Subject of the Russian Federation
The Moscow oblast ( Russian Московская область / Moskovskaya oblast ; colloquially or semi officially also Подмосковье / Podmoskowje ) is a oblast Federal District Central Russia . It includes the densely populated and economically well-developed Moscow area. The city of Moscow is the administrative seat of the oblast, but is not part of it administratively, but is a separate federal subject .
The region lies in the fertile basin of the Volga , Oka , Klyazma and Moskva rivers . In the north and west of the oblast lies the Moscow ridge , which, together with the Klin-Dmitrov ridge , reaches a height of 310 m. In the east and southeast of the Plain is Meshchera Lowlands . The Central Russian Plate lies in the southwest .
There are over 300 major rivers in the territory of Moscow Oblast, but only the Volga, Oka and Moskva are navigable. The Moskva flows through the oblast from west to east and flows in the south of the oblast into the Oka, which flows through the southern part of the area. There are around 350 lakes in total, but all of them are shallow. Many of them were formed during the Ice Age. The largest natural lakes in Moscow Oblast are the Dubovojesee with an area of 12 km², the Swjatojesee (11.8 km²) and the Seneschsee (8.5 km²). Some reservoirs are larger , such as the 33.6 km² Istrinskoje reservoir on the Moskva; the over 300 km² large Ivankovo reservoir of the Volga, also known as the "Moscow Sea", extends from the neighboring Tver Oblast to the north into a small part of the Moscow Oblast. There are many swamps in the oblast; They are particularly numerous in the Meshchora and Verkhnevolschskaya Plains . Around half of the area is covered with forest. Spruce , pine and birch trees are most common here .
The wildlife of Moscow Oblast is characterized by the red fox , badger , squirrel , wild boar , elk , hare and hedgehog . More than 170 bird species are native, including various woodpeckers and thrushes , bullfinches , sprouts ("nightingales"), white storks and gray herons . Ruff , crucian carp , carp, bream , roach , pikeperch and pike can be found in the waters of Moscow Oblast . The area is rich in insect species. There are over 300 species of bees alone .
Moscow Oblast has various mineral resources, mainly building materials. High-quality sands are used in construction and quartz sands in the glass industry. Clay and loam deposits are also numerous. The area around Moscow is known for its limestone . There are also peat stores near Moscow . Numerous mineral springs have been developed in the area.
Before the 9th century, mainly Finno-Ugric tribes settled the river basin of the Moskva and the adjacent landscapes. The Slavs did not begin to actively develop this area until the 10th century.
In the middle of the 12th century, the territory of today's Moscow Oblast was annexed to the Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal . At the same time, cities such as Volokolamsk , Moscow, Zvenigorod , Dmitrov were founded. In the first half of the 13th century, the entire area was devastated by the Mongol invasion of the Rus . From the 13th century the area around Moscow belonged to the Principality of Moscow . In the second half of the 15th century, the Grand Duchy of Moscow became the centerpiece of the emerging centralized Russian state.
Since 1708, the area of the part I. Peter founded province Moscow . From the 18th to the 19th century, light industry, especially the textile industry, experienced an upswing. Its important centers were Bogorodsk , Pavlovsky Posad and Orechowo-Sujewo . In 1851, the first railway line connecting Moscow with St. Petersburg was laid on the territory of the Moscow Governorate, and in 1862 the railway to Nizhny Novgorod was put into operation.
The Moscow Oblast was by decision of the VTsIK of 14 January 1929 under the name Central Industrial Oblast , as part of the Russian SFSR of the Soviet Union established and the Government Moscow resolved. On June 3, 1929, the name was finally changed to its current name.
After the German invasion of the Soviet Union in World War II , all industrial plants and the most important plants in Moscow Oblast were relocated far into the hinterland in 1941. In 1934, 1956 and 1966 the oblast received the Order of Lenin .
On July 1, 2012, the Moscow Oblast had to cede two regions to the city of Moscow as part of the capital expansion. The ring shape of the oblast surrounding Moscow was thus interrupted by the expansion of the capital towards the south-west.
A few months earlier, on May 11, 2012, the previous disaster minister, Sergei Shoigu, was appointed governor of Moscow Oblast. He only served a few months until he was appointed Minister of Defense on November 6, 2012. Two days later, on November 8, Russian President Vladimir Putin appointed Andrei Vorobyov , Vice-President of the State Duma and chairman of the Duma faction “ United Russia ” , as the incumbent governor of Moscow Oblast. In the following regional elections in September 2013 he was confirmed in office.
The textile industry dominated until the beginning of the 20th century; Today, the most important branches of industry include mechanical engineering, metal processing, the chemical industry, the building materials industry and light industry as the oldest branch of industry in this region. Foreign investment projects are also being implemented on the territory of Moscow Oblast.
In terms of value added, the Moscow Oblast currently ranks second among the regions of Russia (excluding St. Petersburg and Moscow).
education and Science
Many important Russian research institutions are based in the oblast. In terms of its scientific importance, Moscow Oblast only lags behind Moscow and St. Petersburg. Science cities emerged on the territory as early as the 1930s and 1940s . In August 2008 the city of Protvino was elevated to the status of a city of science.
There are 74 cities and 65 urban-type settlements in the oblast , of which one city and four urban settlements are “ closed ” (SATO). Almost 20 of the cities are large cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants, including the Sergiev Posad tourist center , which is part of the Golden Ring, and a number of important industrial locations. In 2015, the two neighboring cities of Schelesnodoroschny and Balaschicha were merged.
Both the total number of cities and the number of large cities are by far the largest for a federal subject of Russia. Most of the cities are in the immediate vicinity of the capital Moscow and together with it form the most populous agglomeration in Russia with around 15 million inhabitants .
(October 14, 2010)
|Sergiev Posad||Сергиев Посад||111.179|
Moscow Oblast is divided into 29 Rajons and 39 urban districts , including 5 "closed" cities and settlements (SATO). Two other previously existing urban districts, Shcherbinka and Troitsk , were attached to the city of Moscow on July 1, 2012, as were larger parts of the Leninsky, Naro-Fominski and Podolski districts. These areas form the new Moscow administrative districts of Novomoskowski and Troitsk .
Moscow Oblast owned the second division football club Saturn Ramenskoje , which was officially called FK Saturn Moskowskaya Oblast . However, on December 30, 2010, the government of Moscow Oblast made the decision to liquidate the association.
- Administrativno-territorialʹnoe delenie po subʺektam Rossijskoj Federacii na 1 janvarja 2010 goda (administrative-territorial division according to subjects of the Russian Federation as of January 1, 2010). ( Download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Постановление ВЦИК от 01/14/1929 «Об образовании на территории Р. С. Ф. С. Р. административно-территориальных объединений краевого и областного значения »(Russian)
- Duma of the Moscow Oblasts, Д-1-662па "Об объединении городов областного подчинения Московской области Балашиха и Железнодорожный и внесении изменения в Закон Московской области " Об административно-территориальном устройстве Московской области » (24 December 2014) on: mosoblduma.ru , accessed September 2, 2015 (Russian).
- The population of Balashikha rose to 423,946 in 2015 due to the merger with Schelesnodorozhny. Mosowlstat, Оценка численности населения на 1 января 2014 и 2015 годов и в среднем за 2014 год (doc file) on: msko.gks.ru, accessed on September 2, 2015 (Russian). Total number from the population of Balaschikha: 271,961 and Schelesnodoroschny: 151,985 (as of January 1, 2015).
- Правительство Московской области ликвидирует "Сатурн" , news.sport-express.ru (Russian)