A language island is understood to mean a relatively small, closed language and settlement community that is located in a larger foreign language area.
Formation of language islands
- Immigration of small language groups to foreign language areas (example: Catalans in Sardinia )
- Immigration of a dominant language group and the subsequent almost complete assimilation - with the exception of a few language communities - of the original population (example: the Sorbs in East Germany)
- Extinction of the language in the intermediate region to the distribution area (example: Viöler Danish )
The decisive factor for the name language island is that the language is still spoken in the country of origin. Many linguistic islands are now threatened or have already perished. The survivability of a language island is crucially dependent on its isolation. The external threat posed by the host country in political, cultural, religious and / or linguistic terms is just as crucial a motor for the preservation of the language island as its possible geographical isolation, e.g. B. in a remote mountain valley or on an island. The elimination of such threats as we experienced after the dissolution of the Soviet Union led to the almost complete dissolution of the linguistic islands in a short time. Religious tendencies in particular can be a decisive motor for isolating the language island from its environment and for preserving its language and cultural identity.
German language islands
Due to various settlement movements that began in the Middle Ages (see Deutsche Ostsiedlung ) and did not come to an end until the middle of the 19th century, there were German linguistic islands until the end of the Second World War, and in a few cases until today, that spanned large parts of eastern and East Central Europe were or are scattered. The smallest of these linguistic islands are just a few small villages, while the largest are almost closed German-speaking areas (e.g. Transylvania) in the middle of foreign-language areas. These linguistic islands were found in large parts of Poland , the Baltic States , Belarus , the Ukraine , the Czech Republic , Slovakia , Hungary , Romania , Slovenia and Croatia . Some linguistic islands were also located in what is now Serbia .
When colonizing the New World, too, German emigrant communities often came together, each of which came from a specific area of origin and who settled relatively closed in the destination area. Especially in the Midwest of the United States , in western Canada , in southern Brazil and in southern Chile, there are still German-language islands in various well-preserved areas.
As a result of the First World War and finally again in the course of the Second World War, the need arose in the German settlement areas of North America to demonstrate loyalty to the newly-found homeland. a. also to show that one no longer used the standard German language or the various German dialects. This led to the fact that the overwhelming majority of German-speaking islands in North America are now only relicts, with German being pushed out of the public and most families since the 1940s at the latest.
Language islands in the German-speaking area
- Sorbian language in the south of Brandenburg and in the east of Saxony
- Moselle Romansh in the Moselle area. Extinguished in the 12th century.
- Palatinate language island on the Lower Rhine : Pfalzdorf , Louisendorf and Neulouisendorf . Palatinate settlements with now extinct linguistic islands also existed in Magdeburg (" Palatinate Colony "), Stendal and Halle or after 1747 in Müggelheim and Rahnsdorf
- Sater Frisian language : Saterland
- Erzgebirge language island in the Upper Harz ( Upper Harz )
- Wangerooger Frisian as a relic of Old East Frisian until 1930 on the island of Wangerooge
- Hötter Platt : a former North - East Low German language island in Gerresheim (in today's Düsseldorf )
- Fjoldemål , a variety of the Danish dialect Sønderjysk until 1936 in Viöl (Danish Fjolde )
Rotwelsch : Sociolects grouped under the collective name “Rotwelsch” are almost completely extinct today, but existed in various places until the middle of the 20th century, e. B.
- Yenish language , among others in Leinzell , Pfedelbach and Pleißne in the Killertal ( Burladingen )
- Manic language in Gießen , Marburg , Wetzlar , Eislingen and Bad Berleburg (Wittgenstein) (all in Hesse)
- Lotegorisch in Carlsberg (Pfalz)
- Masematte in Münster and in the Münsterland
- Humpisch or Bargunsch in Westphalia
- Buttjer language in Minden (North Rhine-Westphalia)
- Kochum in Hundeshagen
- Henese Fleck in Breyell
- Lebber Talp in Bell near Mendig
(see also minority languages in Austria ):
- Burgenland-Croatian in Austrian Burgenland , especially in the districts of Eisenstadt and Oberpullendorf . In the community of Schachendorf, for example, the number of Burgenland Croats is 73% of the total population.
- Burgenland Hungary : The majority of Burgenland Hungarians now live in four large linguistic islands in Burgenland:
A larger number of Burgenland Hungarians also live in the provincial capital Eisenstadt / Kismarton, or the 2001 census shows a Hungarian-speaking population of 5% to 10% of the total population for Frauenkirchen / Boldogasszony, Lutzmannsburg / Locsmánd and Schachendorf / Csajta.
Outside the closed German-speaking area
The closed German-speaking area now extends over Germany, Austria, German-speaking Switzerland, Liechtenstein, South Tyrol, Luxembourg and the German-speaking areas in Belgium, Denmark and France.
The so-called “ potato Germans ” (potato tyskers) settled there .
In Southeast Jutland, a Moravian congregation was founded in 1772
- Christiansfeld back (language island extinguished)
The inhabitants of the German colonies of Swabian radical Pietists in Georgia , which had existed since 1818, were deported in 1941.
- Rathkeale , settlement of Palatine after the mass emigration of the Palatine (1709) , language island extinguished around 1850, "Museum and Heritage Center" of the "Irish Palatine Association"
The ethnic minorities in Italy are protected by Law No. 482 “For the Protection of Historical Linguistic Minorities” of December 15, 1999.
Walser language islands
- in the autonomous region of Aosta Valley
- Gressoney : Gressoney-La Trinité, Walser German Greschune top , Gressoney-Saint-Jean, Walser Greschunei Ondteil òn Méttelteil . (Actually language peninsulas, as it borders on the German-speaking part of the Valais. German is still widespread in the older and middle generations, but not in the younger generation.)
- Niel (language island extinguished).
- Issime , Walser Eischeme . (German is still widespread in the older and middle generation, but no longer in the younger generation.)
- in the province of Vercelli
- Alagna Valsesia , Walser German Im Land or Lanja (actually language peninsula, see under Gressoney; German is still partly widespread in the older generation).
- Rima , Walser German In d Arimmu (language island extinct).
- Rimella , Walser German Remmalju (German still widely used, but generally strong population decline).
- Riva Valdobbia , Walser German Rifu (language island long extinct).
- in the province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola
(actually except for Campello Monti and Ornavasso language peninsulas, see under Gressoney)
- Agàro , Walser German Ager (language island extinct).
- Ausone , Walser German Opsu (language island extinct).
- Campello Monti , Walser German Ggampel (language island extinct).
- Formazza , Walser Pomatt (German is still widespread in the older and middle generation, but not in the younger generation).
- Macugnaga , Walser German Maggana (German still in use by a few old people).
- Salecchio , Walser German Salei (language island extinct).
- Ornavasso , Walser German Urnafasch (language island long extinct).
Cimbrian Language Islands (Italy)
- 1 Luserna, German Lusern : the best preserved and most active linguistic island; 90% of the population speak Cimbrian on a daily basis.
- 2 Folgaria , Cimbrian Folgrait, German Vielgereuth: language island no longer active today, most recently in the hamlets of Carbonare (Kohligen) and San Sebastiano (Sankt Sebastian)
- 3 Lavarone , Cimbrian Lavròu, German Lafraun (language island no longer active since the 20th century)
Adjacent valleys in which German / Cimbrian was spoken until the 19th century:
- Vallarsa , German Brandtal
- Val Terragnolo , German Leim or Laim valley
- Valle dei Ronchi , German Reuttal
- 1 Palù del Fersina , Mocheno Palai / Palae en Bersntol, dt. Palù del fersina
- 2 Fierozzo , Vlarötz in heels, German Florutz
- 3 Frassilongo , Garait in heels, German Gereut
- 4 Roveda (municipality of Frassilongo), Oachlait in heel throat, German Eichleit
Municipalities in which (partially) heels was spoken in the past:
- Sant'Orsola Terme , Oachbergh with heels
- Falesina (municipality of Vignola-Falesina), German Falisen
- 1 Asiago , Cimbrian Sleghe, German Schlege
- 2 Gallio , Cimbrian Gelle / Ghel, German Gelle
- 3 Roana , Cimbrian Robàan, German Rovan
- 4 Fozza , Cimbrian Vüsche / Vütsche
- 5 Enego , Cimbrian Ghenebe, German Jeneve
- 6 Rotzo , cimbrian snot
- 7 Lusiana , Cimbrian Lusaan, German Lusian
The Cimbrian in the seven parishes only leads a niche existence in Roana and its district Mezzaselva (Mittewald) .
- 1 Azzarino , German Asarin
- 2 Badia Calavena , German Kalwein, Cimbrian Kalfàain or Màbado
- 3 Bosco Chiesanuova , German Neuenkirchen, Cimbrian Nuagankirchen
- 4 Camposilvano , German Kampsilvan
- 5 Cerro Veronese , German Sèr, Cimbrian Tschirre
- 6 Erbezzo , German for meadows
- 7 Roverè Veronese , German Rovereid
- 8 San Bortolo , in Cimbrian Bòrtolom
- 9 San Mauro di Saline , German San Moritz
- 10 Selva di Progno , German Prugne, with the districts Giazza , German Gletzen, Cimbrian Ljetzan, and Campofontana, Cimbrian Funtàn, German Pontan
- 11 tavernole
- 12 Val di Porro , German Porrental
- 13 Velo Veronese , Cimbrian Vellje, German field
Cimbrian in the Thirteen Congregations is only spoken in Giazza / Ljetzan.
- In the hamlets of Farra d'Alpago and Tambre (language island no longer active)
German language islands in Veneto and Friuli
- Sappada , Plodarian Plodn ( Province of Belluno , Region of Veneto ) (actually a language peninsula)
- Timau , German Tischlwang ( Friuli-Venezia Giulia region ) (actually a language peninsula)
- Sauris , dial. Zahre ( Friuli Venezia Giulia Region )
- Settlement focus around Nur-Sultan (until 2019 Astana)
- Bakaiata in the Talas Valley
- Red Front (mountain valley) east of Bishkek
- Kant (Kyrgyzstan) on the Tschüi level
- Mailuussuu in the Jalalabat region
At the time of the affiliation of West Prussia to the German Empire there was
- Swabian colonies of families from Württemberg in Culm , Culmsee , Gniewkowo , Spital, Wonorze , Slawsk , Olsza u. a., 1782–1786 settled by Frederick II of Prussia in German or Polish-speaking surroundings, expired
By 1918 there were around 3,300 closed, largely denominational and ethnically uniform German settlements in Russia. After the German attack on the Soviet Union in 1941, Stalin had most of the Russian Germans deported to the Asian part of the Soviet Union .
Minorities of German origin still live in the following regions:
- Ulyanovsk Oblast , especially Bogdashkino and Oktyabrsky in Cherdakly district and Nizhnyaya Turama in Weschkaima district
- Altai region , especially in the German National Rajon Halbstadt
- Novosibirsk Oblast
- Omsk Oblast , especially in the German National Rajon Asowo
- Orenburg Oblast ; especially around sol-iletsk and in Rajons Krasnogwardeiski (colony Neu Samara ), Alexandrowka and Nowosergijewka
- Tomsk Oblast ; especially in Rajon Kozhevnikovo in the villages Woronowo , Juwala , Pessotchno-Dubrovka
- Saratov Oblast ; Until its dissolution in 1941, most of the Volga German Republic was located here . Larger settlements still exist in Saratov , Engels , Burny in the Engels Rajon , Marx and Krasny Kut
- Samara Oblast , e.g. B. Makarewka and John Field in Rajon Besentschuk , Solovyovo and Wyssotino Chworostjanski in Rajon Chworostjanka
- Republic of Khakassia
- Republic of Komi
The majority of Germans living in Russia have emigrated to Germany in recent years.
- Obersaxen and Vals GR ( Walser German in the middle of a Rhaeto-Romanic-speaking area; Vals actually a pen-language island because it adjoins the Rhine Forest )
- Bosco / Gurin (Walser German in the middle of an Italian-speaking area; actually a pen-language island, as it follows Formazza , see above .)
- Municipalities of Mont-Tramelan , Châtelat (especially the Moron settlement) and Rebévelier as well as the settlements on the Montagne du Droit (German Sonnenberg ) and the Montbautier (German Stierenberg ) (German language islands in the French-speaking area of the canton of Bern , mostly inhabited by Mennonites )
- Spiš : language island only preserved in the villages of Hopgarten ( Chmeľnica ) and Metzenseifen ( Medzev - here only as a language minority).
Until the majority of the German-speaking population was expelled from Czechoslovakia, there were several German-speaking islands in the Czech-speaking area:
- Wischauer language island
- Ceske Budejovice
- Olomouc language island
- German Brodek quail
- Bohemian Aicha
- Stritschitzer language island
- Chortitza colony with 21 villages near Zaporizhia ; Founded in 1789 by Mennonites from West Prussia, deported in 1943
- Molochna colony with 57 villages on the territory of today 's Zaporizhia Oblast ; Founded in 1804 by Mennonites from West Prussia, deported in 1943
- Swabian Turkey : Fünfkirchen and surroundings
- Hungarian Central Mountains / Lake Balaton - Oberland as well as Veszprém and the surrounding area
- Batschka : Franconian town and surroundings
- Namibia with currently around 30,000 speakers. The language island is very well preserved.
- South Africa with rural language islands in the provinces of KwaZulu-Natal , Mpumalanga and North-West (approx. 4,000–5,000 speakers). There are also German-speaking communities in some cities, e.g. B. in Johannesburg, Pretoria and Cape Town.
- USA with numerous language islands of different sizes. The best known are those of the Amish in Pennsylvania , where a dialect going back to Palatine dialects ( Pennsylvania Dutch ) is spoken. In Kansas there are larger linguistic islands with Russian mennonites from Mexico who speak Plautdietsch . Further, there was in Texas in the Hill Country to Fredericksburg a texas German linguistic island. There are two Mennonite Bern German language islands in Ohio .
- Canada with numerous language islands, u. a. also with Plautdietsch
- Mexico with the Low German dialect Plautdietsch in some Mennonite colonies in Chihuahua
- Belize also with some Plaut- German- speaking Mennonite colonies
- Paraguay with around 60,000 German speakers, including 20,000 Plaut German speaking Mennonites in the Chaco .
- Chile approx. 20,000 native speakers, especially in the " Little South " in the area around Lake Llanquihue and the city of Osorno (see Germans in Chile ; Launa German )
- Brazil with numerous language islands (over 550,000 native speakers), especially in Santa Catarina (e.g. Blumenau , Pomerode ) and in Rio Grande do Sul . Mainly Palatine (" Riograndenser Hunsrückisch ", "Katharinensisch") and Low German dialects, but also Austrian Bavarian (e.g. in Dreizehnlinden ) are spoken here.
Albanian language islands
- Location in Abruzzo ( Villa Badessa )
- Places in Molise ( Campomarino , Montecilfone , Portocannone , Ururi )
- Place in Campania ( Greci )
- Places in Apulia ( Casalvecchio di Puglia , Chieuti , San Marzano di San Giuseppe )
- Places in Basilicata ( Barile , Ginestra , Maschito , San Costantino Albanese , San Paolo Albanese )
- Places in Calabria ( Andali , Caraffa di Catanzaro , Marcedusa , Vena di Maida , Acquaformosa , Cantinella , Cerzeto , Castroregio , Cavallerizzo , Civita , Ejanina , Falconara Albanese , Farneta , Firmo , Frascineto , Lungro , Macchia Albanese , Marri , Plataci , San Basile , San Benedetto Ullano , Santa Caterina Albanese , San Cosmo Albanese , San Demetrio Corone , San Giorgio Albanese , San Giacomo di Cerzeto , San Martino di Finita , Santa Sofia d'Epiro , Spezzano Albanese , Vaccarizzo Albanese , Carfizzi , Pallagorio , San Nicola dell 'Alto )
- Places in Sicily ( Contessa Entellina , Piana dei Greci , Santa Cristina Gela )
Arabic language islands
- Villages in the regions Arabkhane , Zir Kuh and around the city Sarakhs in the province of Razavi Khorasan ( Khorasan-Arabic )
- Kenderib and other places in southeastern Anatolia in the province of Mardin
- Hasköy and other places in the province of Muş
- Places in the province of Adana
- Places in the province of Buxoro
- Koya near Armota in the province of Erbil
- Amediye , Zaxo , Dahuk in the Dahuk Governorate in the Kurdistan Autonomous Region
- Bijil , Barzan and Shahe near Akrê and other places on the Mosul plain in the Ninawa governorate
- today often relocated to the cities of Baghdad , Mosul , Basra , Samarra , Nasiriyya
- Shushtar , Shah Wali , Dezful , today often relocated to the cities of Ahvaz , Khorramshahr in the province of Khuzestan ( Mandaean ) (partly extinct)
- Urmia and the area around Lake Urmia in West Azerbaijan Province
- Sanandaj in the province of Kordestān (extinct)
- al-Hasakah , Qamishli and other places on the Chabur in the province of Al-Hasakah
- Midyat and other places in Mardin Province on Tur Abdin ( Turoyo )
- Bespin , Hassane , Harbole and other places in Şırnak Province
- Hertevin and other places in Siirt Province
- Mlahso and Ansha in Lice County, Diyarbakır Province (extinct)
- Villages in Hakkari Province
Azerbaijani language islands
- Numerous Azerbaijani communities outside the Iranian region of Azerbaijan
Baltic language islands
Berber language islands
Finnish language islands
- Meänkieli or Tornedal-Finnish in the valley of the Swedish-Finnish border river Torneälv
- Kvenic , a Baltic Finnish language in northern Norway
- Forest Finnish in Eastern Norway and Central Sweden (almost extinct)
- Finns in Russia in Ingermanland around Saint Petersburg and in the Republic of Karelia
Franco-Provencal linguistic islands
- Faeto (Fayet) in Italy ( Apulia ); created by immigration in the 14th century
- Celle di San Vito in Italy ( Apulia ); created by immigration in the 14th century
French language islands
Federal Republic of Germany
In the area of what is now the Federal Republic of Germany, French or Old French dialects were spoken in Wallonia , Huguenot and Waldensian communities until after the Second World War. For a long time, services were preached in French at least once a month. In Louisendorf near Marburg , French is z. B. only died out around 1990.
The Walloons, Huguenots and Waldensians settled in the territories in particular
- Imperial city of Aachen
- Principality of Ansbach (see: Huguenots in Bavaria , especially Schwabach )
- Margraviate Baden-Durlach (see: Huguenots in Baden )
- Principality of Bayreuth (see: Huguenots in Bavaria , especially Bayreuth and Erlangen )
- Margraviate Brandenburg-Prussia (see: Huguenots in Berlin and Brandenburg and French Colony in Magdeburg ); for they were the 1689 Berlin French School , 1701-05, the French Friedrichstadtkirche , 1780-85 of the French Cathedral and from 1733 to 1736 in Königsberg the French Reformed Church built. In 1690/94 they were assigned the Wallonerkirche in Magdeburg .
- Imperial city of Bremen
- Imperial Abbey of Burtscheid
- Duchy of Brunswick
- Imperial City of Frankfurt am Main (see: French Reformed Church (Frankfurt am Main) )
- County of Hanau-Münzenberg (see Walloon-Dutch Church , especially Neustadt Hanau )
- Imperial City of Hamburg (French services until 1914)
- Landgraviate of Hessen-Darmstadt (see: Huguenots and Waldensians in Hesse and Waldensians in Germany )
- Landgraviate of Hessen-Homburg (see: Huguenots and Waldensians in Hessen , especially Friedrichsdorf )
- Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel (see: Huguenots and Waldensians in Hessen , especially Bad Karlshafen )
- County Holstein-Pinneberg (esp. Altona )
- County of Holzappel (see: Charlottenberg )
- County of Isenburg (see: Huguenots and Waldensians in Hesse , especially Neu-Isenburg )
- Duchy of Kleve (especially Wesel , Emmerich am Rhein , Kleve , Rees , Büderich , briefly Duisburg ; Walloon and French parishes existed until 1806)
- Imperial city of Cologne (see: Belgian Diaspora , Walloon parish until 1775)
- Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (see: Huguenot in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern , esp. Bützow )
- County of Nassau-Saarbrücken (see: Huguenots in Saarland , especially Ludweiler )
- County of Nassau-Usingen (see: Usingen )
- Electoral Palatinate (see: Waldensians in Germany and Huguenots in Baden )
- County of Waldeck (see: Huguenots and Waldensians in Hesse )
- Imperial city of Wetzlar
- Duchy of Württemberg (see: Huguenots in Württemberg and Waldensians in Germany )
In the 13th and 14th centuries there were settlements of old French- speaking Waldensians in the southern Danube region from the Salzkammergut to the Vienna Woods , who were persecuted by the Inquisition in the 14th and 15th centuries . Century disappeared again.
- From 1948 on, Polish mining families from Lorraine who had been expelled from France were settled in Wilcze Gardło . At times a French language island "Maly Paryz" (Little Paris) was created .
- Franschhoek , settled around 1690, already extinct again around 1730, but preserved in numerous family names
Frisian language islands
Greek language islands
- Griko-speaking area in the Magna-Graecia region in Apulia in the Grecìa Salentina ( Salento ) region ( Calimera , Martano , Castrignano de 'Greci , Corigliano d'Otranto , Melpignano , Soleto , Sternatia , Zollino and Martignano ) and occasionally in Sicily
- Greek-Calabrian dialect in the Bovesìa region ( Bova , Roghudi , Gallicianò , Chorìo di Roghudi , Bova Marina , Reggio Calabria in San Giorgio and in the vicinity of Rione Modena and others)
- Pontic (known there as Romeyka ) with at least 5000 speakers, mainly in the counties of Of , Çaykara , Maçka , Tonya and Sürmene in the province of Trabzon
Yiddish language islands
As a result of the National Socialist extermination policy, the former large closed Yiddish language islands of the " shtetl " in East Central and Eastern Europe (Poland and Ukraine ( Galicia ), Belarus, Lithuania ( Vilnius ), Moldova, Romania, Hungary ( Pest Elisabethstadt ), the Czech Republic ( Prague Josefstadt ) ), Germany ( Berlin Scheunenviertel in the Spandauer Vorstadt , Grindelviertel in Hamburg) and Austria ( Viennese Leopoldstadt ) largely extinct.
Since the Second World War, the Yiddish language has been spoken by secular, predominantly old Jews in Argentina ( Balvanera district in Buenos Aires), Australia, Brazil, Israel, Canada, Mexico and the United States (focus on New York region ), for example others used today predominantly by Hasidic communities in the USA ( Williamsburg in Brooklyn ), Canada (Montreal, Toronto), Israel ( Me'a She'arim [Jerusalem], Bnei Berak ), Great Britain ( London ) and Belgium ( Antwerp ) . At the end of the 1970s, Kiryas Joel, a settlement of Hasidic Jews in New York State, was established that today has around 20,000 inhabitants, around 90% of whom are Yiddish-speaking.
A small Yiddish-language island has survived in the Jewish Autonomous Oblast in the Far East Federal District on the border with the People's Republic of China . The newspaper Birobidschaner Schtern appears twice a week .
Catalan language islands
Creole language islands
- Palenquero ; Spanish-based Creole language in Colombia
Croatian language islands
- Molise Slavonic language in Molise, Italy, in the province of Campobasso
- Burgenland-Croatian in Austrian Burgenland and the western border areas of Hungary and Slovakia
Dutch language islands
- Friedrichstadt (extinct in the 19th century, but the " Our Father " and the blessing are still spoken in Dutch in the Remonstrant Church today)
- Dutch Quarter in Potsdam (from 1732 recruitment of more than 20 families of craftsmen; extinct)
- Altona and Hamburg , since 1595 Mennonite refugees from the southern Netherlands, until 1795 the language of worship (extinct)
- Jersey Dutch (extinct in the early 20th century)
- Minority language in some of the Netherlands Antilles (official language in Aruba , Bonaire , Curaçao , Saba , Sint Eustatius , Sint Maarten and in Suriname )
- Canada (approx. 140,000 native speakers)
Swedish language islands
- Finland Sweden
- Staroschwedske ( Swedish Gammalsvenskby ; German Altschwedendorf ; today part of the municipality of Smijiwka (Snake Village ) in southern Ukraine ), founded in 1782 by Swedish settlers from Roicks ( Reigi ) on the island of Dagö ( Hiiumaa )
- Oberá in Argentina
Spanish language islands
- Language island of the Isleños in Louisiana (USA)
Plautdietsche language islands
See the article on the Plautdietsch language
- Settlements of Russian mennonites in Asia ( Russia , Kazakhstan , Kyrgyzstan )
- Settlements of Russian mennonites in Canada , USA , Mexico and Belize
- Settlements of Russian mennonites in Latin America ( Brazil , Paraguay , Bolivia , Uruguay etc.)
Polish and Masurian language islands
- Ruhr area , before 1910 about 300,000 to 400,000 native speakers; At the beginning of the 20th century, Polish and Masurian were spoken almost exclusively in some mines ; then, however, the Ruhr Poles, who had immigrated from the partly Polish- speaking eastern German territories , were largely forced to assimilate in the nationalistic mood of the German Empire .
- Mining Community Forbach - Habsterdick in France (Lorraine); extinct
Romanian language islands
- Istror-Romanian in some villages in the mountainous region in the northeast of the Istrian peninsula in Croatia
- Aromanian in Greece ( Epirus , Thessaly , Macedonia ), Albania , North Macedonia , Bulgaria and Serbia
- Megleno-Romanian near Gevgelija in the border area between Greece and North Macedonia
Occitan language islands
- Polabian on Rügen and in Western Pomerania (extinct in the 15th century), in northern Brandenburg (extinct in the 17th century), in Mecklenburg , Ostholstein (extinct around the 14th century) and in Lower Saxony in the Wendland east of Lüneburg (extinct in 1756)
- See also place names with the stock Wendisch - or Windisch - ; the westernmost place name with the additional designation "windisch" is Windischbuch (today a part of Boxberg )
Turkish language islands
- Western Thrace Turks
- Rumelia Turks
- Adjara Turks
- numerous German-Turkish communities in Germany
Czech language islands
- Pirna , founded by Bohemian Protestant exiles at the beginning of the Thirty Years War, later moved to Dresden , from 1650 to 1999 there was an Evangelical Lutheran Congregation of Bohemian Exiles in Dresden (today a foundation), 1748 printing of a Czech hymnal in Dresden, Church of the Redeemer in Striesen , language island in the middle of the Extinct in the 19th century
- Zittau in der Oberlausitz, from 1623 admission of Bohemian and Moravian exiles, such as Lauban ( Lubań ) in today's Polish Upper Lusatia, the place where numerous Czech books were printed, language island disappeared in the middle of the 19th century
- Berlin-Friedrichstadt , from 1732 settlement of Bohemian Protestant exiles, for whom the Bethlehem Church was built in 1737 (destroyed in 1943), language island extinguished at the beginning of the 19th century, until 1937 the Bohemian Reformed Bethlehem Community existed
- Berlin- Böhmisch-Rixdorf in today's district of Berlin-Neukölln , from 1737 after a temporary stay in Lower Silesia (Gerlachsheim (Grabiszyce) with Mark Lissa ( Leśna )) and Upper Lusatia ( Herrnhut , Großhennersdorf - Schönbrunn , Cottbus ) settlement of Bohemian Protestant exiles who Most of them originally from Bömisch-Rothwasser ( Horní Čermná ), until around 1820/30, Czech was a colloquial language in Rixdorf, a language island at the beginning of the 20th century, until 2005 the Evangelical-Bohemian-Lutheran Bethlehem Congregation existed
- Nowawes (Czech Nová Ves , German Neuendorf bei Potsdam ) in today's district of Potsdam - Babelsberg , from 1751 settlement of Protestant weavers and spinners from Bohemia in the so-called Weberviertel , 1752/1753 construction of the Friedrichskirche (Babelsberg) for church services in Czech and German, language island at the beginning extinct in the 19th century
- Münsterberg ( Ziębice ) in Lower Silesia, from 1742 Protestant Bohemians settled under the leadership of Johann Liberda (1700–1742)
- Niesky in Upper Lusatia, founded in 1742 by Bohemian emigrants as a colony of the Moravian Brethren , Czech nízký means “low” in German, German became the language of negotiation as early as 1748, church services (meetings) were held alternately in German and Czech
- Hussinetz, named after Jan Hus , (today Gęsiniec ) near Strehlen ( Strzelin ) in Lower Silesia, extinct from 1749, language island 1945/46
- Friedrichs-Tabor in Balin near Wartenberg ( Syców ) in Lower Silesia, from 1744 or 1749, language island extinct at the beginning of the 20th century
- Banat Czechs
- Czechs in Vienna
- Ralf Heimrath, Arndt Kremer (ed.): Insularity. Small Worlds in Linguistic and Cultural Perspectives. Königshausen and Neumann, Würzburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-8260-5540-9 .
- Csaba Földes: Contact German. On the theory of a variety type under transcultural conditions of multilingualism. (PDF; 2.8 MB) . Gunter Narr, Tübingen 2005. ISBN 3-8233-6160-0 .
- Peter Wiesinger: German dialect areas outside the German language area . In: Werner Besch (Hrsg.): Dialektologie. A manual for German and general dialect research. de Gruyter, Berlin 1982, ISBN 3-11-005977-0 , pp. 900-929.
- Jan Dönges: Porque I can not do Hochdeitsch. German is spoken in practically all parts of the world. In: Adventure archeology . Spectrum, Heidelberg 2007 (3). . P. 56 ff. (Especially on the survivability of language islands).
- Sprachinselverein (Austrian language islands)
- Plautdietsch-Freunde eV (to the language islands of the Russian mennonites)
- German language islands in Italy , published by the unity committee of the historical German language islands in Italy (PDF; 1.5 MB)
- The "Palatinate", which the Great Elector settled in Prussia, were partly Reformed religious refugees who had fled to the Palatinate from France or the Spanish Netherlands ("Young Palatinate"), partly Central or Rhine-Franconian-speaking refugees from the Palatinate War of Succession .
- Werner Metzger: Albvereinsblätter - Speech 125 years of the Albverein . Ed .: Schwäbischer Albverein Stuttgart. S. 3 .
- On Pleißne Burladingen see Werner Metzger: Speech 125 Years of the Swabian Alb Association . In: Leaves of the Swabian Alb Association 2013 , Stuttgart, May 4, 2013.
- Legge 15 December 1999, n. 482 Norme in materia di tutela delle minoranze linguistiche storiche. Retrieved February 1, 2017 (Italian).
- The historical German language islands. (PDF; 1.39 MB) Unity Committee of the Historic German-Language Islands in Italy, November 12, 2012, accessed on July 7, 2013 (Italian, German, English).
- Pontic, a language of Greece ( press Expand all ), on ethnologue.com
- Against all odds: archaic Greek in a modern world , The Romeyka dialect and the connection to ancient Greek, on cam.ac.uk (University of Cambridge)
- George Petermann : Hospodina Srdcem y Rty Chwáleni, aneb písně Duchownj . Johann Wilhelm Harpeter, Dresden 1748 ( digitized version from the University and State Library of Saxony-Anhalt).