Subject of the Russian Federation
The Orenburg ( Russian Оренбургская область / Orenburgskaja oblast ) is an oblast in southern Russia . However, the region is framed both north and south by republics of other peoples and represents part of a "Russian settlement belt" on the way to Asia .
In the south of the Orenburg Oblast there is a very long border with Kazakhstan . It is bordered by Samara Oblast to the west and Chelyabinsk Oblast to the east . To the north and north-east, finally, is Bashkortostan , a small shared border piece runs north to the autonomous Republic of Tatarstan .
The Orenburg governorate had been an administrative unit of the Russian Empire since 1744 and belonged to the Kazakh ASSR within Soviet Russia from 1917 to 1925 . On May 14, 1928, the Orenburg governorate was dissolved. From 1938 to 1957, Orenburg Oblast was referred to as Chkalov Oblast in memory of the Soviet pilot of the same name .
The most important branches of industry in the region are oil and gas production and the refining of crude oil.
In the last Russian censuses in 2002 and 2010, there were a population of 2,179,551 and 2,033,072 residents respectively. The number of inhabitants thus fell by 146,479 people (−6.72%) in these eight years. In 2010, 1,213,937 people lived in cities. This corresponds to 59.71% of the population (in Russia 73%). By January 1, 2014, the population decreased further to 2,008,566 people. The distribution of the different ethnic groups was as follows:
|nationality||VZ 1989||percent||VZ 2002||percent||VZ 2010||percent|
Note: the proportions refer to the total number of inhabitants. Including the group of people who did not provide any information about their ethnic affiliation (2002 2,854 and 2010 30,449 people)
The area's population is around 75% Russian. The Tatars, Kazakhs, Ukrainians, Bashkirs, Mordvins, Chuvashes and Russian-Germans are the most important ethnic minorities in Orenburg Oblast. The number of Ukrainians, Mordvines, Chuvashes, Russian Germans and Belarusians is falling sharply, however. Exceptions among the largest ethnic groups are the Tatars, Kazakhs and Bashkirs, whose numbers are only increasing or decreasing slightly. Tens of thousands of people have immigrated from the Transcaucasus and Central Asia since the end of the Soviet Union. In addition to the nationalities listed above, there are also many Uzbeks (1989: 1,746; 2010: 4,964) and Tajiks (1989: 411; 2010: 4,093 people).
In addition, a small minority of Russian Germans still live in the oblast. They colonize (or settled prior to their emigration to Germany ) especially the border with Kazakhstan around sol-iletsk and Rajons Krasnogwardeiski (colony Neu Samara ), Alexandrowka and Nowosergijewka in the northwestern part of the oblast.
Administrative divisions and cities
Orenburg Oblast is divided into 35 Rajons and nine urban districts . One of the city districts is the “ closed city ” (SATO; with the status of an urban-type settlement ) Komarowski . In total there are twelve in the oblast cities , including in addition to the administrative center of Orenburg , as another major city Orsk and Novotroitsk , Buzuluk and Buguruslan . The only major city in the oblast besides Orenburg itself is the mining town of Orsk in the far east of the oblast. Other cities are Novotroitsk, Buzuluk and Sol-Ilezk .
|City / town Settlement*||Russian||City district / Rajon||Residents
(October 14, 2010)
|coat of arms||location|
|Komarowski *||Komarovsky||City District ( SATO )||8,064|
- Administrativno-territorialʹnoe delenie po subʺektam Rossijskoj Federacii na 1 janvarja 2010 goda (administrative-territorial division according to subjects of the Russian Federation as of January 1, 2010). ( Download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)