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Repiblik Sesel (Seychelleskreol)
Republic of Seychelles (English)
République des Seychelles (French)
Republic of Seychelles
Flag of the Seychelles
Coat of arms of the Seychelles
flag coat of arms
Motto : Finis Coronat Opus
Latin : "The completion crowns the work"
Official language Seychelles Creole ,
English and French
Capital Victoria
State and form of government presidential republic
Head of state , also head of government President
Wavel Ramkalawan
surface 455 km²
population 98,500 (2020 estimate)
Population density 198 inhabitants per km²
Population development + 0.80% (2016 estimate)
gross domestic product
  • Nominal
  • Total ( PPP )
  • GDP / inh. (nominal)
  • GDP / inh. (KKP)
  • $ 1.405 billion ( 171. )
  • $ 2.596 billion ( 172. )
  • 14,938 USD ( 52. )
  • 27,602 USD ( 48. )
Human Development Index   0.796 ( 67th ) (2019)
currency Seychelles rupee
independence June 29, 1976 (from the UK )
National anthem Taste Seselwa
Time zone UTC + 4
License Plate SY
ISO 3166 SC , SYC, 690
Internet TLD .sc
Phone code +248
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The Republic of Seychelles , also just the Seychelles ( zeˈʃɛlən , formerly also written Seschellen ; Seychelleskreol Sesel ; French Seychelles [ seˈʃɛl ], outdated written Séchelles ; English Seychelles [ seɪˈʃɛlz ]) is an island nation in the Indian Ocean . Topographically, the state belongs to Africa . Its capital is Victoria .


location and size

Topographically, the Seychelles belong to Africa. They lie on the northern and western part of the Mascarene Ridge , a submarine threshold in the western part of the Indian Ocean. South of the Seychelles and off the East African coast lie the island states of Madagascar , Mauritius and the Comoros .

The Seychelles territory belongs to the time zone UTC + 4 (DTG: Delta). This means a time difference of three hours in the winter months and a time difference of two hours in the summer time compared to Central European time.

The Republic of Seychelles consists of about 115 islands, according to geology there are 42 granite islands and 73 coral islands . They are divided into two main groups, Inner Islands and Outer Islands, according to their location .

Inner Islands

The sea area of ​​the Inner Islands is known as the Seychelles Bank , it covers an area of ​​around 31,000 km².

The Inner Islands archipelago located here has 32 islands with a total land area of ​​266 km². They include:

Almost all of the islands mentioned are made of granite, only the islands Bird Island and Île Denis, located on the northern edge of the Seychelles Bank, are coral islands according to their origin .

The highest point in the country, the Morne Seychellois ( 905  m above sea level ) is located on Mahé . Also noteworthy are Mont Dauban ( 740  m above sea level ) (on Silhouette) and Mont Praslin ( 367  m above sea level ) on the island of the same name.

Outer Islands

Outside the “Seychelles Bank”, the Outer Islands archipelago extends over a sea area of ​​400,000 km², including the archipelagos:

There are only a few small settlements on the numerous coral islands because of the low altitude (highest points at 9  m above sea level ) and the lack of drinking water.

Flora and fauna

Breadfruit trees on the outskirts of Victoria
Seeds of the Coco de Mer

The Seychelles are rich in endemic flora and fauna , including three species of giant tortoises . The world's largest colony of giant tortoises, with 150,000 Aldabra giant tortoises, is found especially on the Aldabra Atoll . The last surviving flightless bird of the Indian Ocean , the Cuvierrale , is also at home here. The Vallée de Mai (“Maital”) on Praslin - declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO and managed by the “ Seychelles Island Foundation ” (SIF), which was founded specifically for this purpose in 1979 - is the home of the Seychelles parrot ( Coracopsis barklyi ) and the famous Seychelles nut, the " Coco de Mer ". The Seychelles frogs endemic to the island can be found on the main island of Mahé and on Silhouette . You can also observe rare animals and plants on the protected islands of Aride, Cousin and Curieuse. Also noteworthy are the karst formation in the granite rocks of the islands, especially on the coasts, of silicate karst , cart-like, mostly vertical gullies that were created by rock loosening under tropical conditions.

The native bird life of the Seychelles is among the richest in species in the entire western Indian Ocean. Due to the isolated location of the archipelago, 15 species and 18 subspecies have developed here that are only found in the Seychelles. Due to this peculiarity, both the granite islands and the Aldabra Atoll are among the 218 Endemic Bird Areas (EBA) that have been identified worldwide.

The original vegetation was pushed back with the settlement. They were replaced by crops that were specifically procured for cultivation in the Seychelles. The majority of tropical fruit and crops can thrive in the Seychelles and provide a varied diet belong to them, eggplant , bananas , avocados , pineapples , papayas , mangoes , passion fruit , star fruit , guava , lemons, oranges, sugar cane , breadfruit , lemongrass and cinnamon as well as many spices such as vanilla, pepper and nutmeg . Coconut palms were planted in plantations and provide the country's main export item, copra . Banyan trees and tropical timber were planted on the island, including dragon blood trees and albizia trees .


Anse Intendance Mahe beach with surf

The climate of the Seychelles is determined by the monsoon : from December to March the northwest monsoon prevails, followed by a calm transition phase in April. From May to September, the rain-free but stormy time of the south-east monsoon follows, followed by another calm transition phase in October-November. Heavy storms are rare. The duration of sunshine is determined by the location near the equator . Astronomically, 12 hours per day are possible, due to the influence of cloud cover an average of 5–8 hours per day is achieved. The temperatures fluctuate between 24 ° C and 30 ° C during the year, the sea water temperature is 26 ° C all year round.
The amount of precipitation on Mahe varies between 2880 mm in the capital Victoria and 3550 mm in the mountain regions. The air humidity is always more than 80 percent. The preferred travel time to visit the Seychelles is May to October.

Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: , further detailed weather data
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Seychelles
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 29.8 30.4 31.0 31.4 30.5 29.1 28.3 28.4 29.1 29.6 30.1 30.0 O 29.8
Min. Temperature (° C) 24.1 24.6 24.8 25.0 25.4 24.6 23.9 23.9 24.2 24.3 24.0 23.9 O 24.4
Precipitation ( mm ) 379 262 167 177 124 63 80 97 121 206 215 281 Σ 2172
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 5.0 6.2 6.8 7.6 8.2 7.7 7.4 7.4 7.6 7.1 6.5 5.5 O 6.9
Rainy days ( d ) 17th 11 11 14th 11 10 10 10 11 12th 14th 18th Σ 149
Water temperature (° C) 27 28 28 29 28 27 26th 26th 26th 26th 27 27 O 27.1
Humidity ( % ) 82 80 79 80 79 79 80 79 78 79 80 82 O 79.8
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Population and language


A resident harvesting coconut

The population of the Seychelles - the Seychellois - consists for the most part of the descendants of the settlers who immigrated from various French colonial areas and their African slaves. This group still makes up over 90 percent of today's population. There is also a minority of purely European descent as well as small Chinese and Indian minorities. In 2017, 13.6% of the population was born abroad.

There are now many parents without a marriage license. The children of working parents mostly grow up in the grandparents' household. The annual population growth is 0.6%. The median age of the Seychellois in 2020 was an estimated 34.2 years. The fertility rate in 2019 was 2.43 children per woman, which is very low by African standards. Life expectancy is 73.4 years.

Population development

Development of the population
year population
1950 036,000
1960 042,000
1970 052,000
1980 066,000
1990 071,000
2000 081,000
2010 091,000
2020 098,000
2030 103,000
Population of the islands




Mahé 78,500 86,200
Praslin 8,600 8,700
La Digue 2,800 3,000
Outer Island 1,000 600
91,000 98,500


A separate variant of the Creole languages developed here as the common language of this strongly mixed population , which is called Seychelles Creole or Seselwa and is based on French. According to Article 4 of the Constitution , the official languages are Seychelles Creole , English and French .


The average school attendance of over 25 year olds is 10 years, the expected school attendance of the younger generation is 14.1 years. Accordingly, the proportion of illiterate people is only 4.1%.


According to 2010 figures, 76.2% of the population is Catholic ( Diocese of Port Victoria ), around 10.5% are Protestants or Anglicans - mostly descendants of British sailors and farmers, 2.4% belong to other Christian denominations. 2.4% are Hindus , 1.6% belong to Islam , 1.1% are of other faiths.


It is believed that the islands were discovered by Arab traders. In 1502 ships from the fleet of the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama anchored at the Amirant Islands. Although now known to the western world, the Seychelles were not permanently settled by the French until 250 years after their discovery . The French captain Lazare Picault was on the voyage to India in 1742 and by chance found the still “ownerless” islands coming from Mauritius, which were proclaimed as French property in 1753 and named after Jean Moreau de Séchelles, finance minister of Louis XV. , were named. A permanent settlement can be proven from 1768 after the establishment of spice plantations. In the course of the First Coalition War , the Seychelles were occupied by the British in 1794 and assigned to Great Britain in the Peace of Paris in 1814 . Under British rule, the archipelago was initially part of the Mauritius colony. On August 31, 1903, the Seychelles received the status of an independent colony . In 1945, still under British administration, women were given the right to vote at the local level, and on August 6, 1948 , women were given active and passive suffrage at the national level. With independence in 1976, these rights were confirmed.

The Seychelles gained self-government in 1970, independence followed in 1976, but the island republic remained in the Commonwealth. The so-called First Republic of the Seychelles was founded in 1976 and abolished in 1979 in favor of a one-party regime, the Second Republic . In 1993 the current constitution came into force as a state treaty for the Third Republic . Opposition parties are now permitted again. The ruling party is the former Seychelles People's Progressive Front (SPPF).

The tsunami , which was triggered by a seaquake off Indonesia on December 26, 2004 , also reached the Seychelles and caused damage.


Market scene (1970s)
Sailing ships remain
indispensable in inter-island traffic
Airport on the island of Mahé

State budget

The state budget in 2009 comprised expenditures equivalent to US $ 267.9 million , which was offset by income equivalent to US $ 288.7 million. This results in a budget surplus of 3.1% of GDP .

The national debt amounted to 1.676 billion US dollars in 2020, or 98.43% of GDP.


In mid-2008 the state was insolvent, whereupon a program to realign the economy was carried out with the support of the International Monetary Fund . As a result, the Seychelles rupee was devalued by around 40 percent after the exchange rate was released in early November 2008. The economy has recovered since then, and the Seychelles have the highest per capita income of all African countries (as of 2016).


Île St. Pierre

The tourism approximately employs 30 percent of the working population, which thus generate 70 percent of national income. In recent years, private investors have invested heavily in the new construction and expansion of hotels, primarily in the five-star category.

Tax haven

On January 28, 2016, the EU Commission presented a package of measures to combat tax evasion , including the Seychelles on the “black list” of tax havens .



Land transport in the Seychelles consists entirely of road traffic. However, only the islands of Mahé, Praslin and La Digue are accessible by car. There is left-hand traffic . The entire road network covered around 526 km in 2015, 514 km of which are paved.

There is no rail transport , but the construction of a line has been planned for Mahé since 2012.

Ferries connect Mahé with Praslin, La Digue and Fregate. The Seychelles are a popular cruise destination .

The Seychelles International Airport is located on Mahé. Air Seychelles connects all major islands with each other and flies to cities in Europe and Asia . Condor Flugdienst and Edelweiss Air flies to Mahé from German-speaking countries ; In addition, other airlines offer connecting flights.

Bus transport

The main means of transport in local public transport on Mahé and Praslin is the bus. Seychelles Public Transport Corporation (SPTC) is a semi-governmental organization founded in 1977 for the transportation of people in local public transport on Mahé and Praslin. SPTC offers a well-developed network of a total of 41 routes with around 1100 trips daily. There is a single tariff per route, with trips in air-conditioned buses being more expensive.


The Seychelles have a relatively high number of heroin addicts, five to six thousand and 10% of the working population . The Seychelles will attract attention worldwide in 2021 with a rapid corona vaccination campaign. Along with Israel and the United Arab Emirates, the Seychelles have consistently been one of the three countries that have been way ahead of the rest of the world in terms of vaccination rates since January of that year. At the end of the first quarter, 64.2% of the total population and thus almost all adults in the country had received their first vaccination - the world's highest first vaccination rate. 34.0% already had both vaccinations - second behind Israel. Despite the high vaccination rate, 68% first vaccination and almost 60% two vaccination by May 2021, there was a wave of infections in spring 2021, which is associated with the 60% vaccine used by Sinopharm .

During the economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, free methadone was increasingly distributed to heroin addicts.

Land reclamation

Eden Island near Mahé

Since the main island of Mahé hardly offers any level areas for the settlement of industry or for the construction of additional living space, land reclamation measures have been and are being carried out. The area on which the international airport is located was created in the 1970s. Further projects in the port area of ​​the capital Victoria followed. From 1999 to 2006, around 190 million US dollars were invested in land reclamation measures near Mahé and Praslin. A new 57 hectare island called Eden Island was created off Mahé . This artificial island is connected to Mahé by a bridge (Eden Bridge) and has its own marina, restaurants, some shops and various service providers (mostly finance and travel). Access to Eden Island has not been restricted to residents of the island since 2011. Buyers can purchase villas, maisonettes and apartments - a total of around 500 units will be created, as well as hotels and holiday apartments. In this way, foreign buyers can obtain a permanent right of residence, which is otherwise limited to three months for tourists. Another artificial island was created off Praslin with Eve Island ; the island is connected to Praslin by several bridges.

Environmental aspects

The Seychelles are among the first countries in the world to include nature conservation in their constitution. With almost 59% of its land area, the island state has by far the largest percentage of protected areas worldwide.

Two places were from UNESCO for World Heritage declared. The environmental protection program identifies 20 protected areas and identifies a further 370 places whose nature requires special protection.


Political indices
Name of the index Index value Worldwide rank Interpretation aid year
Fragile States Index 54.7 out of 120 126 of 178 Stability of the country: stable
0 = very sustainable / 120 = very alarming
Democracy index --- from 10 --- from 167 No data
0 = authoritarian regime / 10 = complete democracy
Freedom in the World 72 of 100 --- Freedom status: partially free
0 = not free / 100 = free
Freedom of the press ranking 28.66 out of 100 63 of 180 Recognizable problems for the freedom of the press
0 = good situation / 100 = very serious situation
Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 66 of 100 27 of 180 0 = very corrupt / 100 = very clean 2019

Political system

Wavel Ramkalawan (2020)

President of the Seychelles has been Wavel Ramkalawan ( Linyon Demokratie Seselwa ) since October 26, 2020 . The preacher won the presidential election on October 24, 2020 with 54.9% of the votes cast against the previous incumbent Danny Faure as the first opposition leader.

The National Assembly ( Assemblée Nationale or National Assembly ) consists of 34 MPs, 25 of whom are directly elected. The remaining nine seats will be distributed proportionally to all votes to the parties that have received at least ten percent of the vote.

nature and environment

In addition to the government of the Seychelles, numerous independent organizations in the Seychelles have also committed themselves to environmental protection: ENVI.RO , the Nature Protection Trust , the Seychelles Geosociety and the many wildlife clubs that introduce children to environmental issues.

BirdLife Seychelles was founded in 1998 and took over projects and programs previously managed by BirdLife International , including the Cousin Island Special Reserve, which has been managed by BirdLife since 1968. On this island, the man-made coconut plantation was again replaced by - secondary - jungle. Since then, the population of the Seychelles reed warbler ( Acrocephalus seychellensis ) has increased - from 29 to over 1000 again.

The Seychelles are home to 75 endemic plant species, 12 amphibian and 209 bird species (including ten endemic species) and over 1000 species of invertebrates. The government of the country has designated 230 km² of water and about 49 percent of the total 455 km² of land area (210 km²) as nature reserves , including some islands in their entirety. Measured in terms of area, the Seychelles thus have the largest proportion of nature reserves in the whole world.

Foreign policy

In the first two decades of its state independence, the Seychelles ratified international agreements which, among other things, prohibit the trade in endangered species, whaling and the manufacture, testing and stationing of NBC weapons in the territory of the Seychelles, regulating the handling and disposal of toxic waste Ensure the protection of the seas, coastal regions, the ozone layer , natural resources and the world's natural and cultural heritage.




View over the capital Victoria

The Seychelles are divided into 27 administrative districts. Of these, 22 are mainly or exclusively on the main island of Mahé, two each on Praslin and Perseverance Island , while La Digue forms a further district with minor islands and some more distant islands. The Outer Islands , which with 211.3 km² make up 46.44% of the Seychelles in terms of area, are not assigned to any administrative district.

Culture and sights

The seat of government
The clock tower - a permanent symbol of the British colonial era

Sights of the capital Victoria

British colonial heritage

  • The cityscape of the capital Victoria is reminiscent of a British colonial city at the beginning of the 20th century. The clock tower, which, contrary to popular claims, is not based on Big Ben but rather on Little Ben near Vauxhall Bridge in London, stands in the middle of a central intersection in Victoria. The courthouse southeast of it is also a symbol of British rule.

French colonial heritage

Botanical gardens

  • In 1903 the still existing Botanical Garden near Victoria was opened. Even then, it served not only for edification, but also for research on agriculturally usable plants.
  • Over time, however, the area of ​​the garden on Mont Fleuri Road became too small. As early as 1985, planning began for a modern and larger center of this type. At Barbarons on the west coast of Mahé, a new Biodiversity Center is being built, which will include a much larger botanical garden, tree nurseries and a nature park. In the information center, the interested visitor will be able to find out everything about the importance and use of plants, while research is carried out in the laboratories.
  • The herbarium of the Seychelles is a scientific collection of plants and goes back to the first French settlers who researched the properties of the vegetation unknown to them. The collection is currently in the care of the National Archives and helps scientists identify plants.
Historic building La Plaine St. André

More Attractions

Other attractions on the main island of Mahé are the Auberge de Bougainville , the spice garden Le Jardin du Roi (also called Spicegarden) and the manor house La Plaine St. André , which has been converted into a restaurant.

National parks and nature reserves

The Vallée de Mai National Park on Praslin

About a quarter of the Seychelles' 455 km² land area is forested. The seven national parks cover a total of 43.8 km², the four special reserves another 154.8 km². These areas also include the two UNESCO World Heritage Sites. There are also six other protected areas . A total of 4,000 animal and 850 plant species have been identified in the Seychelles; of these, 60 or 13 species are classified as threatened.

The Seychelles are home to the national parks (year of designation):

  • Ste. Anne Marine (1973)
  • Morne Seychellois (1979)
  • Baie Ternay Marine (1979)
  • Curieuse Marine (1979)
  • Port Launay Marine (1979)
  • Praslin (Vallée de Mai, Maital) (1983) - UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Silhouette Marine (1987)
  • Moyenne Island National Park (2009)

Special Reserves:

  • Aride Island (1975)
  • Cousin (1975)
  • Aldabra (1981) - UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • La Digue Veuve (1991)

In February 2018, the Seychelles government announced that two more protected areas would be established with a total size of approximately 210,000 km² (81,000 square miles). In the first phase, 75,000 km² (29,000 square miles) around the Aldabra group are to be protected and in the second phase 135,000 km² (74,000 square miles) of deep sea area. To compensate for the associated possible economic losses for the Seychelles, private nature conservation organizations such as The Nature Conservancy and the Leonardo DiCaprio Foundation took over, among others. 17 million euros of the national debt of the Seychelles. This " debt-for-nature-swap " is intended to increase the share of nature reserves in the Seychelles from less than 1% to around 30%.


Anse Source d'Argent beach on La Digue
Beach on La Digue
Anse Lazio beach on Praslin
  • The beach at Anse Source d'Argent became known, among other things, through commercials from Bacardi , Raffaello and other companies. It is located on the fourth largest island in the Seychelles, La Digue.
  • Anse Lazio beach is located on the second largest island, Praslin.

Underwater worlds

Coral reefs , along with tropical rainforests, are among the most biodiverse habitats on earth. With an annual catch of over a megaton of fish, the Seychelles' economy depends to a large extent on this habitat. The reefs also act as breakwaters and protect coastlines from erosion. In 1998 alone, 100,000 euros (of which 70,000 euros in foreign currency ) were invested in the construction of environmentally friendly anchorages ( embedment moorings ), which protect the corals from damage caused by ship anchors. Due to the natural warming of the seawater ( El Niño ) in the southern hemisphere in recent years, the causes of which have not yet been fully explored, three quarters of the Seychelles' coral population may have been affected by bleaching and death. In pilot studies to restore the reefs, the aim is to use the new biorock technology ("mineral accretion") to try to revitalize the reef ecosystem. For this purpose , artificial steel reefs are anchored near damaged natural coral reefs , on which corals are "planted" after artificially accelerated limestone formation. The progress is continuously monitored by underwater cameras. Over a period of four years (1999–2002) the project cost around 250,000 euros. The steel frames have to be imported from abroad, for which the country needs around 60,000 euros in foreign currency.

Legend of pirate treasure

  • The "Treasure of Labuse" goes back to the era of the legendary French corsair Olivier Le Vasseur, (called La Buse ), whose supposedly undiscovered treasures are still hidden somewhere on an island in the Seychelles; among other things, the island of Moyenne is mentioned as a possible location of the treasure. The legend has been luring treasure hunters from all over the world to the islands for many years.


  • The Coco de Mer can be found on Praslin . It is the fruit of the Seychelles palm, which is considered the world's largest coconut and got its name through a misunderstanding. "Coco-de-Mer" seeds were washed up in various places in the Indian Ocean. Since the origin could not be explained, it was assumed that this coconut had to grow under water.
  • Bird Island is also popular with tourists . The oldest giant tortoise in the world lives there; she was baptized Esmeralda by tourist guides .


Web links

Commons : Seychelles  - collection of images
Wiktionary: Seychelles  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikimedia Atlas: Seychelles  - geographical and historical maps
Wikivoyage: Seychelles  travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. Official languages (PDF; 29 kB) at:
  3. Population of the islands of the Seychelles according to the latest censuses and latest official estimates. Retrieved January 17, 2021 .
  4. CIA Factbook Ranking by Population Growth , accessed August 1, 2017
  5. [1]
  6. Table: Human Development Index and its components . In: United Nations Development Program (ed.): Human Development Report 2020 . United Nations Development Program, New York 2020, ISBN 978-92-1126442-5 , pp. 344 (English, [PDF]).
  7. a b c d e f g Guderjahn, Kinne : Seychelles . Polyglott, Archipelago of a Hundred Eilands, p. 12-25 .
  8. Migration Report 2017. UN, accessed on September 30, 2018 (English).
  9. World Population Prospects 2019, Volume II: Demographic Profiles. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, accessed January 24, 2021 .
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  11. World Population Prospects 2019, Volume II: Demographic Profiles. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, accessed January 24, 2021 .
  12. World Population Prospects 2019, Volume II: Demographic Profiles. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, accessed January 24, 2021 .
  13. Population of the islands of the Seychelles according to the latest censuses and latest official estimates. Retrieved January 17, 2021 .
  14. Use of Languages (PDF; 29 kB) at:
  15. a b Seychelles - The World Factbook. Retrieved January 17, 2021 .
  16. ^ Hugo Kastner: From Aachen to Cyprus - Geographical names and their origins. Humboldt Verlag, Baden-Baden 2007, ISBN 978-3-89994-124-1 , p. 286
  17. a b - New Parline: the IPU's Open Data Platform (beta). In: August 6, 1948, accessed October 6, 2018 .
  18. ^ Mart Martin: The Almanac of Women and Minorities in World Politics. Westview Press Boulder, Colorado, 2000, p. 337.
  19. a b The World Factbook
  20. Seychelles - National debt in relation to GDP until 2026. Accessed June 5, 2021 .
  21. World Economic Outlook Database April 2017. Retrieved June 11, 2017 (American English).
  22. EU Commission wants new black list of. January 28, 2016, accessed March 20, 2021 .
  23. ^ Seychelles Public Transport Corporation - SPTC. Retrieved September 11, 2017 (American English).
  24. a b About 10% of the working population are addicted to heroin: "The Seychelles have a massive drug problem - the East African country has the highest rate of heroin addicts in the world - ten percent of the working population, according to the latest crime report." Sea, white beaches - and thousands Heroin addicts: the Seychelles on YouTube , international journal , June 5, 2021; On drugs in paradise: The Seychelles and heroin , international journal, June 2, 2021
  25. Kanika Saigal: Why Seychelles has world's worst heroin problem. In: . November 21, 2019, accessed on June 5, 2021 (English): "Between 5,000 and 6,000 people out of a total population of 94,000 - the equivalent of nearly 10% of the working population - are addicted to heroin, according to the Agency for the Prevention of Drug Abuse and Rehabilitation (APDAR) in the Seychelles. "
  26. Coronavirus - vaccinations per inhabitant by country worldwide 2021. Accessed on March 20, 2021 .
  27. Coronavirus: Wave of infections despite high vaccination rate in the Seychelles. In: May 6, 2021, accessed June 5, 2021 .
  28. Naturefund: Protected Areas. Retrieved March 20, 2021 .
  29. ^ Fragile States Index: Global Data. Fund for Peace , 2020, accessed January 15, 2021 .
  30. ^ Democracy Index. The Economist Intelligence Unit, accessed February 6, 2021 .
  31. Global Freedom Score. Freedom House , 2020, accessed January 15, 2021 .
  32. 2020 World Press Freedom Index. Reporters Without Borders , 2020, accessed January 15, 2021 .
  33. ^ Transparency International (Ed.): Corruption Perceptions Index . Transparency International, Berlin 2020, ISBN 978-3-96076-134-1 (English, [PDF]).
  34. Website BirdLife Seychelles, accessed on March 5, 2010 (English)
  35. Protected Areas. Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change of the Seychelles, accessed on February 22, 2018 .
  36. Elaina Zachos: Ocean Refuge the Size of Great Britain Announced. National Geographic, February 21, 2018, accessed February 23, 2018 .
  37. Seychelles protects an area 'as big as Britain' in Indian Ocean. BBC News, February 23, 2018, accessed February 23, 2018 .

Coordinates: 7 °  S , 53 °  E