de jure / de facto
De jure (in the classical Latin form de iure ) is a Latin expression for "according to the law, legally considered (according to current law), legal, official, official";
de facto is the Latin expression for "according to facts, according to the state of affairs, in practice, actually" (cf. in praxi ), also referred to as factual ("in reality").
With de facto , a circumstance is named that is considered to be widespread and generally recognized, even if it is not formally defined as de jure by appropriate institutions : de jure describes a legal target situation , de facto an actual current situation .
These two terms form an antonymic pair of terms, that is, if only one of the two terms is used in a sentence, the statement has a "yes-but" structure and indicates the (sometimes unspoken) existence of the other. As a pair of terms, the two formulas are often used to describe legal, here above all international law , and political science issues. For example, a government can be in office de jure , i.e. it was set up according to current law. A de facto government or a de facto regime, on the other hand, has no legal recognition. For example, Somaliland is a de facto , but not de jure recognized state . In contrast, Somalia is a de jure recognized, de facto non-existent state.
Outside of legal parlance, the wording is de facto used in the sense of “in reality” in southern German, German-Swiss and Austrian regions by broader sections of the population.
In addition, the terms de jure and de facto are mainly used in English in connection with technical norms and standards . The English expression de jure standard corresponds to the term “technical standard” in German ; the English de facto standard is usually translated as " industry standard ".
- De facto , the Republic of Cyprus has a total area of 5896 km², de jure this area is 9251 km². This difference is due to the de facto regime of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and the local de facto government.
- The Switzerland has de jure no capital, it is not constitutionally defined. Bern de facto fulfills the function of the capital city .
- The USA has no official language de jure . However, English is de facto the predominant language used for official documents.
- De jure Japan has no military. De facto , however, the Japanese self-defense forces perform its function.
- De jure which European Union (EU) no capital, de facto is Brussels , the European capital and is regarded as the headquarters of the EU.
- De jure , the official languages of the State of Vatican City are Latin and Italian , but de facto only Italian is used.
- Duden online | de jure | Spelling, meaning, definition, synonyms, origin. Bibliographisches Institut GmbH, 2013, accessed on March 6, 2014 .
- Duden online | de facto | Spelling, meaning, definition, synonyms, origin. Bibliographisches Institut GmbH, 2013, accessed on March 6, 2014 .
- What's The Difference Between De Jure And De Facto Standards? Penton Electronics Group, accessed March 6, 2014 .