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Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland (Somali)

جمهورية أرض الصومال
Dschumhūriyyat Arḍ aṣ-Ṣūmāl (Arabic)
Republic of Somaliland (English)
Republic of Somaliland

Flag of Somaliland
Somaliland coat of arms
flag coat of arms
Motto : Justice, Peace, Freedom, Democracy and Success for All

English : "Justice, peace, freedom, democracy and success for all"

De facto regime , area
is part of under international law
Official language Somali , Arabic , English
Capital Hargeysa
Form of government Presidential political system
Head of government and head of government President
Muse Bihi Abdi
surface 137,600 km²
population 3,508,180 (October 2014)
Population density 25 inhabitants per km²
currency Somaliland shilling
independence May 18, 1991 not recognized internationally by Somalia
National anthem Samo ku waar
Time zone UTC +3
License Plate SO (Somalia)
Internet TLD .so (Somalia)
Phone code +252 (Somalia)
Somaliland in its region (de facto) .svg
Somaliland map de.png

The Republic of Somaliland ( Somali Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland ) is an autonomous region that belongs to Somalia under international law , but as a de facto regime it is a practically independent state in East Africa , internationally recognized by no country with the exception of Taiwan , which covers the northern part of Somalia - the former colonial territory of British Somaliland - includes. The name Somaliland is derived from the Somali people , to whom most of the estimated up to 3.5 million inhabitants belong.

Today's Somaliland was united with Italian Somaliland to form Somalia after its independence from Great Britain in 1960 . It unilaterally declared itself independent on May 18, 1991 when the Somali government was overthrown and the civil war in Somalia escalated. Since then it has largely preserved its political stability and taken steps towards democratization. The capital is Hargeysa , the president is Muse Bihi Abdi , who won the elections in November 2017.


Somaliland is located in the east of the African continent, on the Horn of Africa on the Somali Peninsula . The country lies between latitude 08 ° 00'-11 ° 27 'north and longitude 42 ° 35'-49 ° 00' east. It borders Djibouti to the west, the Somali region of Ethiopia to the south and the de facto autonomous region of Puntland within Somalia to the east . In the north, the country has a coastline of over 850 km on the Gulf of Aden , where Yemen lies opposite to the north.

The largely flat coastal strips - called Guban - extend up to 70 kilometers inland and have a hot climate. They are joined by the mountains of the Somali Highlands (Ogo Mountains), which run in an east-west direction , including the 2,450 m high Shimbiris , the highest peak in Somaliland and all of Somalia. In the far south, Somaliland has a share in the Haud Plateau, which mostly extends into bordering Ethiopia.

The country's climate is strongly influenced by tropical monsoons . In the coastal areas there is the highest annual rainfall of up to 1000 mm, whereas in the interior of the country there is an average of only around 500 mm. However, the amount of precipitation varies greatly over time. There are four seasons: The Jilal dry season begins around January and brings hot and dry winds without precipitation with temperatures between 26 and 32 ° C. Gu , the first rainy season of the year, usually starts in March and lasts until June, depending on the trade winds. From August the second dry period, called Hagaa (Xagaa) , sets in. It is triggered by hot and dry monsoon winds, which also carry clouds of dust with them. The second rainy season, Dayr, lasts from the beginning of September to December, the coldest month of the year with temperatures between 15 and 26 ° C.

The largest city is the capital Hargeysa with around 500,000–800,000, according to some estimates even over a million inhabitants. The second largest city is the port city of Berbera with around 263,000 inhabitants, other cities are Burao , Boorama , Las Anod and Erigabo .


Nomads with camels in Gabiley

The United Nations Population Fund estimated the population in October 2014 to be just over 3.5 million. The average annual population growth is 2.08% (2018). An average of 25 people live on one km², although the population density is higher in the west of the country. 55% of the population are nomads or at least partially nomads, while 45% have a permanent residence in villages or towns. (In 1992 the proportion of nomads was around 65% and the proportion of settled people around 35%.) The majority of the inhabitants of Somaliland profess Sunni Islam of the Shafiite direction, among nomads and in villages there has been the Sufi - Order of the Salihiyya spread.

The population consists almost entirely of ethnic Somali people . By far the largest clan in Somaliland are the Isaaq , who live in the center of the country and, according to one estimate, make up up to 80% of the population. Neighboring them are Dir in the west (in the Awdal region ) and Harti- Darod (Warsangeli in Sanaag , Dolbohanta in Sool ) in the east . Tens of thousands of Somaliland residents belong to the Gaboye minority groups ( Yibir , Madhibaan , Tumaal and others), which are traditionally restricted to certain professions and have a special status within the clan system.

The exact number of people from southern and central Somalia and from Ethiopia living in Somaliland as war displaced persons and economic migrants is not known. The status of the tens of thousands of Somalis who fled the civil war is controversial because Somaliland's government regards them as foreigners and thus refugees in the true sense, while international organizations view Somaliland as part of Somalia and therefore classify these people as internally displaced persons .


Islam is the state religion. Missionary work for another religion is forbidden.

Education and health

The average life expectancy is 50 years for men and 55 for women. Tuberculosis , malaria and other infectious diseases are common, and malnutrition and unclean drinking water are also a problem. According to a 1999 UNICEF report , around 1% of the population is affected by HIV / AIDS , and the use of condoms and knowledge about transmission routes and prevention of HIV are not very widespread.

The level of education is still low. The education system has been expanded since independence and comprised 353 primary schools and 20 secondary schools in 2002/2003, plus three universities ( Hargeysa University , Amoud University in Boorama and, since 2004, Burao University ). During the same period, around 96,000 children attended primary school, 74,000 of them in cities and 22,000 in rural areas. In 2010, it is estimated that 30% of school-age children attended school, 30% of whom were girls.


Part of the Laas Geel cave paintings

The oldest known traces of people in what is now Somaliland are cave paintings in Laas Geel near Hargeysa , which date back to between 4000 and 3000 BC. To be dated.

The Somali ancestors migrated around 500 BC. BC to 100 AD from the southern Ethiopian highlands and mixed - especially in the trading cities on the coast - with Arab and Persian immigrants who also introduced Islam from the 7th century . In Somaliland, contacts with the Arab and Persian regions were made primarily through the port of Zeila , later Berbera took over its importance.

In 1884 Great Britain signed treaties with various local clans, establishing the Protectorate of British Somaliland . In the following decades it was largely limited to indirect rule over the area, while the Italian colonial rulers in Italian Somaliland invested more heavily in the development of their colony and intervened in its internal affairs. Local structures such as the councils of elders (guurti) , which are traditionally responsible for peacemaking between the clans, were largely retained. At the same time, the inland area in particular remained poorly developed; in addition to the port city of Berbera, Hargeysa and Burao emerged as larger towns and trading centers.

From 1899 to 1920, Mohammed Abdullah Hassan, now revered as a Somali national hero, led an uprising in the region against the incipient British, Italian and Ethiopian foreign rule over the Somali, in which around a third of the population of northern Somalia perished.

After Somalia's independence

British Somaliland was granted independence on June 26, 1960, only to unite with the former Italian Somaliland to form Somalia with Mogadishu as capital five days later on July 1 . The reason for the amalgamation were efforts to unite all Somali in one state, after this people had been divided into several states through colonization. The then Prime Minister of British Somaliland, Mohammed Haji Ibrahim Egal , was given a ministerial post in the new government of Somalia, and Egal became Prime Minister in 1967.

However, many residents of the area soon felt disadvantaged in the whole of Somalia. National integration caused difficulties because northern and southern Somalia differed in their level of development, educational and administrative structures. In the opinion of many Northern Somalis, the economically, politically and demographically dominant south did little to take account of these differences and to promote the development of the north. In 1961, the new Somali constitution was adopted by a large majority of voters in the south, but supported by less than 50% in the north. In the same year officers in the north revolted unsuccessfully against the merger with the south.

Hargeysa city center with the war memorial

After Siad Barre seized power in 1969 and established an authoritarian government, Isaaq founded the rebel movement Somali National Movement (SNM) in 1981 , which began an armed struggle against the government in northern Somalia. The army responded with repression, culminating in the 1988 bombing of the cities of Burao and Hargeysa . Around 50,000 people were killed, 400,000 were internally displaced , and another 400,000 fled across the border to refugee camps such as Hartishek in Ogaden in Ethiopia or to Djibouti (around 300,000 of these refugees returned from 1997 to 2006). In 1991, various rebel movements succeeded in ousting Barre, but conflicts between clans and warlords prevented the formation of a successor government. The Somali civil war has continued in southern and central Somalia since then.

Republic of Somaliland

First flag of Somaliland 1991–1996

Meanwhile, the SNM initiated a process of reconciliation between the northern Somali clans. At a gathering of clan elders led by the SNM in Burao in 1991, Somaliland's unilateral declaration of independence was passed along with a “National Charter”, according to which the SNM would exercise power for the next two years. A new constitution was then to be drawn up under which power would pass to an elected government. SNM leader Abd-ar-Rahman Ahmad Ali Tur became the first president. However, the SNM soon split into warring factions and, as in the rest of Somalia, clan conflicts arose until a 1992 ceasefire agreement was signed. At another conference in Boorama in 1993, a new national charter and a peace agreement were adopted. A civil government with a two-chamber parliament under President Mohammed Haji Ibrahim Egal was established. In 1994–1996 disputes flared up again. Members of the Dir clan in the western region of Awdal , who refused to recognize Somaliland's authority, proclaimed their own "Republic of Awdal" in 1995.

Another conference in Hargeysa in 1996 led - together with several local peace meetings between individual subclans - to the ongoing peace in Somaliland and confirmed Egal's presidency for the next five years. During this time the President fulfilled his obligation to prepare a constitution for Somaliland . In 2001 the constitution was clearly adopted in a referendum . This constitution provided for local elections in 2001 and presidential elections in 2002.

Delays in preparation and Egal's death in 2002 resulted in a year delay in the implementation of these plans. As provided in the constitution, the previous Vice President Dahir Riyale Kahin took over the presidency, in which he was confirmed in 2003 . In 2002 the local elections were the first multi-party elections in the country, and in 2005 the House of Representatives was elected .

An official announcement from Kenya in June 2019, in which Somaliland was referred to as a "state" (English country ), caused a stir in Somalia . According to the Somali authorities, this implies recognition of Somaliland.


Map of Somaliland and the surrounding area with administrative divisions, clans and territorial claims

Domestic politics

Within Somaliland, independence seems to enjoy the support of large segments of the population. The endeavor to maintain political stability has far-reaching consequences in domestic politics; this endeavor is very pronounced because, on the one hand, the instability in southern and central Somalia is perceived as a chilling example and, on the other hand, the stability of Somaliland is a key argument for its international recognition. As a result, the media and opposition parties are generally reluctant to criticize the government.

The political system unites customary, traditional and modern elements. Somaliland is a presidential republic with a two-chamber parliament, with the lower house (House of Representatives) being elected, while the members of the upper house, which is based on the traditional clan councils of elders, are appointed by the clans. According to the constitution, the number of parties is limited to three. This regulation is intended to prevent the emergence of small splinter parties that only represent the interests of a particular clan or region.

In the third multi-party elections since 1991, the ruling party UDUB became the strongest party in October 2005 with 33 out of 82 seats in parliament. The two opposition parties Kulmiye and UCID got 28 and 21 seats respectively and formed a coalition. The Neue Zürcher Zeitung comments on this: "While large parts of Somalia sank into civil war and anarchy, Somaliland not only managed to maintain internal peace, but also to establish a somewhat stable democracy - a remarkable achievement in a regional context."

The next presidential and local elections were originally scheduled for 2008, but have been postponed several times beyond the actual term of office of President Kahin. The presidential elections were finally held on June 26, 2010, the winner being Ahmed Mohammed Mahamoud Silanyo from the Kulmiye party, whose five-year term in office was extended to the end of 2017 due to financial problems and drought , but not without opposition. In the presidential elections on November 13, 2017 , Silanyo did not run again; Muse Bihi Abdi won .

Foreign policy

Somaliland is striving for international recognition of its de facto independence. It is a member of the UNPO and applied for membership in the African Union in 2005 . It maintains good (economic) relations with neighboring Ethiopia, but these have not yet led to recognition. Other states in the region refuse recognition for various reasons. The majority of the international community supports the hoped-for reunification and pacification of Somalia under the Somali Federal Government , which for its part continues to strive for the reintegration of Somaliland. On September 9, 2020 Somaliland established diplomatic relations with Taiwan (Republic of China) , which is also not fully diplomatically recognized internationally , which met with sharp criticism from the People's Republic of China . At that time, it was the only African state or state entity, apart from Eswatini , that had diplomatic relations with Taiwan.

With the neighboring Puntland area in the east, which was declared autonomous in 1998, there are differences regarding the affiliation of the Sool and Sanaag regions ( see border dispute between Somaliland and Puntland ). Since Puntland mainly due to the clan of Harti- Darod supports and also Harti Darod live in these areas, it lays claim to it; Somaliland, on the other hand, relies on the borderline between British Somaliland . The population of the disputed area is partly loyal to Somaliland, partly to Puntland and partly rejects both. There have been various clashes since 2002. This unresolved territorial dispute is another reason why the international community does not recognize Somaliland.

Human rights

For a detailed description, see Somaliland's Politics # Human Rights .

Amnesty International criticizes the persistence of the death penalty and cases of controversial arrests and judgments in Somaliland. Several such cases resulted in the release and pardon of those affected following international and local protests. The US organization Freedom House describes Somaliland as "partially free" with regard to political freedom, while the rest of Somalia is classified as "unfree".

Women in Somaliland are generally disadvantaged and hardly represented in politics. The genital mutilation of girls and women is widespread. The Gaboye minority also continues to suffer from discrimination.

Security situation

The German Foreign Office and the Austrian Foreign Ministry have issued travel warnings for Somalia, including Somaliland , and the Swiss FDFA also advises against traveling to Somalia. The security situation in Somaliland - with the exception of the disputed eastern border regions - is considered to be much better than in the rest of Somalia, but according to the Foreign Office, trips to the area are "still to be assessed as more dangerous than average".

In 2003 and 2004, Islamists murdered four foreign aid workers in Somaliland, including Annalena Tonelli . In 2008 a German national was kidnapped in Sanaag and later released. The government sees a danger in the alleged Islamist influence of al-Qaeda or the southern Somali Union of Islamic Courts . In 2008 there were suicide attacks for the first time in Hargeysa - and at the same time in Boosaaso in Puntland. As a result of the border wars against Ethiopia in 1964 and 1977–1978 and the civil war 1988–1991, some areas are contaminated with landmines and unexploded ammunition. Demining has been carried out since the declaration of independence. In 2007, 26 people were killed in mine and dud explosions and 71 injured.

Administrative structure

Somaliland comprises the Somali administrative regions of Awdal , Sanaag , Sool , Togdheer and Woqooyi Galbeed . The latter was divided into the two regions Hargeysa and Saaxil (Sahil), the borders of the other regions were left unchanged.

The districts as the next lower administrative level were reorganized in accordance with the Regions and Districts Act of 2002. A distinction is made between districts of grades A, B, C and D. A is the highest, D the lowest; the classification is based on population, area and economic structure.

In March 2008, President Dahir Riyale Kahin announced the creation of six new regions and 16 districts. This step is controversial domestically, critics accused the president of changing the administrative boundaries in his own favor .


Somaliland's economy is based on cattle ranching, the port of Berbera and remittances from overseas Somalilians. With the Somaliland shilling , the country introduced its own currency in 1994. The economy has grown since the declaration of independence, but poverty and hunger remain widespread among the population.

Agriculture and fishing

(Nomadic) cattle breeding is the most important livelihood for around 60% of the population and contributes 60–65% to economic output. The export of live cattle to Saudi Arabia and other states on the Arabian Peninsula is the country's main source of income. In 2003 Somaliland had an estimated 7 million goats, 7.6 million sheep, 1.5 million camels and 364,000 cattle.

Farmers working in the fields in Somaliland

About 3% of the land area is used for arable farming, mainly in the west in the area around Gabiley and Arabsiyo , another 7% would have the potential for this. The main cultivation product is sorghum , which grows on 70% of the rain- fed land, and corn on 25%. In addition to black-eyed peas , millet, beans, barley and cultivated to a lesser extent fruit. In Sanaag, incense is the most important industry. Somaliland exports more than 3000 tons of frankincense annually.

Fisheries now make up 2% of the gross national product and, according to the World Food Organization, has significant untapped potential.

The port of Berbera is an important source of income; Somaliland cattle are exported through it, and it has also become an important export port for Ethiopia since it can no longer use the Eritrean ports of Massaua and Assab after the Eritrea-Ethiopia War (1998–2000) .

Droughts , which occur every few years in the region's climate, pose a problem for the economy, especially for livestock. This was also adversely affected by the Arab states' ban on imports of Somali cattle in 1998–2006. Overgrazing and deforestation for the production of charcoal - which is the most important fuel for the urban population and of which around 5 million sacks are consumed annually - further contribute to the scarcity of water and land, which reduces the livelihoods of the nomadic population. As a result, rural exodus occurs , which increases unemployment in urban areas.

Remittances from exiled Somali countries

Remittances from Somalil countries living abroad amount to an estimated 200 to 500 million US dollars annually and in part make up for the fact that Somaliland receives little international development aid due to a lack of recognition . About half of these remittances go to relatives as a contribution to household income, which is conservatively estimated at 22.5–25% of average household income and is mainly spent on basic necessities such as food, education and health. Urban households are more likely to have relatives abroad than rural ones and thus receive more transfers. In addition to this direct support to one's own family, some of the money transfers also go to local non-governmental organizations or in the form of investments.

Government Income and Expenditures

The government is committed to promoting population education and the diversification of the economy, but has a limited budget of about $ 400 million (2020) annually. The largest item of expenditure is the military, which includes tens of thousands of men. After the declaration of independence, the various militias active in the area were incorporated into this. It has since been reduced, but it still takes up a large part of the financial resources, mainly for wages. (The 2002 local elections and the 2003 presidential elections cost $ 2.4 million to run, with international donors contributing 23%, and the 2005 general election cost $ 2.7 million, of which 64% came from abroad The tax system has been criticized as inefficient and unfair.

The prospect of more development aid is assessed differently; the hope for more financial resources is offset by concerns about becoming more dependent on foreign countries and losing initiative. Hopes are particularly placed on suspected oil reserves . There should also be more emphasis on information and communication technology . In February 2011, the British Minister for International Development, Andrew Mitchell, traveled to Somaliland and announced emergency aid of £ 10.5 million there. He also announced that the UK would increase its aid package for Somalia from the current £ 26 million to around £ 80 million by 2014.


The Somaliland armed forces have around 28,000 professional soldiers who, with the exception of a few officers, receive a monthly wage of US $ 100. The military is led by General Nuh Tani from the headquarters in Hargeysa , who had already served in the Somali armed forces.


Somaliland has Hargeysa Airport , which is served by Daallo Airlines , Djibouti Airlines , Ethiopian Airlines , Jubba Airways and Flydubai , as well as other airports in Berbera, Boorama, Erigabo and Burao.

There are no railway lines. According to official figures, there were 735 kilometers of paved and 1,462 kilometers of unpaved roads in 2000. With the support of the EU , the port facilities of Berbera and the road connection from Addis Ababa via Jijiga and Hargeysa to Berbera, the most important transport corridor in the country, have been improved.


Somaliland's culture is shaped by Islam and the Somali traditions. The latter include (orally transmitted) poetry and various dances. Most Somalilians wear local and Islamic-Arabic clothing - which for women usually includes a headscarf -, while a minority, predominantly of men, western clothing that is also considered modern. A widespread food is the Ethiopian injera similar flatbread lahoh or Canjeero , as a beverage, tea is popular. Dabqaad can be found in many households to be scented with incense. Kat chewing is common.


The radio is the most widespread medium in Somaliland; the only licensed local radio station is the government-controlled Radio Hargeisa , which has existed since 1991 and broadcasts illegally in the amateur radio band on 7,120 kHz; foreign stations - especially BBC Somali - can be received. The government also owns Somaliland National Television (SLNTV), which had domestic private competition with Somaliland Television (SLTV) until September 2019; however, the station was shut down by the government and its owner arrested. Reporters Without Borders have been raising awareness of the government's efforts to silence critical media in Somaliland. The press market is less regulated, but is limited by the small number of readers. A major press company is the Haatuf Media Network , which publishes the daily Haatuf and the weekly Somaliland Times in English and al-Hatif al-Arabi in Arabic. Other press products include Jamhuuriya and the state-run Mandeeq .

See also

Portal: Somalia  - Overview of Wikipedia content on Somalia and Somaliland


  • Mark Bradbury: Becoming Somaliland. James Currey, Oxford 2008, ISBN 978-1-84701-310-1 (English)
  • Maria Brons: Somaliland. Two years after the declaration of independence. (= Work from the institute for Africa customer. 89). Institut für Afrika-Kunde, Hamburg 1993, ISBN 3-928049-23-2 (on the development of Somaliland from colonial times to the first years of independence)
  • Harriet Gorka: Somaliland - Arguing on thin ice. In: KAS foreign information. 7 (2011), pp. 85-108
  • Sarah Phillips: When There Was No Aid - War and Peace in Somaliland , Cornell 2020, ISBN 978-1-5017-4715-1
  • Michael Schoiswohl: Status and (Human Rights) Obligations of Non-Recognized De Facto Regimes in International Law: The Case of 'Somaliland' . Martinus Nijhoff, Leiden 2001, ISBN 90-04-13655-X (English)

Web links

Commons : Somaliland  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikimedia Atlas: Somaliland  - geographical and historical maps
Wikivoyage: Somaliland  travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Somaliland Official Website: Country profile , accessed February 3, 2014.
  2. a b Population Estimation Survey 2014. (PDF) United Nations Population Fund , October 2014, accessed on June 13, 2019 .
  3. ^ Africa :: Somalia - The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency. CIA , 2018, accessed June 13, 2019 .
  4. Somaliland - Bienvenue au pays qui n 'existe pas! (Article in the French edition of GEO on Somaliland, N o 338, April 2007).
  5. Amnesty International on the Gaboye in Somaliland, 2005 (PDF; 26 kB).
  6. Displaced and neglected in Somaliland , in: IRIN News, October 16, 2008.
  7. Thousands need aid to return home from Somaliland , in: IRIN News, March 26, 2009.
  8. Somaliland meets giant education challenge , in: afrol, December 2, 2010.
  9. Somalia - From Independence to Revolution .
  10. World Bank: Conflict in Somalia: Drivers and Dynamics (January 2005; PDF; 669 kB) / Africa Watch: Somalia: A Government at War with its Own People , New York 1990.
  11. ^ UNHCR: UNHCR launches last phase of Somali repatriation from Djibouti .
  12. See Harriet Gorka: Somaliland - arguing on thin ice. In: KAS foreign information. 7 (2011), pp. 85ff.
  13. Somalia lodges protest after Kenya calls Somaliland a country News24, July 1, 2019.
  14. Human Rights Watch: "Hostages to Peace". Threats to Human Rights and Democracy in Somaliland, 2009 (PDF; 353 kB).
  15. NZZ No. 242, October 17, 2005.
  16. Somaliland votes for new president amid tight contest , in:, November 14, 2017.
  17. somaliland / No illusions about the challenges facing Somaliland. Somaliland Live, November 29, 2017.
  18. ^ Somaliland and Taiwan establish diplomatic ties. In: The Economist . October 3, 2020, accessed April 13, 2021 .
  19. ^ Freedom House: Map of Freedom in the World: Somaliland (Somalia) (2007) .
  20. ^ Norwegian Center for Human Rights (NORDEM): Somaliland: Elections for the Lower House of Parliament, September 2005 ( Memento of April 16, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  21. ↑ Travel warning from the Foreign Office for Somalia .
  22. ^ Austrian Foreign Ministry on Somalia .
  23. EDA .
  24. BBC News: Deadly car bombs hit Somaliland article from October 29, 2008 on the website (English). Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  25. Landmine Monitor Report 2008: Somalia .
  26. ^ Regions & Districts Law (Law No: 23/2002), .
  27. Somaliland Times: President Riyale Names 6 New Regions + 16 New Districts .
  28. Source of this section, unless otherwise noted: BBC News: Somaliland: Stability amid economic woe . Figures from Somaliland in Figures 2004 .
  29. Andrzej Rybak: Fragrant Heavenly Gift In: Continents , vol. 55 (2020), issue November / December, pp. 8–15, here p. 12.
  30. Andrzej Rybak: Fragrant Heavenly Gift In: Continents , vol. 55 (2020), issue November / December, pp. 8–15, here p. 13.
  31. Academy for Peace and Developement, Hargeysa: From Plunder to Prosperity - Resolving Resource-Based Conflict in Somaliland ( Memento from September 6, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  32. Bradbury 2008, pp. 146-151, 174-179.
  33. Self-declared Somaliland “marks 29 years independence”. EABW News, May 18, 2020.
  34. David H. Shinn: Somaliland: The Little Country That Could. 2002.
  35. Academy for Peace and Developement, Hargeysa: A Vote for Peace - How Somaliland Successfully Hosted its First Parliamentary Elections in 35 years Publication from September 2006 on the website (English, pdf). Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  36. ^ Somaliland Times: Restructuring the Tax System .
  37. Somaliland introduces displaced support tax .
  38. Reuters: Interview - Somaliland keen to host US base, hopeful on oil .
  39. A Controversial Conference Adopts Somaliland ICT Vision 2025. In: Somaliland Times.
  40. Oliver Harvey: Pirates to the left of me, terrorists to the right . In: The Sun. February 3, 2011.
  41. ( Memento from January 20, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  42. Delegation of the European Commission in Kenya: Pre-Feasability Study of the Regional Transport Sector in the Berbera Corridor.
  43. Somaliland TV channel closed, its owner arrested | Reporters without borders. September 10, 2019, accessed October 23, 2019 .
  44. BBC Profile: Regions and territories: Somaliland # Media .