Autonomous Republic of Crimea

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
(Autonomous) Republic of Crimea
(Автономна) Республіка Крим /
(Awtonomna) Respublika Krym ( Ukrainian )
(Автономная) Республика Крым /
(Awtonomnaja) Respublika Krym ( Russian )
Qırım (Muhtar) Cumhuriyeti ( Crimean )
Coat of arms of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Flag of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea
Coat of arms of the (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea Flag of the (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea
Basic data
Status and affiliation: internationally not recognized ,
from a Ukrainian and international point of view an autonomous republic within Ukraine ,
from a Russian point of view a republic within Russia
Federal District (Russia): Southern Russia
Capital : Simferopol
Official languages : Ukrainian , Russian and Crimean Tatar
Residents : 1,967,200 (2014)
1,889,400 (2014 Russian census)
Population density : 75.2 inhabitants per km²
in cities : 62.2%
Area : 26,080 km²
KOATUU : 0100000000
OKATO : 35
Time zone : UTC +3 (Moscow time, no daylight saving time change)
(from a Russian perspective since March 30, 2014)

UTC +2 (with daylight saving time UTC +3 ) from the Ukrainian point of view

Currency : de facto Russian ruble (RUB)
Administrative division
Rajons : 15th
Cities : 16
administered by republic: 11
administered by Rajon: 5
Stadtrajone : 3
Urban-type settlements : 56
Villages: 912
Settlements : 35
Address: ул. Карла Маркса, 18
295006 Симферополь
Republik Moldau Ungarn Serbien Rumänien Russland Polen Slowakei Weißrussland Oblast Wolyn Oblast Riwne Oblast Schytomyr Kiew Oblast Kiew Oblast Tschernihiw Oblast Sumy Oblast Lwiw Oblast Ternopil Oblast Chmelnyzkyj Oblast Transkarpatien Oblast Iwano-Frankiwsk Oblast Tscherniwzi Oblast Winnyzia Oblast Odessa Oblast Tscherkassy Oblast Poltawa Oblast Charkiw Oblast Luhansk Oblast Donezk Oblast Kirowohrad Oblast Mykolajiw Oblast Cherson Oblast Dnipropetrowsk Oblast Saporischschja Autonome Republik Krim Sewastopol...
About this picture
Location of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea in Ukraine
Location of the Republic of Crimea in Russia
Location of the Republic of Crimea in Russia
Statistical information

The Autonomous Republic of Crimea or Republic of Crimea is a disputed regional body between Ukraine and Russia . From Ukrainian and international point of view of international law it is the Autonomous Republic of Crimea ( Ukrainian Автономна Республіка Крим / Awtonomna Respublika Krym ; Russian Автономная Республика Крым / Awtonomnaja Respublika Krym ; Crimean Tatar Qırım Muhtar Cumhuriyeti) the southernmost region of Ukraine and its only autonomous republic . From the Russian point of view, it is called the Republic of Crimea ( Russian Республика Крым / Respublika Krym ; Ukrainian Республіка Крим / Respublika Krym ; Crimean Tatar Qırım Cumhuriyeti ) a federal subject of Russia, which has been part of the southern Federation of Russia since July 28, 2016 .

The (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea has around 2.02 million inhabitants (2014). With an area of about 26,000 square kilometers it covers almost the entire area of the peninsula Crimea one, only the city of Sevastopol has the status of a city with subject status and therefore not part of the (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea, as well as the northern part of the Arabat Spit not to Republic belongs.

On February 27, 2014, gunmen who described themselves as "self-defenders of the Russian-speaking population of Crimea" occupied the parliament building in Simferopol . In the special session that followed, according to a statement by the parliamentary press spokeswoman, 64 MPs present voted 61 for a referendum on the independence of Crimea, which was to be held on May 25, 2014, at the same time as the presidential elections in Ukraine. The votes were not open to the public, journalists were excluded and only MPs who had been invited by Sergei Valeryevich Aksyonov were allowed to attend.

There were heavily armed men in the room during the meeting. The Russian field commander Igor Girkin said: “It was the fighters who rounded up the MPs and forced them to vote. Yes, I was one of the commanders of these fighters. ”According to research by the Aftenposten, there were only 36 MPs with too few voting rights present to meet the quorum of 51 members for the quorum. Votes were counted by members of parliament who said they were not present. This applies to at least ten of the votes cast, for which duplicates of the voting cards stolen from Parliament's safe were used. Some MPs whose votes were registered said they were not even in Simferopol on the day of the vote.

On March 11, 2014, the Parliament of the Autonomous Republic declared independence from Ukraine, including Sevastopol, and proclaimed the Republic of Crimea . This in the event that: If, as a result of the referendum taking place on March 16, 2014, the peoples of Crimea express directly that the Crimea, consisting of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol, should join Russia, so will an independent and sovereign state with a republican form of government can be declared. So the text of the declaration. After holding a referendum on March 18, the latter applied to join the Russian Federation . Russian President Vladimir Putin admitted a little later that the referendum had been monitored by Russian soldiers.

With the ratification of the accession treaty by the Russian Federation Council on March 21, 2014, the incorporation as the Republic of Crimea was completed from the Russian perspective. However, these steps are largely not recognized internationally. Since then, the status of the (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea has been controversial (see section “ Question of membership since 2014 ”).


On October 18, 1921, the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Crimea was established within the Russian Federative Socialist Soviet Republic (RSFSR) of the Soviet Union . It encompassed the entire Crimea, i.e. the area of ​​today's Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol. On June 30, 1945, the Crimean autonomy status was revoked and it became the Crimean Oblast . By decree of October 29, 1948, the city of Sevastopol was spun off from the Crimean Oblast and received the status of its own oblast.

By resolution of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on February 19, 1954 on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of the Treaty of Pereyaslav , the Crimea Oblast was annexed to the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) on April 26, 1954 . With regard to the city of Sevastopol, which does not belong to the Crimean Oblast, no explicit determination was made, however, Article 77 of the Constitution of the USSR of 1978 stated that Sevastopol has the status of a city directly subordinate to the USSR.

As a result of a referendum on January 20, 1991, the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Crimea was restored on February 12, 1991 within the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. In June 1991 the Crimean Tatars organized their first political organization in the Mejlis of the Crimean Tatar people . Who was elected Majlis as a proxy between organ of the people of the Crimean Tatars. In the course of the dissolution of the Soviet Union , on August 24, 1991, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic became an independent Ukrainian state within the existing borders, part of which became the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Crimea.

On February 26, 1992, the Supreme Soviet of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Crimea decided to rename it to the "Republic of Crimea". The Supreme Soviet declared the Republic of Crimea independent on May 5, 1992, but the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea, announced the following day, described it as part of Ukraine. On September 21, 1994, the Republic of Crimea became the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.

On May 6, 1992, the members of parliament in Simferopol adopted the Constitution of the Republic of Crimea. After protests by the Ukrainian parliament, this constitution was adapted to the Ukrainian legal system. The Crimea now had its own coat of arms and flag .

On January 16 and 30, 1994, the Crimea held its own presidential elections, in which Yuri Meshkov prevailed against Nikolai Bagrov with 72.9% of the vote. Meshkov from the Russian bloc declared himself president and sought to join Crimea to Russia. The Ukrainian government declared the elections in Crimea illegal. In the elections to the regional parliament of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea on March 27 and April 10, 1994, the Russian bloc, led by Yuri Meshkov, won 54 of the 98 seats. At the same time, a referendum was held for greater independence for the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, in which 90% of the participants were in favor. President Leonid Kravchuk declared the Crimean referendum invalid.

On May 20, 1994, the Crimean Regional Parliament decided to reinstate the Constitution of the previous Republic of Crimea of May 6, 1992, which describes Crimea as part of Ukraine, but relations between Crimea and Ukraine should be as between sovereign states are regulated. The next day the Verkhovna Rada called for the decision to be reversed immediately. On June 1, 1994, the regional parliament of the Crimea, under pressure from the government in Kiev , repealed all resolutions for independence.

In the summer of 1994 there was a power struggle between parliament and the president. The Ukrainian parliament repeatedly called for the legislation in Crimea to be subordinate to Ukrainian law and threatened to withdraw its autonomous status from Crimea. The “Republic of Crimea” then undertook not to take any decisions that contradict the Ukrainian constitution.

On September 7th, 1994 the parliament in Simferopol decided to restrict the powers of the President of Crimea again and to give him a representative role without the right to form a government. A law on this was passed on September 29, 1994 by 68 votes to 14. Previously, on September 11, 1994, President Yuri Meshkov tried to dissolve parliament. The Prime Minister of Crimea, Yevgeny Subarov, appointed by Meshkov, resigned on September 15, 1994.

On September 21, 1994, the previous Republic of Crimea became the Autonomous Republic of Crimea . Anatoly Franchuk from the People's Party (NP) becomes the new chairman of the Council of Ministers on October 6, 1994.

Up until 1995 there were repeated sharp conflicts between Ukraine and Russia. In addition to the division of the Black Sea fleet, it was about the nationality of the peninsula. The 1997 Russian-Ukrainian friendship treaty defused this conflict considerably, even if the mutual relationship is not free of tension. Russia has since leased part of the Sevastopol military port for its Black Sea fleet .

In the runoff election held on November 21, 2004 as part of the 2004 presidential election , 82% voted for Viktor Yanukovych in Crimea and 89% in Sevastopol. Viktor Yushchenko , the rival candidate who emerged victorious in the 2004 elections, announced on May 4, 2005 that he would replace the staff of all local administrative authorities in Crimea. The voters stand for a change of the regime and its representatives.

Viktor Plakida was Prime Minister of Crimea from June 2006 to March 2010, and was succeeded by Vasyl Jarty, who died in office on August 17, 2011. In the 2010 presidential elections in Ukraine , 79% (84% in Sevastopol) voted for Yanukovych, who this time won the election against opposition leader Yulia Tymoshenko . This continued the trend of Crimea voting for pro-Russian and not for pro-western or Ukrainian-national candidates. On November 7, 2011, Yanukovych appointed the previous Ukrainian Interior Minister Anatoly Mohiljow as the new Prime Minister of Crimea.

During the Crimean crisis in 2014, the Crimean parliament deposed Anatoly Mohilev on February 27, 2014 and appointed Sergei Aksyonov , head of the pro-Russian party “ Russian Unity ”, as the new Prime Minister of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea. Aksyonov is not recognized by the Ukrainian interim government as the new Prime Minister of Crimea. In return, he continues to regard Viktor Yanukovych as the rightful President of Ukraine.

Affiliation question since 2014

The status of Crimea under international law has been controversial since the Crimean crisis. The Parliament of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the Sevastopol City Council passed a declaration of independence on March 11, 2014 , in which they announced their secession from Ukraine. They formulated the political goal of wanting to join the Russian Federation instead , and therefore held a referendum on the status of Crimea on March 16 , in which the majority of the residents voted in favor of this step. The next day the internationally unrecognized state " Republic of Crimea " was founded for the transition period , to which both the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol belonged. At the same time, an application to join the Russian Federation was submitted, and on March 18, 2014, an accession treaty was signed with President Vladimir Putin . On March 21, 2014, the Russian Federation Council ratified the Accession Treaty. From Russia's point of view, the entire Crimea was now part of the Federation.

From the perspective of Ukraine and that of the majority of the international community, all steps that led to independence and subsequent accession to Russia were, however, contrary to international law and therefore null and void . The question of legality and compatibility with international law is controversial among legal experts (see: Crimean Crisis - Assessment of Political Developments under International Law ).

Regardless of to whom Crimea currently belongs under international law, however, it is de facto undisputed under the control of Russia. The following is an overview of the current perspectives of both parties:

Ukrainian point of view

Ukraine claims the entire Crimea as an integral part of its national territory . According to their constitution, a unilateral separation of individual areas (even by referendum ) is not possible. A split could only be decided by a national referendum or the Ukrainian parliament.

For the Ukraine, the part of Crimea without Sevastopol thus continues unchanged as its administrative unit , which was partially sovereign until the regional parliament was dissolved by the Supreme Rada, under the name of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea .

This view is supported by many countries, including the USA , Germany , Great Britain and France , as well as by the European Union .

Russian point of view

Russia has considered Crimea to be part of its territory since the Accession Treaty of March 21 . The Russian government was also the only one in the world to explicitly recognize the secession region of the Republic of Crimea as a sovereign state. Like the Crimean government, Russia invokes the peoples' right to self-determination and therefore recognizes the referendum on the status of Crimea as conforming to international law. They also refer to a legal opinion on the validity of Kosovo's declaration of independence by the International Court of Justice of July 22, 2010, which is intended to confirm that the unilateral declaration of independence by parts of a state does not violate any rules of international law.

After the accession of the Republic of Crimea to Russia, the area was again divided into two units; both the part of the original Autonomous Republic of Crimea, which is now only called the Republic of Crimea , and the city of Sevastopol each received the status of a federal subject . In the federal structure of Russia , a separate federal district was also established for the two new member states (see Crimea (federal district) ). On July 28, 2016, the Crimean Federal District was dissolved, with the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol merged into the Southern Federal District .

The Russian visa requirements have been in effect since March 16, 2014. Therefore, travelers visiting Crimea need a Russian visa. In addition, the Russian currency ruble was introduced .

UN Security Council and resolution of the General Assembly of the United Nations

Many states reject the referendum as contrary to international law, the PR China abstained in the UN Security Council on a draft resolution tabled by Ukraine, which was supposed to invalidate the referendum on the annexation of Crimea to Russia. This abstention was interpreted as an expression of disapproval. Russia vetoed it.

On March 27, 2014, at the request of Canada, Costa Rica, Germany, Lithuania, Poland and Ukraine, the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution declaring the March 16 referendum invalid. It confirmed the territorial integrity of Ukraine within its internationally recognized borders and called on all states, international organizations and specialized agencies not to recognize any change in the status of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and to refrain from any act or business that changed in recognition of such Status could be interpreted. The resolution expressly refers to the primacy of the principle of territorial integrity of all member states enshrined in the UN Charter , the Budapest Memorandum of 1994 and the Ukrainian-Russian Friendship Treaty of May 1997. However, resolutions of the UN General Assembly are generally not binding.

100 out of 169 voting member states of the United Nations voted for the resolution, 58 abstained. In addition to Russia, Armenia , Bolivia , Cuba , Nicaragua , North Korea , Zimbabwe , Sudan , Syria , Venezuela and Belarus also voted against the resolution .


The Russians have been the relative majority of the ethnic groups in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea since the beginning of the 20th century, and since the deportation of the Crimean Tatars to Central Asia from 1944 onwards. According to the results of the 2001 census on the distribution of nationalities , they made up 58.5% of the population. 24.4% were Ukrainians and 12.1% Crimean Tatars. They were allowed to return to their old home from 1988.

ethnicities Residents 1989 (%) 2001 (%) Change (%)
Russians 1,180,400 65.6 58.5 −11.6%
Ukrainians 492.200 26.7 24.4 - 9.5%
Crimean Tatars 243,400 1.9 12.1 +540%
Belarusians 29,200 2.1 1.5 −31.1%
Tatars 11,000 0.5 0.5 + 16.2%
Armenians 8,700 0.1 0.4 + 270%
Jews 4,500 0.7 0.2 −69.8%
Poland 3,800 0.3 0.2 −29.1%
Moldovans 3,700 0.3 0.2 −31.2%
Azerbaijanis 3,700 0.1 0.2 + 70.0%
Uzbeks 2,900 0.0 0.1 +360%
Korean 2,900 0.1 0.1 + 22.6%
Greeks 2,800 0.1 0.1 + 12.0%
German 2,500 0.1 0.1 + 16.3%
Mordwinen 2,200 0.2 0.1 −49.8%
Tschuwaschen 2,100 0.2 0.1 −42.9%
Roma 1,900 0.1 0.1 + 13.1%
Bulgarians 1,900 0.1 0.1 + 3.7%
Georgians 1,800 0.2 0.1 + 21.9%
Mari 1,100 0.2 0.1 −37.8%
total 2,024,000 100 100 - 0.6%
Number of inhabitants
year 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Residents 2,063,600 2,102,400 2,146,500 2,184,500 2,222,700 2,235,500 2,221,000 2,199,800 2,169,100 2,138,600 2,109,900 2,079,000 2,024,000
Number of inhabitants
year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014
Residents 2,033,700 2,018,400 2,005,127 1,994,300 1,983,800 1,977,100 1,971,100 1,967,300 1,965,300 1,963,500 1,963,000 1,966,200 1,967,200
Number of inhabitants
year 2014
Residents 1,889,400 (Russian census)


In the 2001 census, 77.0% said their mother tongue was Russian , 11.4% Crimean Tatar and 10.1% Ukrainian .


There are 16 cities in the (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea, eleven of which each form a separate urban district, while four belong to a Rajon. The city of Alupka is assigned to the city of Yalta .

Name (ukrainian) Name (russian) Name (Crimean Tatar) Residents Rajon
transcribed Cyrillic transcribed Cyrillic (2014)
Simferopol Сiмферополь Simferopol Simferopol Aqmescit 338.038
Kerch Керч Kerch Керчь Kerç 158.165
Yalta Ялта Yalta Ялта Yalta 138,152
Yevpatoria Євпаторiя Yevpatoria Евпатория Kezlev 117,565
Feodosia Феодосiя Feodosia Феодосия Kefe 108,788
Dzhankoy Джанкой Dschankoi Джанкой Cankoy 42,861
Krasnoperekopsk Красноперекопськ Krasnoperekopsk Красноперекопск Krasnoperekopsk 30,902
Alushta Алушта Alushta Алушта Aluşta 29,781
Saky Саки Saki Саки Saq 28,522
Bakhchysarai Бахчисарай Bakhchisarai Бахчисарай Bağçasaray 26,700 Bakhchysarai
Armyansk Армянськ Armyansk Армянск Ermeni Bazaar 24,508
Bilohirsk Бiлогiрськ Belogorsk Белогорск Qarasuvbazar 18,420 Bilohirsk
Sudak Судак Sudak Судак Sudaq 16,143
Shcholkine Щолкiне Shcholkino Щёлкино Şçolkino 11,677 Lenine
Staryj Krym Старий Крим Stary Krym Старый Крым Eski Qırım 9,960 Kirovsky
Alupka Алупка Alupka Алупка Alupka 8,745 Yalta City District

Administrative division

The (autonomous) Republic of Crimea in 14 Rajone and 11 urban districts divided. In some cases, the cities of the urban districts are assigned additional locations, so the population figures can differ from those of the cities.

(see map)
Rajon / urban district Population (2014) Area in km² Population density
inh. / Km²
Administrative headquarters
1 Bakhchysarai 92,542 1589 58 Bakhchysarai
2 Bilohirsk 66,458 1894 35 Bilohirsk
3 Dzhankoy 82,328 2667 31 Dzhankoy
4th Kirovsky 58.016 1208 48 Kirovsky
5 Krasnohwardijske 93,782 1766 53 Krasnohwardijske
6th Krasnoperekopsk 31,843 1231 26th Krasnoperekopsk
7th Lenine 69,629 2919 24 Lenine
8th Nyschnjohirskyj 56,976 1212 47 Nyschnjohirskyj
9 Pervomayske 40,367 1474 27 Pervomayske
10 Rosdolne 37.185 1231 30th Rosdolne
11 Saky 80.964 2257 36 Saky
12 Simferopol 149.253 1753 85 Simferopol
13 Sovetskyi 37,576 1080 35 Sovetskyi
14th Tschornomorske 34,112 1509 23 Tschornomorske
15th Alushta 52,215 600 87 (City district)
16 Armyansk 26,867 162 166 (City district)
17th Dzhankoy 42,861 26th 1648 (City district)
18th Yevpatoria 117,565 65 1808 (City district)
19th Kerch 158.165 108 1464 (City district)
20th Krasnoperekopsk 30,902 22nd 1405 (City district)
21st Saky 28,522 29 984 (City district)
22nd Simferopol 358.108 107 3347 (City district)
23 Sudak 29,448 539 55 (City district)
24 Feodosia 108,788 350 311 (City district)
25th Yalta 139,584 283 493 (City district)
Map of the Rajons and urban districts in the (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea

Chairwoman of the Council of Ministers of the (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea

Surname Period Political party
Vitaly Kuraschyk March 22, 1991 - May 20, 1993 independently
Borys Samsonov May 20, 1993 - February 4, 1994 independently
Jurij Mjeschkow 1 February 4, 1994 - October 6, 1994 RPK + Russian block
Anatoly Franchuk October 6, 1994 - March 22, 1995 NP
Anatoly Drobotov 2 March 22, 1995 - March 31, 1995 KPK + Russian bloc
Anatoly Franchuk March 31, 1995 - January 26, 1996 NP
Arkady Demydenko January 26, 1996 - June 4, 1997 independently
Anatoly Franchuk June 4, 1997 - May 27, 1998 NP
Serhiy Kunitsyn May 27, 1998 - July 25, 2001 Kunitsyn Block (BK)
Valery Horbatov July 25, 2001 - April 29, 2002 PTU
Serhiy Kunitsyn April 29, 2002 - April 20, 2005 NDP
Anatoly Matviyenko April 20, 2005 - September 21, 2005 Ukrainian Republican Party (Sobor)
Anatoly Burdyuhov September 23, 2005 - June 2, 2006 Our Ukraine (NSNU)
Victor Plakida June 2, 2006 - March 17, 2010 NDP
Wassyl Jarty March 17, 2010 - August 17, 2011 Party of Regions (PR)
Anatoly Mohiljow 3 November 8, 2011 - February 27, 2014 Party of Regions (PR)
Sergei Aksyonov 4 since February 27, 2014 United Russia
1 Declared himself President of Crimea
2 Not recognized by Ukraine
3Deposed by the Crimean Parliament during the Crimean Crisis in 2014
4th Not recognized by the Ukrainian interim government

Economy and tourism

Dulber Palace in Korejis

The economy of the (Autonomous) Republic of Crimea is mainly based on agriculture and tourism. It is favored by the particularly mild climate on the peninsula. The tourist centers of Yalta , Hursuf , Alushta , Bakhchysarai , Feodosia and Sudak are the centers of tourism . On the beach in the village of Popovka , about 28 km west of Yevpatoria , the KaZantip electronic dance music festival took place from 2001 to 2013 from July to August .

See also

Web links

Commons : Autonomous Republic of Crimea  - collection of images

Individual evidence

  1. Ruble is coming, state property "nationalized" - Crimea recognized as an "independent state" , of March 17, 2014.
  2. Statistical overview page on the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian)
  3. ^ Upheaval in Ukraine: Kiev warns Russia of troop movements , FAZ from February 26, 2014.
  4. Crimean parliament sacks regional government, approves referendum , RT News of February 27, 2014, accessed on March 12, 2014.
  5. Christian Rothenberg: The Curious Rise of Aksjonov - Putin's henchman in the Crimea , n-tv from March 6, 2014, accessed on April 4, 2014.
  6. Andrew Higgins: Grab for Power in Crimea Raises Secession Threat , NYT, February 27, 2014, accessed March 10, 2014.
  7. ^ A b Simon Shuster: Putin's Man in Crimea Is Ukraine's Worst Nightmare , Time Magazine , March 10, 2014, accessed April 4, 2014.
  8. a b Per Kristian Aale: Voting fraud secured pro-Russian majority in Crimean parliament (English), Aftenposten from March 9, 2013, accessed on April 4, 2013.
  9. “Votum over Crimea under duress”, in: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, January 27, 2015, p. 5.
  10. Alissa de Carbonnel: RPT-INSIGHT-How the separatists delivered Crimea to Moscow , Reuters of March 13, 2013, accessed on April 4, 2014 (English).
  11. ^ Crisis in Ukraine: Crimean parliament declares independence , FAZ.NET , accessed on March 11, 2014
  12. Hermann Klenner: Juristisches zum Krim conflict , in: Mitteilungen der Kommunistische Plattform , June 2014 , accessed on February 12, 2016.
  13. Putin confirms presence of Russian soldiers, April 17, 2014.
  14. ^ Federation Council ratifies treaty on Crimea's accession to Russia
  15. Decree 761/2 from 29 October 1948
  16. The Transfer of the Crimea to the Ukraine (English)
  17. Constitution of the USSR of April 20, 1978 (Ukrainian)
  18. ^ Result of the referendum on January 20, 1991 (Russian)
  19. Decree 1213a-XII of June 19, 1991 on the Restoration of the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian)
  20. ^ Decree 19-1 of February 26, 1992
  21. Decision 72-1 of May 5, 1992 on independence (Russian)
  22. Constitution of the Republic of Crimea of ​​May 6, 1992 (Russian)
  23. Decree 171/94-ВР of September 21, 1994
  24. ( Memento of April 3, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) (English)
  25. Yanukovych appoints Mogilyov for post of Dzharty , November 7, 2011 (English)
  26. ^ Christian Esch: Ukraine: Parliament in the Crimea hostage. Frankfurter Rundschau , February 27, 2014, accessed on March 2, 2014 .
  27. Sergei Aksjonow - Putin's man in the Crimea. Focus Online , March 2, 2014, accessed March 2, 2014 .
  28. ( Memento from March 11, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  29. ^ Spiegel Online: Before a referendum on joining Russia: Crimea formally declares itself independent. Retrieved March 12, 2014 .
  30. ^ FAZ: Parliament in Kiev issues an ultimatum to the Crimean government. Retrieved March 12, 2014 .
  31. Парламент Крыма принял Декларацию о независимости АРК и г. Севастополя ( Memento from March 11, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
  32. Договор между Российской Федерацией и Республикой Крым о принятии в Российскую Федерацию Республики Крым и образовании в составе Российской Федерации новых субъектов (agreement between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Crimea on the admission of the Republic of Crimea in the Russian Federation and the formation of new bodies in the Russian Federation) ( Russian text ( Memento from February 12, 2016 in the Internet Archive ); unauthorized English translation in: Anatoly Pronin, Republic of Crimea: A Two-Day State , Russian Law Journal, Vol. III, No. 1, 2015, P. 137 ff. PDF ).
  33. Thomas Pany: Crime referendum: Kiev's interim president speaks of an "invasion". Telepolis from March 16, 2014, accessed April 7, 2014.
  34. ^ Crisis on the Black Sea Peninsula. Crimea declares independence ( memento of March 13, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), , March 11, 2014, accessed on March 12, 2014.
  35. Lavrov: Referendum in Crimea corresponds to international law. Voice of Russia , March 16, 2014, accessed March 17, 2014 .
  37. Tourist visa for the Crimea
  38. The ruble is rolling into the Crimea. FAZ from March 25, 2014.
  39. Diplomatic pressure on Russia is increasing. Zeit Online, March 15, 2014
  40. United Nations Official Document A / 68 / L.39: Territorial integrity of Ukraine , March 24, 2014 (PDF, 110 kB).
  41. United Nations General Assembly Vote Isolates Russia. New York Times March 27, 2014.
  42. Backing Ukraine's territorial integrity, UN Assembly declares Crimea referendum invalid (English), UN News Center of March 27, 2014, accessed on April 6, 2014.
  43. ^ General Assembly adopts Resolution calling upon States not to recognize changes in status of Crimea region. Publication of the General Assembly on the website of the UN (with statements of several Permanent Representatives, English).
  44. Results of the 2001 census on the distribution of nationalities (Russian)
  48. Archive link ( Memento from November 4, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  49. Results of the 2001 census on the distribution of languages ​​(Russian)
  50. Regions and territories: Crimea , BBC News (English)
  51. Crimean parliament dismisses speaker, head of government , Kyiv Post , March 17, 2010 (English)
  52. Ukrainska Pravda (Ukrainian)
  53. ( Memento from April 9, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) (Russian)
  54. Vasyl Dzharty of Regions Party heads Crimean government , Kyiv Post , March 17, 2010 (English)
  55. Помер прем'єр-міністр Криму Василь Джарти (Ukrainian)
  56. Crimean parliament to decide on appointment of autonomous republic's premier on Tuesday , Interfax Ukraine, November 7, 2011 (English)
  57. Former Interior Minister Mohyliov heads Crimean government , Interfax Ukraine, November 8, 2011 (English)
  58. Yanukovych appoints Mohyliov to Crimean post , Kyiv Post , November 7, 2011 (English)
  59. Crimean Parliament Dismisses Cabinet and Sets Date for Autonomy Referendum , The Moscow Times , February 27, 2014 (English)

Coordinates: 45 ° 18 '  N , 34 ° 25'  E