained at a conference in Peru in May 2016 that the IZE as a topic in Bolivia (not to be confused with mere specialist teaching in the indigenous language) was on the decline. On November 26, 2016, the "First Congress of the Quechua Nation" (Qhichwa Suyup Kawsayninmanta Simikamaymanta Ñawpaq Jatun Tantakuy) with 400 Quechua-speaking delegates chaired by the Executive General Coordinator of the Institute for Quechua Language and Culture " Tomás Katari " ("Tumas Katari ”Qhichwa Runa Simi Kawsay Jatun Wasi) in Cochabamba, Gualberto Quispe with 90% agreement to use the new dictionary Puraq Simipirwa by the linguist Teófilo Laime Ajacopa as the lexical and orthographic basis for a uniform Quechua writing standard in Bolivia. This uses the Quechua alphabet with 3 vowels and 25 consonants, officialized on May 9, 1984 under Hernán Siles Zuazo (DS 20227).
In Peru, in the course of the 2000s - along with other indigenous languages - school materials in the official spelling for the three larger variants of Quechua were developed on behalf of the Ministry of Education - Qusqu-Qullaw , Chanka , Anqash , but also the two variants Inkawasi-Kañaris and Lamas -Quechua - and used in some schools in the EIB. The 2011 passing of the “Law regulating the use, protection, development, recovery, promotion and dissemination of the original languages of Peru” (Ley Nº 29735: Ley que regula el uso, preservación, desarrollo, recuperación , fomento y difusión de las lenguas originarias del Perú) , which was initiated and largely formulated by the Quechua- speaking congresswoman María Sumire . With this law, indigenous people and thus also the Quechua have a right to intercultural bilingual education for the first time in the history of Peru, whereby both the language and the self-attribution as indigenous can be criteria for the application. This right to IZE extends to secondary schools and higher education. On this basis, schools have also been set up for IZE to regain the indigenous language, so that, for example, in the lama-Quechua and Cajamarca-Quechua language areas as well as in larger cities, students who have already grown up with Spanish can learn Quechua as their second language. In 2013, 15,781 schools throughout Peru were recognized as providers of intercultural bilingual education with Quechua as their mother tongue or second language. However, this offer is still only aimed at the indigenous peoples and not vice versa at the Spanish speakers for bicultural and bilingual learning. Also, not all Quechua speakers are reached; so there is no IZE with Yauyos-Quechua ( Yauyos Province ) or Chachapoyas-Quechua ( Amazonas Department ).
Based on this language law, the following variants of Quechua are now recognized in Peru:
- Qusqu-Qullaw (Qullaw qichwa) ,
- Chanka-Quechua (Chanka qichwa) ,
- Wanka Quechua (Wanka qichwa) ,
- Ancash Quechua (Anqash qichwa) ,
- Yaru-Quechua (Yaru qichwa) ,
- Huánuco Quechua (Wanuku qichwa) ,
- Cajamarca Quechua (Kashamarka qichwa) ,
- Inkawasi-Kañaris (Inkawasi-Kañaris qichwa) ,
- Kichwa of Northern Peru (Kichwa) including the Lama Quechua .
The Apurímac region has drawn up an ambitious plan for the “generalization of Quechua” (Lliwllapaq Runasimi, Quechua para todos) , which runs from 2008 to 2021 and which goes well beyond the EIB and is intended to affect all areas of public life. The regional government of Cusco put 2,007 mandatory in a Regional Regulation Quechua lessons in all levels of education and compulsory basic knowledge of Quechua for "any authority and any public officials" firmly. In 2013, however, there were reports of non-compliance with this regulation and discrimination against Quechua-speaking patients by monolingual Spanish-speaking staff in hospitals in the Cusco region. Others see a renewed increase in interest among young people in Quechua in connection with the increasing demands on Quechua knowledge for employment in southern Peru since the 2010s.
In 2019, a dissertation in Quechua was written and defended for the first time at the San Marcos University in Lima .
In Argentina in 2005 - despite many discussions about it - there was no EIB with Quechua in public schools - neither in the language area of Santiago del Estero nor among immigrants. Although IZE has been a legal requirement in areas of Argentina with an indigenous language since 2006, the IZE in Argentina is still underdeveloped in 2015. In 2014, demands were made by Bolivian immigrants in Argentina who were raising their children in Quechua for Quechua lessons in school. In 2015, a project to introduce Quechua was started at a school in Treorky ( Trelew parish ), a place founded by Welsh immigrants, where 93% of the students were now of Bolivian descent.
Positive Quechua identity as a condition for language retention
There is hardly a common identity among the speakers of the Quechua language in Peru , Bolivia , Ecuador , Colombia , Chile and Argentina . Not only a lack of knowledge of Spanish, but the use of the indigenous language in general is often stigmatized outside the village community by the racist prejudice of Spanish speakers. Since the 1980s, a movement of indigenous peoples has formed against this in Ecuador with the umbrella organization of the Kichwa peoples in Ecuador, ECUARUNARI (Ecuador Runakunapak Rikcharimuy) , and in a similar form in Bolivia, while in Peru the armed conflict with its climate of fear and the hatred of the indigenous people as a potential enemy (possible supporters of the Maoist guerrillas ) did not allow this. Due to political violence, but as in other countries also for socio-economic reasons, there was increased rural exodus. The migrants to the cities usually gave up their indigenous identity and language. In the small towns, too, Quechua is exposed to pressure to assimilate due to the immigration of white people. The 2013 “National Document of the Original Languages of Peru” describes the Quechua situation in the Cusco region as threatened in most of the district capitals, and as seriously threatened in the provincial capitals and the city of Cusco. The importance of a positive indigenous identity for language preservation is increasingly discussed. Major cities for which there have been research projects relating to Quechua are Huamanga / Ayacucho in Peru and Cochabamba in Bolivia . In the city of Ayacucho, for example, the organization Chirapaq (“rainbow” or “rain from falling stars”) and the associated youth organization Ñuqanchik (“ We “) To play a key role. In 2014 young people in the vicinity of this group expressed their willingness to pass Quechua on to their descendants; others who had not learned Quechua from their parents later acquired it. In many people without such identification, however, they did not see this will. A 2006 study of the Regional Academy of the Quechua Language in Cajamarca (ARIQC), which is supported by indigenous people from the Cajamarca region , came to the conclusion that the reappropriation of the discriminated and repressed indigenous language meant the rejection of an imposed degrading identity while at the same time developing a new, positive indigenous Quechua identity, and sees this in the tradition of a centuries-old cultural resistance.
Sound system (phonology)
There are some significant differences in phonology among the different varieties of Quechua . First, the conditions in the most common variant Qusqu-Qullaw (spoken in Cusco , Puno , parts of Apurímac and in Bolivia ) are described, then differences in other variants.
Quechua has only three vowels in terms of phonemes : [ a ], [ i ], and [ u ] (similar to classical Arabic ). Monolinguals usually pronounce these as [ æ ɪ ʊ ], although they can also be pronounced like the Spanish vowels [ aiu ]. In the vicinity of the uvular consonants [ q ], [ q ' ] and [ qʰ ] they are pronounced more like [ ɑ ], [ ɛ ] and [ ɔ ]. These allophones , caused only by the uvulars, were reproduced in the now no longer official 5-vowel orthography with “e” and “o”, which led to considerable confusion in borderline cases. Today, therefore (except in loan words) only "a, i, u" is written.
The letters of the now official alphabet in Peru correspond to the International Phonetic Alphabet , apart from the palatals [ tʃ ɲ ʎ j ], which are written as "ch ñ ll y".
The plosives and fricatives are always voiceless; Voicing is not phonemic in the Quechua stem vocabulary . In the variant Cusco-Collao Quechua - unlike in all other Quechua varieties, but as in Aymara , from whence this characteristic probably dates - each plosive has three forms: simple, ejective consonant and aspirated ( breathed ), for example:
|p||p ′||p h|
|t||t ′||t h|
|tʃ||tʃ ′||tʃ h|
|k||k ′||k h|
|q||q ′||q h|
In all central and northern varieties of Quechua (the Department of Junín north) and there is the postalveolar fricative [ ʃ ] (written "sh", linguists also [š], corresponding to German sch), in the southern Variants with [s] coincided. The volume [ ʃ ] of the Cusco-Collao Quechua also appears in some areas again, but has there [ tʃk ] ( "chk") or [ sj developed] ( "sy") (he also will reproduced in the official alphabet) and thus has etymologically unrelated to the original Quechua According to [ ʃ ] to do.
In the dialects of Junín, Cajamarca and Lambayeque there's also the retroflex [c ^] (pronounced like an English "tr"), an original Quechua sound which in other variants with [ tʃ ] ( " ch “) has collapsed.
About 30% of modern Quechua vocabulary comes from Spanish, and some Spanish sounds (for example f, b, d, g) may have acquired a phonemic character, even with monolingual Quechua speakers. The same applies increasingly to the distinction between the vowels ou and ei in Spanish loan words (for example: karo from the Spanish caro = "expensive", Quechua karu = "far").
Font and spelling
Before the arrival of the Europeans, there was no alphabetical script for Quechua. The extent to which the quipu ( khipu , knotted cords) in use during the Inca empire , which primarily represented inventory lists of stockpiles or the like, can be understood as a preliminary form of a whole-word script is controversial.
The Latin alphabet has been used to reproduce Quechua since the Spanish colonial era, with the sound value of the letters initially mostly based on the Spanish model. In 1560 Domingo de Santo Tomás wrote the first grammar for a Quechua variant on the coast near Lima, on the basis of which it was taught at the University of Lima for a long time. 1607 and 1608 published Diego González Holguín dictionary and grammar for the Quechua (called by him "Quichua") of Cuzco, which were authoritative for the subsequent colonial Quechua texts.
There was no uniform spelling until the 20th century . It was written according to Spanish orthography, which reproduced the sound values of Quechua very imperfectly. During the 20th century, several competing designs for the spelling of Quechua in Latin letters were submitted.
In 1975, the government of Juan Velasco Alvarado in Peru established an official alphabet (Alfabeto Oficial) with six regional variants, which included w , k and q as new letters , so that the Quechua sounds [w], [k] and [q] could be reproduced exactly for the first time. Breathed plosives were expressed by adding h, ejective plosives by adding an apostrophe . In essence, this alphabet still applies today. Based on the Spanish spelling, the five vowels a, e, i, o, u were still used. This form of the alphabet is propagated to this day by the Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua (AMLQ) in Cusco. In Bolivia, a very similar official standard was developed in parallel, in which, however, “j” was used instead of “h” and “k” and “q” at the end of the syllable. Two different spellings became established in Argentina: that of Tucumán / Jujuy and that of Santiago del Estero .
The official spellings of Peru and Bolivia were brought into line with one another in the 1980s, and in 1985 the 5-vowel spelling was officially replaced by the 3-vowel spelling in both countries, as this comes closer to the phonology of Quechua. Instead of “e” and “o”, which only ever appeared in the vicinity of “q”, “i” and “u” are now written. As a difference between the two countries, there is still the symbol for the sound value [h], which is reproduced in Peru with "h" and Bolivia with "j". In Ecuador, the spelling based on Spanish was also replaced by a spelling based on Peru and Bolivia, with the phonetics of the Ecuadorian Kichwa differing significantly from Peru and Bolivia. In Argentina, however, the new Quechua alphabet has not yet been adopted.
Modern Quechua spelling is still criticized by some institutions, including AMLQ and representatives from SIL International , arguing that the official alphabet is more difficult to understand for people who have learned to read and write in Spanish. However, this is countered by the fact that modern spelling perfectly reproduces Quechua phonology. With regard to the controversy surrounding vowel reproduction, reference is made to studies that show that literacy in Quechua with the 5-vowel system later leads to greater reading difficulties in Spanish than with literacy with the 3-vowel system.
In 2007, the regional government of Cusco recognized Cusco Quechua as a five-vowel and therefore “complete” language of the “great Inca nation”. At the same time, compulsory Quechua instruction at all levels of the education system as well as compulsory basic knowledge of Quechua are determined for “every public authority and every civil servant”. At the national level, the 5-vowel spelling system propagated by the AMLQ was temporarily permitted on an experimental basis (Resolución Directoral No. 155-2007), but the 3-vowel system of Qusqu-Qullaw has been prescribed since 2013 (Resolución Directoral No. 282 -2013-ED as confirmation of Ministerial Order No. 1218–1985-ED).
It should be noted that in the public, especially with geographical names, older spellings based on Spanish orthography are still common today. Well-known names like Wayna Pikchu , Saksaywaman and Qurikancha are also written as Huayna Picchu , Sacsayhuaman and Coricancha or Qorikancha .
These spellings are now in conflict with Peruvian law. According to Article 20 of Presidential Decree No. 004-2016-MC, published on July 22, 2016 in the official proclamation organ El Peruano , the toponyms must be replaced by their corresponding spellings in the normalized alphabets of the indigenous languages. The National Institute of Geography (Instituto Geográfico Nacional) is implementing the necessary changes in the official maps of Peru.
The Peruvian linguist Rodolfo Cerrón Palomino , who speaks Wanka Quechua as his mother tongue, proposes a uniform spelling standard for all southern Quechua dialects (i.e. all of southern Peru from Huancavelica south, Bolivia and Argentina), which he calls southern Quechua (Quechua sureño) . This standard is now accepted by many institutions in Peru. It contains the original structures of the two most commonly used dialects: Chanka ( Ayakuchu , Quechua ayacuchano) and Qusqu-Qullaw (spoken from Cusco south, in Bolivia and Argentina). Examples:
|ñuqanchik||nuqanchis||ñuqanchik||" We (inclusive) "|
|-chka-||-sha-||-chka-||(Suffix: unfinished act)|
Letters of the official Quechua alphabet
In the Quechua alphabet, which has been official in Peru since 1985, the following 18 letters are generally used for the inherited Quechua vocabulary as well as for borrowings from the Aymara :
a, ch, h, i, k, l, ll, m, n, ñ, p , q, r, s, t, u, w, y.
The Qusqu-Qullaw also uses the following letters (also for Aymara loanwords), which results in a total of 28 characters:
chh, ch ', kh, k', ph, p ', qh, q', th, t '.
In Bolivia, “j” stands in place of “h”.
In the northern and central variants, there is also the sh [š] ( IPA : [ ʃ ] ). In the variants of Junín, Cajamarca and Lambayeque there is also the ĉ (unofficially written “tr”), which results in 20 characters.
The letters e and o are not used for inherited Quechua words, since the corresponding sounds are allophones of i and u that occur in the vicinity of q, qh, q '.
The following letters are only used in loan words from Spanish and other languages (not from Aymara):
b, d, e, f, g, o.
Only in proper names or directly adopted Spanish expressions appear:
c, v, x, z; j (in Peru; in Bolivia it takes the place of h).
Quechua is an agglutinating language like Turkish and Finnish , i.e. H. The meaning of a word is adapted to an unchangeable word stem by adding syllables ( suffixes ), not by inflection (changing the whole word depending on time, person, gender and case) as in German, for example.
The order of the suffixes is strictly regulated, as the example of the word chakra (field) illustrates:
- The meaning "small" is expressed by adding the suffix -cha .
- The ownership display "my" is achieved by adding the suffix -y .
- The plural is obtained by adding the suffix -kuna .
- The expression “my little fields” is in Quechua: chakrachaykuna .
Like most agglutinating languages, Quechua is a SOP ( subject - object - predicate ) language. H. Normally a word sequence like in this sentence applies:
- Michiqkunaqa wayñutam takichkanku = The shepherds [michiqkuna] sing [takiy] (straight) [-chka-] a wayñu [kind of song / dance].
The noun in Quechua knows two numbers : singular and plural. The latter is expressed by adding -kuna . Its use is not mandatory and is often left out in clear cases.
The noun is " declined " by a series of suffixes that are used in place of prepositions . These include -p (a) (genitive), -ta (accusative), -nta ("through"), -man ("to"), -manta [Quechua I: -piqta ] ("from, from"), -paq ("for"), -pi [Quechua I: -ĉaw ] ("in"), -wan ("with"). These suffixes are also very productive, for example, because they form adverbs ( chaypi , there; kunanmanta , from now, ...).
The function of the specific article is partly taken over by the so-called “Topic Marker” -qa : runa qa = the man.
By stringing nouns together, very simple and often compound words are formed, whereby the preceding noun is the attribute : hatun = large, yachay = to know, learn, wasi = house, hatun yachay wasi = college, university.
Quechua has no grammatical gender, but in some cases the natural gender plays a role: for example, churi is always a man's child, wawa is a woman's child. It is similar with sibling names.
There are seven personal pronouns in Quechua . For the first person plural (“we”) Quechua has two different pronouns ( inclusive and exclusive we ). One that is inclusive is used when the speaker includes the addressee (“we and you”, “me and you”). The exclusive pronoun is used when the addressee is not included ("we without you").
Possession or belonging is expressed in Quechua by possessive suffixes:
wasi = house; wasiy = my house; wasiyki = your house; wasin = his / her house; wasinchik = our (also your) house; wasiyku = our (not your) house; wasiykichik = your house; wasinku = their house.
The genitive -p (a) requires a possessive ending in the associated noun that expresses possession: inti p churi n = son of the sun.
The most important demonstrative pronouns (also with adjectives) in Quechua are kay (dies), chay (das) and wak (that).
The adjectives come before the nouns in Quechua. There is no grammatical gender and they are not declined with the nouns.
Adverbs are formed by adding -ta , sometimes -lla to an adjective: allin - allinta ("good"), utqay - utqaylla ("quickly, quickly"). On the other hand, they are formed by suffixes on demonstrative pronouns: chay ("that") - chaypi ("there"), kay ("this") - kayman ("here"). In addition, there are numerous independent adverbs. It is noticeable here that the adverb qhipa means both “behind” and “future”, while ñawpa means “in front” and “past”. Spatial and temporal concepts of the adverbs in Quechua are thus - similar to Aymara - linked in exactly the opposite way as in European languages.
- Cardinal numbers . ch'usaq (0), huk (1), iskay (2), kimsa (3), tawa (4), pichqa (5), suqta (6), qanchis (7), pusaq (8), isqun (9 ), chunka (10), chunka hukniyuq (11), chunka iskayniyuq (12), iskay chunka (20), pachak (100), waranqa (1000), hunu (1 000 000), lluna (1 000 000 000 000) .
- Ordinal numbers are formed by appending the word ñiqin to the corresponding cardinal number (for example iskay ñiqin = "second"). Instead of huk ñiqin (“first”), ñawpaq can also be said, which also means “foremost, oldest”.
The infinitive is formed by the suffix -y ( much'a = "kiss"; much'a-y = "kiss"). The imperative singular is equal; in plural is -ychik appended. The infix -wa- expresses "me / me" ( Much'ay! = "Kisses!", Much'away! = "Kiss me!").
The endings of the verb in the indicative are:
|present||Simple past||future||Narrative past|
If the subject is in the plural, the verb may be in the singular: Runakunaqa llaqtakunapim kawsan. = The people live in villages / cities.
Various interfixes and suffixes serve to change the meaning, for example the causative -chi- (example: wañuy = "to die"; wañuchiy = "to kill"); the reflexive -ku- (example: sipiy = "murder, slaughter"; sipikuy = "commit suicide"); the reciprocal -naku- (example: marq'ay = "hug"; marq'anakuy = "hug one another"), the progressive -chka- (eg, mikhuy = "eat"; mikhuchkay = "while eating").
In Quechua there is the objective conjugation, which means that there are different verb endings not only for different subjects, but also for different objects ( transition ). Example:
|Rikuyki.||I see you.|
|Rikuwanki.||You see me.|
|Rikun.||He / she sees.|
|Rikuwan.||He / she sees me.|
|Rikusunki.||He / she sees you.|
There are separate verb endings for the transition for the future tense.
There are only a few particles , i.e. words to which suffixes are never added. These include, for example, the word arí ("yes"), yaw ("hello!", "He!") And certain loan words from Spanish, such as piru (from Spanish pero "but") and sinuqa (from sino "but" ). The negative word mana (“no”) is not a particle, as suffixes are also added ( manam , “no, not”; manas , “no, the people say”, manapunim , by no means; manaraq , “not yet”; manaña , “ no more").
Most Quechua sentences are marked by an evidential suffix, which shows how certain the speaker is about his statement or where he got the information from. -mi expresses knowledge from personal experience ( Tayta Wayllaqawaqa chufirmi , “Mr. Huayllacahua is a chauffeur, I know it, I've seen it”); -si gives knowledge from hearsay ( Tayta Wayllaqawaqa chufirsi , "Mr. Huayllacahua is a chauffeur, I was told"); -cha expresses probability ( Tayta Wayllaqawaqa chufircha , "Mr. Huayllacahua is likely - or: maybe - a chauffeur"). -M, -s, -ch are added after a vowel .
In Quechua there are a lot of question words that are formed from the roots ima (what), pi (who) and may (where) by adding nominal suffixes. Usually an evidential suffix or -taq is added:
- Maypitaq kachkan? = Where is he / she?
- Imatam rurachkanki? = What are you doing (right now)?
- Pitaq karqan? = Who was it?
- Yaw, imatataq munanki? = Hello, what do you want?
- Runasimita qillqaytam munani. = I want to learn to write Quechua.
Decision-making questions are always formed with -chu .
- Munawankichu? = Do you love me (Answer: Arí = yes / Manam = no)
The suffix -chu is also used for negation, with mana for statements and ama for commands:
- Mikhunaqa manas allinchu karqan. = The food should not have been good.
- Ama waqaychu! = Don't cry!
As an agglutinating language, Quechua uses verbal expressions with corresponding suffixes instead of subordinate clauses with conjunctions:
- Hamunaykitam munani. = I want you to come .
- Inkaqa quri tawnanpa chayamusqanpi Qusqu llaqtatas kamasqa. = Wherever his golden staff hit , the Inca founded the city of Cusco.
- Mamaypa chiqnisqan runata rikurqanim. = I saw the man my mother hated.
- Churiyta munaq warmita rikurqanim. = I saw the woman who loved my son.
- Runakunaqa ayninakuyta qunqachkan. = People forget to help each other .
The infixes / suffixes -pti- (for different subjects) and -spa- or -stin (for the same subject) are used in place of the German connective words if, as, during, because and though , with additional suffixes (e.g. -qa, -m (i), -s (i) and -pas) can be added for nuances of meaning:
- Hamuptiykiqa kusikusaq. = If you come , I'll be happy.
- Kutispay kasarasqaykim. = When I come back , I will marry you.
- Takistin tusurqankim. = While you sang , you danced .
Quechua in Bolivia is a special case with regard to subordinate clauses , as it also has connective words (formed from question words and chus ) with which it can also form real subordinate clauses in addition to the expressive options mentioned here.
Loan words in German
The German language has taken over a number of loan words from Quechua, usually through the mediation of Spanish. Here are some examples:
- Alpaca ( allpaqa , probably from paqu , "light brown")
- Coca (kuka)
- China bark (kina-kina)
- Guano (wanu)
- Inca (inca)
- Condor (kuntur)
- Llama (llama)
- Mate (mati)
- Puma (PUMA)
- Vicuna (wik'uña)
- Chirimoya (chirimuyu)
- Molle tree (mulli)
- Quinoa ( kinwa , kiwna )
- Kiwicha (kiwicha)
- Pampa (pampa)
Literary works in Quechua
Quechua literature has been handed down since colonial times. In the trilingual Doctrina Christiana (in Spanish, Quechua, Aymara, 1584), but also in the Huarochirí manuscript with myths from the province of Huarochirí written around 1600, another similar to the northern Kichwa and Chanka-Quechua, as the “ general language of Peru “If used, the language of later published works, including the drama Apu Ollantay , was written in an earlier language level of Cusco Quechua .
Both modern Cusco-Quechua and Chanka-Quechua have had a certain literary tradition since the early 20th century, because doctrinal texts of the archdioceses of Cusco and Ayacucho, as well as poems and plays, for example by the Peruvian Hacendado Andrés , have appeared in both languages Alencastre Gutiérrez . Otherwise, Quechua literature consisted of collections of traditional songs and fairy tales. The 20th century also saw the first translations of the Bible , beginning with the Gospel of John in 1880 by the Protestant pastor Gybbon-Spilsbury through all four Gospels from 1901 to 1904 by Clorinda Matto to nine complete Bible translations in seven Quechua variants of Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador, the came out between 1986 and 2011.
The authors José Oregón Morales (* 1949), Porfirio Meneses Lazón (1915-2009) and Macedonio Villafán Broncano (* 1949) took steps towards an original fictional Quechua prose with a series of short stories that appeared between 1988 and 1994, with the first two in Chanka-Quechua and the latter in Ancash-Quechua . In 2013 the short novel Saqapa ("Rassel") by the Bolivian author Jinés Cornejo Endara (* 1952) followed. Pablo Landeo Muñoz (* 1959) from Huancavelica is breaking new ground with his novel Aqupampa, published in Chanka-Quechua in 2016, which deals with migration to the cities against the background of the violence in the armed conflict in Peru . Landeo deliberately refrains from an additional translation into Spanish in order to promote a discussion in the original language and thus a consolidation of the literary language Quechua.
Music in Quechua
Quechua-language songs are the medium through which one has the greatest chance of hearing Quechua outside of the Quechua-speaking area. There are a number of Peruvian, Bolivian and Ecuadorian musicians and bands who sing partly or mostly in Quechua. The Peruvian singer Yma Sumac was one of these musicians . The Bolivian singer Luzmila Carpio sings almost exclusively in Quechua. Most of these musicians or musical groups are characterized by the fact that they use traditional Andean forms of music. The most common form of the Quechua song in Peru is the Waynu , which has led to the popularity of Quechua- speaking music , especially through the migration of musicians from the Ayacucho and Apurimac regions to the capital Lima, with Chanka Quechua making up a significant proportion here. These musicians include the charango player and singer Jaime Guardia , who was once a friend and collaborator with José María Arguedas , his student Manuelcha Prado as well as Ranulfo Fuentes, who often performed with him . The songwriter Carlos Falconí Aramburú has achieved prominence through a series of Waynu texts in Quechua on the subject of the armed conflict in Peru. The singer and actress Magaly Solier from Huanta also excelled with her own songs in Chanka-Quechua .
The Peruvian rock, blues and grunge band Uchpa , founded in 1991, treads new musical paths, combining traditional elements with modern forms of expression and musical instruments and singing Ayacucho Quechua . The Peruvian meditation music and folklore band Alborada also sings mostly in Quechua. The pop singer Damaris Mallma Porras won the Folklore Prize with her Quechua -language title Tusuykusun at the international song festival in Viña del Mar.
- Serafin M. Coronel-Molina: Quechua Phrasebook. 2nd edition. Lonely Planet, Footscray et al. a. 2002, ISBN 1-86450-381-5 .
- Winfried Dunkel: Quechua for travelers to Peru. 4th edition. Reise-Know-How-Verlag Rump, Bielefeld 2003, ISBN 3-89416-078-0 ( Kauderwelsch 36).
- Eva Gugenberger: Identity and language conflict in a pluriethnic society. A Sociolinguistic Study of Quechua Speakers in Peru. WUV-Universitäts-Verlag, Vienna 1995, ISBN 3-85114-225-X ( Dissertations of the University of Vienna 17), (At the same time: Wien, Univ., Diss., 1994).
- Roswith Hartmann (Ed.): "Rimaykullayki". Teaching materials on Quechua Ayacuchano - Peru. Compiled from Clodoaldo Soto Ruiz "Quechua - manual de enseñanza" Lima 1979 and supplemented by Sabine Dedenbach-Salazar Sáenz. Updated, expanded and revised new edition. 3. Edition. Reimer, Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-496-02520-4 .
- Ernst Kausen: The language families of the world. Part 2: Africa - Indo-Pacific - Australia - America. Buske, Hamburg 2014, ISBN 978-3-87548-656-8 . (Chapter 14)
- Kendall A. King (Ed.): Quechua sociolinguistics. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin a. a. 2004, ( International journal of the sociology of language 167, ISSN 0165-2516 ).
- Rosaleen Howard: Kawsay Vida: A Multimedia Quechua Course for Beginners and Beyond University of Texas Press, 2014, ISBN 978-0-292-75444-7
- runasimi.de - multilingual website with dictionary, also German, and many texts in Quechua
- quechua.org.uk - scientific website, English and Spanish, with pronunciation audio files
- ullanta.com/quechua (English)
- Online Quechua course (in Spanish) by Demetrio Tupah Yupanki ( Memento from March 23, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Detailed map of the variants of Quechua according to SIL (fedepi.org) (Explanation Quechua, Spanish, English)
- Ethnologue entry for Quechua (in English)
- AMLQ Cusco : Simi Taqe Qheswa - Español - Qheswa. Quechua-Spanish dictionary, Spanish-Quechua. Cusco, Peru 2006.
- Teofilo Laime Ajacopa: Iskay simipi yuyayk'ancha. Bolivian Quechua-Spanish Dictionary, Spanish-Quechua. (PDF; 5.2 MB) La Paz - Bolivia, 2007.
- Clodoaldo Soto Ruiz: Runasimi-kastillanu-inlis llamkaymanaq qullqa. Dictionary Chanka-Quechua - Spanish - English, with word explanations / definitions in Quechua. (PDF; 5.8 MB) University of Illinois, 2010.
Scientific publications online
- Diccionario etnolingüístico y guía bibliográfica de los pueblos indígenas sudamericanos: Quechua . Alain Fabre, 2005 (detailed information in Spanish on the systematization of the Quechua varieties, number of speakers and extensive bibliography; PDF, 909 kB; in Spanish)
- Anna Saroli (2001): Can Quechua Survive? (in English)
- ↑ Consejo Educativo de la Nación Quechua “CENAQ”: Qhichwa Suyup Simi Pirwan - Diccionario de la Nación Quechua. Ñancharisqa Simikuna ( Memento of the original from May 15, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Cochabamba 2015.
- ↑ a b c d e Perú, Ministerio de Educación, Dirección General de Educación Intercultural, Bilingüe y Rural: Documento Nacional de Lenguas Originarias del Perú , Lima 2013. pp. 84, 181, 152f., 134, 168, 186.
- ↑ Perú, Ministerio de Educación: Sumaq kaqwsay - Kuskalla yachasunchik - Qichwa llamk'ana mayt'u ( Memento of the original from May 15, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Lima 2015.
- ↑ Clodoaldo Soto Ruiz: Runasimi-Kastillanu-Inlis Llamkaymanaq Qullqa . CSR-PARWA.
- ↑ Kichwa Yachakukkunapa Shimiyuk Kamu - Runa Shimi - Mishu Shimi, Mishu Shimi - Runa Shimi ( Memento of the original from February 19, 2018 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Ministerio de Educación, Quito 2009.
- ↑ Qhichwa simip nanchariynin ( Memento of the original from July 20, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Ministerio de Educación, Chuqi Yapu (La Paz) 2011.
- ↑ Simi Taqe . Academia Mayor de la Lengua Quechua , Cusco 2005.
- ^ Nonato Rufino Chuquimamani Valer, Carmen Gladis Alosilla Morales: Reflexionando sobre nuestra lengua - Ayakuchu Chanka Qichwa simi . Ministerio de Educación, Lima 2005.
- ↑ Marleen Haboud: Quichua y castellano en los Andes Ecuatorianos . Ediciones Abya-Yala, Quito 1998, p. 15.
- ↑ Summary by language family. ethnologue.com, accessed June 6, 2018 .
- ↑ a b Instituto Nacional de Estadistica e Informatica: 2017 Census. Retrieved September 17, 2018 (Spanish).
- ↑ a b Angel Guarachi: En Bolivia se habla un total de 64 idiomas. La Razón, January 1, 2014, accessed June 5, 2018 (Spanish).
- ↑ 2012 census (not taken into account: data without information on mother tongue). Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, accessed April 1, 2019 (Spanish).
- ↑ Ethnologue entry on Quechua
- ↑ Diccionario etnolingüístico y guía bibliográfica: Quechua . Alain Fabre, 2005 ( Memento of the original from January 8, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 874 kB)
- ^ M. Paul Lewis, Gary F. Simons, Charles D. Fennig (Eds.): Ethnologue report for language code: quy. Quechua, Ayacucho: a language of Peru . In: Ethnologue: Languages of the World . SIL International, Dallas, 17th ed. 2014.
- ^ M. Paul Lewis, Gary F. Simons, Charles D. Fennig (eds.): Ethnologue report for language code: qvc. Quechua, Cajamarca: a language of Peru . In: Ethnologue: Languages of the World . SIL International, Dallas, 17th ed. 2014.
- ↑ M. Paul Lewis, Gary F. Simons, Charles D. Fennig (Eds.): Ethnologue report for language code: quf. Quechua, Lambayeque: a language of Peru . In: Ethnologue: Languages of the World . SIL International, Dallas, 17th ed. 2014.
- ^ Decreto Ley No. 21156 que reconoce el quechua como lengua oficial de la República , accessed September 26, 2019.
- ↑ Carmen López Flórez: La EIB en Bolivia: un modelo para armar. Plural Editores, La Paz 2005. pp. 46-54.
- ↑ Carmen López Flórez: EIB - Modelo para armar. Reflexions sobre la propuesta de uso de lenguas de la Reforma Educativa de Bolivia . Tesis, Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Cochabamba 2000. p. 30.
- ↑ Ley No. 1565. Ley de la Reforma Educativa del 7 de Julio de 1994
- ↑ Ley educativa 070 "Avelino Siñani - Elizardo Pérez" N ° 070 . La Paz, December 20, 2010.
- ↑ Quechua, Aymara, o guaraní, la tercera lengua de los colegios. In Bolivia it is obligatorio para todas las escuelas dictar, además de castellano y lengua extranjera, una de los idiomas nativos del país. Semana, February 12, 2016.
- ↑ Rosaleen Howard in interview and article What can we learn from efforts to save an ancient South American language? Quechua dates back to the Incas and is spoken from Colombia to Chile. We speak to a specialist in Quechua about the fight to preserve the 2,000 year old language . The Guardian , Nov. 18, 2014.
- ↑ Destacan logros del Perú en educación intercultural bilingüe frente a países vecinos. ( Memento of the original from March 25, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Educación intercultural bilingüe Perú, May 25, 2016.
- ↑ Cuatrocientos delegados quechuas aprobarán normalización de idioma. Los Tiempos, November 25, 2016
- ↑ Hoy aprueban el nuevo Diccionario Quechua. Los Tiempos, November 26, 2016
- ↑ April lexicografía quechua para educación. Los Tiempos, November 27, 2016
- ↑ Ley Nº 29735 - Ley que regula el uso, preservación, desarrollo, recuperación, fomento y difusión de las lenguas originarias del Perú ( Memento of the original from April 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked . Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , July 5, 2011. Culturaperu.org ( Memento of the original from March 13, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. or N ° 29735 Yupayniyuq ley. Quechua Cusco Collao ( Memento of the original from March 4, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .
- ^ Rosaleen Howard: Quechua Language in the Andes today. Between statistics, the state, and daily life . In: Paul Heggarty, Adrian J. Pearce (2011), History and Language in the Andes .
- ↑ Serafín Coronel Molina: Quechua language and education policy in the Peruvian highlands . In: Francis M. Hult, Kendall A. King (2011), Educational Linguistics in Practice: Applying the Local Globally , pp. 140–153, therein p. 147.
- ↑ Myriam Yataco, Políticas de estado y la exclusión de lenguas indígenas en el Perú . In: Droit et Cultures 63, 2012/1, pp. 11-142. L'Harmattan editions. María Sumire, pp. 128-132.
- ↑ Ley N ° 29735 busca recuperar y difundir las lenguas originarias del Perú . La República, July 6, 2011.
- ↑ Sallqarimaq: Uywanakuyta Iskay simipi yachachinakuy . Quechua sunqu, May 22, 2014.
- ↑ 21% de colegios públicos del Perú ofrecen servicio de educación bilingüe ( Memento of the original of May 30, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Radio Pachamama, Puno, March 9, 2013.
- ^ Gobierno Regional Apurímac, Dirección Regional de Educación Apurímac: Hawa muchuykunawan tupanapaq huknisqalla sayarina wata. Lliwllapaq Runasimi. General plan. Generalización del Quechua en la Región de Apurímac 2008-2021 ( Memento of the original from February 1, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Abancay, 2009.
- ↑ a b Gobierno Regional del Cusco, Consejo Regional: Ordenanza regional 025-2007-CR / GRC. / CUSCO , published in El Peruano on May 9, 2008 and thus in force in the Cusco region from May 10, 2008. (1) Reconózcase para todo fin, el idioma Quechua como un idioma completo y pentavocal, bajo la denominación de IDIOMA QUECHUA O RUNA SIMI, lengua mater de la Gran Nación Continental Inca, que dio origen a la Cultura Andina.
- ^ Discriminada por hablar quechua ... en el Cusco. Testimonio de Lilian Oscco . La Mula, October 15, 2013.
- ↑ Madeleine Benavente: Aprender quechua es una oportunidad de desarrollo. Profesionales buscan aprender antiguo idioma peruano . Correo Cusco, May 19, 2014.
- ↑ Saber quechua abre opciones de trabajo en Cusco. Enseñanza se dicta de manera obligatoria en los centros educativos de la región imperial. Saber quechua abre opciones de trabajo en Cusco . Correo Cusco, June 1st, 2015.
- ↑ Dan Collyns: Student in Peru makes history by writing thesis in the Incas' language. In: theguardian.com . October 27, 2019, accessed October 27, 2019.
- ↑ Lelia Inés Albarracín, Jorge Ricardo Alderetes: La lengua quechua en el noroeste argentino: estado actual, enseñanza y promoción. In: Serafín Coronel-Molina y Serafín, Linda L. Grabner-Coronel (eds.): Lenguas e identidades en los Andes: perspectivas ideológicas y culturales. Abya-Yala, Quito 2005.
- ^ Alfredo Dillon: Hay 13 lenguas en riesgo en el país y falta enseñanza bilingüe. Son escasos los materiales didácticos en estos idiomas, en su mayoría indígenas, y no se cumple con la ley. Clarin, May 21, 2015.
- ↑ Piden que se enseñe quechua en las escuelas. La Voz, August 26, 2014.
- ↑ Entre dos culturas: la escuela que tuvo origen galés y hoy refleja la identidad quechua. It is the N ° 55 de Treorky. Se creó hace 127 años para educar a los hijos de los colonos. Hoy su matrícula está compuesta en un 93% por chicos de origen boliviano. Buscan un escudo que refleje esta particularidad. Diario Jornada, June 30, 2015.
- ↑ ECUARUNARI - Confederación Kichwa del Ecuador , Confederación de los Pueblos de la Nacionalidad Kichwa.
- ↑ Xavier Albó: Indigenous movements in Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru. CIPCA, Tallinn, October 2008. p. 8.
- ^ Sarah Brigham: Indigenous Mobilization and its Effects on the Political Process: the Transformation of Indigenous Identities in Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia. . Syracuse University Honors Program Capstone Projects, Paper 500. 2009.
- ↑ Perú, Ministerio de Educación, Dirección General de Educación Intercultural, Bilingüe y Rural: Documento Nacional de Lenguas Originarias del Perú , Relación de variantes del quechua, Cusco , 2013. P. 311ff.
- ↑ Utta von Gleich: Nueva dinámica en el bilingüismo Ayacuchano. Indiana 33.1, pp. 133-159. 2016 ( Download PDF ).
- ↑ Amy Firestone (2006): Runakuna hatarinqaku ('The people will rise up'): Revitalizing Quechua in urban Ayacucho, Peru ( Memento of the original from April 27, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked . Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .
- ↑ Personal accounts of bilingual Quechua speakers in: Inge Sichra (Ed.): ¿Ser o no ser bilingüe? Lenguas indígenas en familias urbanas. Funproeib Andes, Plural Editores, Cochabamba 2016.
- ↑ Tapio Keihäs: ¿Ser y hablar quechua? The realidad sociolingüística de Ayacucho desde la visión subjetiva de los jóvenes indígenas. Ideologías e identidades en el discurso metalingüístico. Master thesis, University of Helsinki 2014.
- ↑ Jóvenes predicen un futuro incierto para las lenguas indígenas. ( Memento of the original from March 21, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. Chirapaq Ayacucho, accessed March 20, 2017.
- ↑ Yina Miliza Rivera Brios: Quechua language education in Cajamarca (Peru): History, strategies and identity. University of Toronto, 2006. ISBN 0-494-16396-8
- ↑ Lima recibe a expertos en taller macro regional de la lengua quechua ( Memento of the original from September 25, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . educacioninterculturalbilingueperu.org, June 2, 2014.