|Republic of South Sudan|
|Republic of South Sudan|
Motto : "Justice, Liberty, Prosperity"
(English for "justice, freedom, prosperity")
all native languages are recognized as national languages
|Capital||Juba (planned: Ramciel )|
|State and form of government||presidential republic ( federal republic )|
|Head of state , also head of government||President Salva Kiir Mayardit|
|Population density||19.45 inhabitants per km²|
|Population development||+ 3.83% (2017) per year|
gross domestic product
|Human Development Index||0.433 ( 185th ) (2019)|
|founding||January 6, 2005
(as an autonomous region )
|independence||July 9, 2011 (from Sudan )|
|National anthem||South Sudan Oyee!|
|National holiday||July 9th (Independence Day)|
|Time zone||UTC + 2 (since Feb. 1, 2021), previously UTC + 3|
|ISO 3166||SS , SSD, 728|
The South Sudan ( English South Sudan , in official long form Republic of South Sudan (RoSS); German Republic of South Sudan ) is a landlocked country in East Africa . It borders Sudan to the north, Ethiopia to the east, Kenya to the southeast, Uganda to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest and the Central African Republic to the west . Its capital is Juba .
South Sudan gained independence from Sudan on July 9, 2011 ; previously the area was an autonomous region within Sudan from 1972 to 1983 and again from 2005 to 2011 . Due to the civil war that lasted from 2013 to 2018 , it is considered a failed state . With a nominal gross domestic product per capita of 228 US dollars , South Sudan came last in the world in 2017.
In the north the country is characterized by savannahs and dry forests, in the south by tropical rainforests . The highest point is the Kinyeti (3187 m) in the Imatong Mountains . The White Nile flows through the region and together with the Sudd , depending on the season, forms one of the largest marshlands in the world. The tributary of the Nile, Bahr al-Arab (Kiir), roughly forms the northwestern part of the border with Sudan. The border is not marked, however, and in addition to the Abyei area there are other border regions with pasture land and raw material deposits whose nationality is unclear, such as the enclave of Kafia Kingi . In the extreme southeast is the Ilemi Triangle , which is claimed by Kenya and Ethiopia and was also claimed by Sudan earlier; the position of the South Sudanese government in this territorial dispute is still unknown.
The tropical and humid climate is characterized by high temperatures and a rainy season from April to October. In the dry season , temperatures rise to an average of 36 degrees Celsius during the day and well over 20 degrees Celsius at night. In the rainy season, temperatures are around 30–33 degrees Celsius during the day and 21–23 degrees Celsius at night. The humidity is then 70–80%. The frequency and intensity of rainfall decreases from south to north.
South Sudan is only determined by the hydrology of the Nile (excluding the Ilemi triangle ). The border with the Central African Republic is practically congruent with the catchment area border with the Congo . Here is also the region with the most rainfall in the otherwise arid country. The evaporation is so high that endorheic depressions such as the Ambadi , the Abu Shanab or the Maleit Lake have formed between the Sudd and the swamps of the Bahr al-Ghazal system .
There are three distinctive hydrological variables to be mentioned:
- The catchment area of the Bahr al-Ghazal , which is the largest subbasin of the Nile in terms of area, but contributes little water to the Nile due to the high level of evaporation.
- The Sudd , which is one of the largest wetlands in the world.
- The Sobat tributary , which has its source in Ethiopia and contributes around 10 percent to the water volume of the Nile at its mouth.
According to the official results of the all-Sudanese census of 2010, South Sudan had around 8.26 million inhabitants and thus made up 22% of the population of what was then all of Sudan. The Legislative Assembly of South Sudan denied the accuracy of these numbers and instead assumed a population of 9-10 million. According to the United Nations , the population was 12.9 million in 2018.
The illiteracy rate in South Sudan was 65.5% in 2020, making it one of the highest in the world. The expected school attendance of the current generation of pupils is only 5.3 years, making it the lowest in the world.
20–34% of the population are malnourished. The rate of blindness is because both with more than 1% of the world's highest trachoma and river blindness occur and the war a fight largely prevented these diseases.
The largest population group are the Nilotic counting Dinka , and there are also the Nilotic Nuer and Shilluk , the Azande and several other groups.
In the transitional constitution of 2005, English and Arabic were set as the government's working languages. In addition, all native languages were recognized as national languages and were allowed to be used as the working language at lower administrative levels and as the language of instruction in schools until 2011.
The new interim constitution of 2011 after the country's independence sees English as the sole official language before, during Sudanese Arabic and Juba Arabic as official language are common. According to the new transitional constitution, all native languages will continue to be recognized as national languages .
Most of the languages in South Sudan belong to the Nilo-Saharan language family . Of this, the East Sudanese branch with the subgroup of the Nilotic languages is particularly represented, the most speakers being Dinka , Nuer , Bari and Schilluk . The central Sudanese branch is mainly represented in the northwest, with several languages spoken by relatively small ethnic groups (the so-called Fertit ). In the south-western part there are also Ubangi languages of the Niger-Congo language family, in particular the Azande .
In contrast to the predominantly Islamic Sudan, the population in South Sudan is predominantly committed to Christianity or local religions. Especially after the Sudanese government expelled foreign missionaries from the country in 1964, more and more people converted to Christianity. The majority of Christians are Catholics and Anglicans . The Roman Catholic church province of Juba , which covers the whole of South Sudan, has approx. 3.12 million Catholics (approx. 38% of the total population).
Meanwhile, the majority of the population (76.8%) belong to Christian denominations, followers of African religions make up 21% and Muslims 2.2%.
Refugees and the Humanitarian Crisis
There are 1.5 million internally displaced persons in South Sudan , and over 730,000 people have fled from South Sudan to neighboring countries (as of mid-2015). Several 100,000 people perished in the civil war.
In South Sudan there are (as of mid-2014) over 250,000 refugees who have fled from the Central African Republic , the Democratic Republic of the Congo , Ethiopia and Sudan .
In 2006, around four million South Sudanese were living outside of South Sudan as a result of the war, and it is estimated that three million of them intended to return. In particular, before the independence referendum in January 2011, there were major return movements. After independence, numerous other returnees came, mainly from Sudan, where they were no longer tolerated.
Since February 2017 there has been a famine in the country recognized as such by the UN, according to which more than 100,000 people are threatened with starvation and around 4.9 million people, i.e. more than 40 percent of the population, are dependent on food support. The country's fragile security situation in particular was cited as the cause of the crisis, as the widespread and ongoing violence prevents continued agriculture.
The region came under the influence of what is now northern Sudan during the Turkish-Egyptian rule from 1821 and finally became part of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan . The colonial government stopped the slave trade , but invested little in education and infrastructure in the south. From 1930–1946 she actively tried to prevent Arab-Islamic influences from the north as part of the Southern Policy .
In 1947 it was decided at the Juba Conference that the southern part of Sudan should remain under northern Sudanese leadership. Representatives from the South were not involved in this decision. Many South Sudanese felt marginalized and oppressed in the whole of Sudan, which became independent from Great Britain and Egypt in 1956 . 1955–1972 and again from 1983, therefore, rebels fought for the independence of South Sudan. In the period between the two wars (1972–1983), as a result of the 1972 peace agreement, South Sudan already existed as an autonomous region, but the central government increasingly intervened in its autonomy.
From 1983 the Sudanese People's Liberation Army (SPLA) took the lead on the side of the separatists. In 2005 she reached a peace agreement with the government in Khartoum .
Peace Agreement and Autonomy
The Sudanese government agreed in the 2005 peace agreement to grant the region autonomy. SPLA Leader John Garang became Vice President of All Sudan and Provisional President of the Autonomous Region. Garang died in a helicopter crash on July 30, 2005, and was succeeded by Salva Kiir Mayardit . He was confirmed as president of the autonomous region (and later of the independent state) in the presidential elections in South Sudan in 2010 . The simultaneous parliamentary and gubernatorial elections confirmed the political dominance of the SPLA in South Sudan.
Internal conflicts since the peace agreement
Even after the peace agreement, there were various clashes between troops from the north and the south, but these did not develop into war.
There are always local battles within South Sudan, which are simply presented as “tribal conflicts”. Behind this are conflicts over land and livestock, but also the difficulties of the SPLA in establishing a functioning administration: Local administrators are mostly former commanders of the SPLA with little administrative experience. Administrative units are often defined “ethnically” and their boundaries are not precisely defined. State institutions are only able to resolve conflicts to a limited extent. The distribution of state resources is often opaque, which is why certain groups feel disadvantaged. In particular, the Dinka , the largest group of the population, are accused of excessive dominance.
In the states of Jonglei and Unity , several (former) SPLA commanders such as George Athor Deng , David Yauyau and Gatluak Gai have turned against the central government. Behind these rebellions are both local dissatisfaction and the efforts of some commanders to ultimately return to the SPLA and secure a better position through military pressure. The SPLA is said to have committed serious human rights violations in cracking down on this resistance. For its part, it suspects the northern Sudanese government of stirring up conflicts and arming anti-government militias in order to destabilize South Sudan.
In the border areas of Equatoria region, the population was made after the war occasional raids Uganda originating Lord's Resistance Army suspended.
Transition to independence
In the independence referendum , which was carried out in accordance with the peace agreement from January 9th to 15th, 2011, around 99% of the South Sudanese voting were in favor of independence. The Sudanese head of state Umar al-Bashir recognized this result. Independence was declared on July 9, 2011 after a transition period. Article 14 of the transitional constitution of 2011 stipulates that women and men are equal before the law. This affirmed the right to vote for women . Article 16 provides that at least 25% women should sit in the legislature. However, since custom and traditions in South Sudan are an essential source of law and are predominantly patriarchal, women are still discriminated against.
In the transition period up to independence, the institutions of the two parts of the country were gradually separated. South Sudanese officials in the north and northern Sudanese officials in the south were transferred to their respective parts of the country. In February the North dismissed all representatives of the South from the National Assembly . In March the embassy of the north was opened in Juba . From May, however, the situation came to a head, as there was fighting in the Abyei area , with the army of the north taking the city of Abyei . Following the mediation of South Africa, the conflicting parties agreed on June 21, 2011 to set up a demilitarized zone in the border region. Demilitarization is supported by the United Nations Interim Security Force for Abyei (UNISFA) .
Civil war 2013 to 2018
On December 15, 2013, hostilities broke out within the SPLA between supporters of the Dinka President Salva Kiir Mayardit and the Nuer Vice President Riek Machar , who was dismissed by Mayardit on July 23, 2013 . What appears in media coverage as a tribal war turns out to be a struggle for political power and resources from a cultural and social anthropological perspective. The government spoke of Machar's attempted coup, which he denied. Four former ministers were arrested. Around 500 people were killed in the fighting in Juba.
The fighting, during which more than 63,000 people sought protection in UN camps, spread to other parts of the country. SPLA spokesman Phillip Aguer announced on December 18, 2013 that the army was fighting with troops of General Peter Gadet, who was close to Machar, in the vicinity of Bor , the capital of the state of Jonglei . The army announced on December 19, 2013, to be related to the UN mission MINUSMA allocated Transall and a Global 5000 will evacuate German nationals from Juba. Other states also began evacuating from South Sudan, with US CV-22 Ospreys being shot at while approaching Bor and injuring four soldiers. On December 19, the UN camp in Akobo was attacked by around 2000 Lou-Nuer fighters, killing two Indian blue helmets and probably 20 Dinka. While the UN relocated the unneeded personnel from South Sudan to Entebbe in Uganda , the UN troops in Bentiu and Bor were to be reinforced. On December 22, 2013, the rebels captured parts of Unity , where much of South Sudan's oil is extracted.
On December 24, 2013, the UN announced that a mass grave with the remains of 75 SPLA soldiers had been discovered in Bentiu, but this was again denied. On the same day, the United Nations Security Council unanimously approved the deployment of another 5,500 blue helmets to South Sudan to strengthen the UNMISS peacekeeping mission . Government troops regained control of the city of Bor.
Under pressure from the African Union , both parties to the conflict declared their readiness to hold peace talks. Government and rebel delegations met on January 3, 2014 in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa with mediators from the East African confederation IGAD . On January 23, 2014, both sides signed an armistice. The Nuers, however, continued their attacks. Another peace agreement was signed on August 25, 2014.
In spring 2017, UN observers noted that the conflict was escalating again. The government has resettled members of the Dinka ethnic group in villages from which Shilluk had previously been expelled and cut off access to international aid. On June 27, 2018, the conflicting parties in Khartoum agreed a ceasefire. On September 12, 2018, they signed a peace treaty in Addis Ababa.
German engagement in South Sudan
South Sudan is a focus of German humanitarian aid : in 2020 Germany made around 70 million euros available for humanitarian measures. The focus of support was on emergency food aid and protection and hygiene measures for internally displaced persons and refugees, both in South Sudan and in neighboring countries. The aid also served to alleviate the consequences of the locust plague and the COVID-19 pandemic .
Germany has been participating in the UN mission UNMISS in South Sudan (United Nations Mission in South Sudan) and the previous mission UNMIS (United Nations Mission in Sudan) since 2005 . On February 10, 2021, the federal government decided to extend the mandate for the Bundeswehr to participate in UNMISS for a further year. The Bundeswehr participates with individual personnel in staffs and headquarters of the UN and sends experts.
|Name of the index||Index value||Worldwide rank||Interpretation aid||year|
|Fragile States Index||110.8 out of 120||3 of 178||Stability of the country: very big alarm
0 = very sustainable / 120 = very alarming
|Freedom in the World Index||2 of 100||---||Freedom status: unfree
0 = unfree / 100 = free
|Freedom of the press ranking||44.49 out of 100||138 of 180||Difficult situation for freedom of the press
0 = good situation / 100 = very serious situation
|Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)||12 out of 100||179 of 180||0 = very corrupt / 100 = very clean||2020|
On paper, South Sudan is “a moderately federal republic with a presidential system of government and (especially in the transition period) a very strong president. This heads the executive branch, which continues to be composed of a vice-president and the cabinet. The legislative branch consists of two chambers with a very strong first chamber, directly elected at national level, and a weak second chamber (representation of the member states by members of parliament) (asymmetrical bicameralism ). The constituent states have limited competencies, the local administration is weak, despite its constitutional commitment to decentralized governance. ”However, South Sudan is today - also from the point of view of the UN Blue Helmet Mission - as a failed state, which is also the case with the USA, which helped create it Support fail.
After the death of John Garang in 2005, Salva Kiir Mayardit took over the leadership of the SPLM / A and became - as Garang had been since the peace agreement in 2005 - also President of the then autonomous region of South Sudan and Vice President of Sudan . With the independence of South Sudan in 2011, Salva Kiir became the first and to date incumbent president of the country. He is also head of government and commander-in-chief of the armed forces of South Sudan .
The only national elections to date have taken place in 2010, i.e. before the country became independent. Since then, they have been postponed several times, which is increasingly giving rise to further conflicts.
houses of Parliament
The South Sudanese parliament consists of two chambers : the National Legislative Assembly (Lower House) with 322 seats and the Council of States (Upper House) with 50 seats. Some of the members of parliament were directly elected, taken over from the former all-Sudanese chambers of parliament or appointed by the president.
Not only opposition parties accuse the ruling Sudanese People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) party of monopolizing power, practicing nepotism and being largely corrupt.
On July 14, 2011, South Sudan was admitted to the United Nations as the 193rd member state . On July 27, 2011, the African Union accepted South Sudan as its 54th member. The country became a member of the East African Community in 2016 .
Relations between South Sudan and Sudan are considered tense. The exploitation of oil reserves sparked conflicts with its northern neighbor just a few months after South Sudan's independence. South Sudan accused Sudan of several attacks. The United Nations called for an end to the violence in March 2012. At the beginning of August 2012, the two states settled their dispute, which was welcomed by the USA and the European Union . Negotiations with Sudan also took place in the course of the domestic political unrest , in which the formation of joint army units was proposed.
The armed conflict between units of President Salva Kiir and soldiers of former Vice President Riek Machar continued in South Sudan from December 2013 to 2015. Machar attempted a coup on December 16, 2013, but Kiir was able to repel it. Thereupon Kiir ordered a temporary curfew in the capital Juba. In January 2014, the regional organization of states in Northeast Africa, the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), tried to mediate between the conflicting parties, the government of South Sudan and the troops of the Sudanese People's Liberation Movement in opposition. Despite numerous attempts to establish a truce, the fighting continued unchecked. The United Nations Security Council, at its 7396th session on March 3, 2015, passed resolution 2206 (2015), imposing sanctions in the form of travel bans and the freezing of all assets, mainly against persons accused of crimes under international law , for human rights violations, but also for actions that threaten peace, stability and the security situation. The United Nations Children's Fund reported that child soldiers were also used in the numerous conflicts in the country, and according to the findings of numerous human rights organizations, among other things, group rape and sexual slavery occurred. Very often there are reports that the government is systematically restricting the right to freedom of expression. Human Rights Watch documented that child marriage is widespread in South Sudan. Almost half of all South Sudanese girls between the ages of 15 and 19 are married. The government has also been charged with arbitrary arrests. A third of the prison inmates were not convicted. Many are imprisoned for adultery or secret marriage. The prison cells are overcrowded and there is not enough food.
As a result of the decades of civil war in South Sudan from 1955 to 1972 and from 1983 to 2005, there were many military factions in the country that were integrated into the army of the state founded in 2011. The unity of the armed forces is, however, among other things. endangered by the ethnic conflict between Dinka and Nuer .
In 2012, South Sudan is estimated to have 140,000 soldiers, 110 T-72 main battle tanks and a few T-54 / T-55. The army also has 69 artillery pieces (including 24 122-mm self-propelled guns 2S1 ), 15 BM-21 rocket launchers and more than 30 82-mm mortars . The Air Force only has one Beechcraft 1900 liaison aircraft and nine Mil Mi-17 helicopters and one Mil Mi-172 of Russian origin.
South Sudan is formally a decentralized Federal Republic . After independence, the following ten states existed :
|Northern Bahr el Ghazal||720,898||Awhile|
|Unity / Western Upper Nile||585,801||Bentiu|
|Western Bahr el Ghazal||333.431||Woof|
These states are further subdivided into counties , which in turn are subdivided into Payams and Bomas as lower administrative levels. The most populous city in South Sudan is Juba with more than 200,000 inhabitants, followed by Wau , Malakal , Yei and Yambio .
New division of the states from 2015
In a decree on October 2, 2015, President Salva Kiir Mayardit ordered the division of South Sudan into 28 states. A desired decentralization of the government was given as a reason. The decree also stipulated that the president should appoint the state governors and the members of the state legislative assemblies, each with a maximum of 20 (or 21?) Members.
|Imatong||Torite||Torit, Ikotos, Lopa, Magwi|
|Namorunyang||Kapoeta||Kapoeta South, Kapoeta North, Kapoeta East, Budi|
|Aamadi||Mundri||Mundri West, Mundri East, Mvolo|
|Gbudwe||Yambio||Anzara, Yambio, Ezo, Tambura, Nagero|
|Terekeka||Terekeka||Terekeka, Jemeza, Tali, Tigor, Gwor|
|Yei River||Yei||Yei, Kajo keji, Morobo, Lainya|
|Woof||Woof||Bagari, Jur River|
|Awhile||Awhile||Aweil South, Aweil Center|
|Lol||Raga||Aweil West, Aweil North, Raga|
|Aweil East||Vanyjok||Aweil East|
|Gogrial||Kwajok||Gogrial East, Gogrial West|
|Tonj||Tonj||Tonj North, Tonj East, Tonj South|
|Eastern Lakes||Yirol||Yirol West, Yirol East, Awerial|
|Western Lakes||Rumbek||Rumbek East, Rumbek North, Rumbek Center, Wulu|
|Northern Liech||Bentiu||Rubkona, Guit, Koch, Mayem|
|Southern Liech||Empty||Leer, Mayendit, Panyijar|
|Ruweng||Panrieng||Panrieng, Abiemnon c|
|Eastern Nile||Malacal||Malakal, Renk, Maban, Melut, Baliet, Akoka, Pigi, Kama|
|Jonglei||boron||Bor, Duk, Twic East|
|Western Nile||Kodok||Panyikang, Kodok, Manyo|
|Western Bieh||Ayod||Fangak, Ayod|
|Eastern Bieh||Akobo||Akobo, Nyirol, Urol|
|Latjoor||Nasir||Nasir, Ulang, Maiwut, Longuchuk|
Further reclassification in 2017
On January 15, 2017, it was announced on state radio that President Salva Kiir Mayardit had ordered the formation of four more states. The new states Northern Upper Nile with capital Renk and Central Upper Nile with capital Malakal were separated from the state of Eastern Nile . The new state Maiwut with capital Maiwut was formed from parts of the state of Latjoor and the state of Tumbura (capital Tumbura) was separated from the state of Gbudwe. The reactions in the internet media were almost unanimously negative. Instead of constantly creating new states that only served his power calculation, the president should concentrate better on the country's actual problems.
Economy and Infrastructure
As a result of the war, poverty and hunger are widespread among the population. Agriculture, especially cattle breeding and millet cultivation, has been affected and the care of refugees returning from neighboring countries and other parts of the country is a problem.
South Sudan is rich in mineral resources , especially oil , but also gold , diamonds , silver , iron ore , copper , chrome ore , zinc , tungsten , mica and limestone . Even before its independence in 2011, the autonomous government shared in the profits from this. A study by the World Bank came to the conclusion that participation in the oil revenues that accrued to the autonomous government would be sufficient to fight poverty and improve the living conditions of the population. The autonomous government announced that it would primarily use the proceeds for the development of agriculture and infrastructure. However, South Sudan is still (as of 2020) heavily dependent on imports. The possibilities for storing and processing your own agricultural products are limited. Corruption is seen as a major obstacle to development.
After independence, South Sudan has around 80 percent of the known oil reserves of all of Sudan. However, the country does not have its own access to the sea and will therefore remain dependent on exporting the oil via Sudan for the time being. Disputes arose over the extent to which the south should pay for the use of the pipelines or share the income with the north. After Sudan had diverted oil due to a lack of agreement in order to collect the "fee" in this way, South Sudan stopped production in January 2012 for the time being. Up until then, 98 percent of the South Sudanese budget was financed by income from the oil business. On April 6, 2013, South Sudan restarted its oil production and export through the pipelines in Sudan.
In March 2012, work began on a pipeline and transport links from South Sudan via Ethiopia to the Kenyan port of Lamu , through which the South Sudanese oil will be exported in the future. At the mediation of the African Union, the conflicting parties reached an agreement at the beginning of August 2012 on the transit fees for the export of South Sudanese oil through Sudan. The ongoing border disputes between the two countries remained unsolved for the time being, despite the agreement.
At the beginning of March 2013, South Sudan and Ethiopia announced that they would jointly build a road from the oil fields in South Sudan through Ethiopia to Djibouti . The oil is then transported to Djibouti by tanker truck, from where it can be loaded onto oil tankers and exported.
While production in South Sudan before independence was over 300,000 and in 2014 it was still around 150,000 barrels per day, due to the civil war in 2017 it was just over 100,000. In addition, the viscous oil from the Muglad region has to be heated during transport, which cannot be achieved logistically. Around half of the proceeds go to Sudan as a transit fee, and a large part of the remaining funds go to the Chinese producers.
The state budget included expenditures in 2009 of the equivalent of 1.8 billion US dollars , which were income equivalent to 1.8 billion US dollar against.
After the secession of South Sudan, the north initially took over the entire national debt of the entire state, an agreement on a possible division of the liabilities is still pending.
The infrastructure is sparse and in poor condition. For a long time, the only year-round usable traffic connection from the south to the north was the irregular ship traffic on the White Nile from Juba via Malakal to Kosti . The railway connection from the north to Wau was fully reopened in 2010. The water supply is precarious even in the capital and is largely carried out by tank trucks; there is no public power supply.
The plans to build a railway network in South Sudan and to connect it with the existing railway networks in Kenya and Uganda have not been substantiated by 2020.
There are airports in Juba , Malakal and Wau, and there are easy landing strips in many district towns.
The entire road network covered around 7,000 km in 2012. The road network is being expanded, initially primarily for oil transport with tankers. The roads will run from the oil fields in the north of the country to the Ethiopian border.
In Reporters Without Borders' 2017 press freedom ranking, South Sudan ranks 145th out of 180 countries. As Reporters Without Borders reported, there are repeated threats and attacks, charges and attempts at intimidation against independent journalists, especially by state security forces. In addition, there is little tolerance for criticism of the government and authorities.
A journalist was killed in South Sudan in 2017. According to the Reporters Without Borders report, the victim's death is directly related to journalistic activity.
The most important media are:
- Television: South Sudan State TV
- Radio: South Sudan State Radio, Radio Miraya (sponsor: United Nations , Hirondelle Foundation), Radio Bakhita (sponsor: Catholic Church ), Radio 98.6 SRS FM (supported by USA / Switzerland)
- Newspapers: The Citizen, Juba Post, New Nation
In 2016, 17.1% of the population had access to the Internet.
- Soccer: South Sudan Football Association
- Chess: South Sudanese Chess Federation
- Bona Malwal: Sudan and South Sudan: From One to Two. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke & New York 2015, ISBN 978-1-137-43713-6 . ( Reviewed in: African Arguments, Apr. 20, 2015 )
- Matthew Arnold, Matthew LeRiche (Eds.): South Sudan: From Revolution to Independence. Oxford University Press, Oxford 2013, ISBN 978-0-19-933340-0 .
- Henneberg, Ingo (2013): The Political System of South Sudan. In: Constitution and Law Overseas. Vol. 2, 2013. pp. 174-196. DOI: 10.5771 / 0506-7286-2013-2-174 . Political system graphic: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305220861_The_Political_System_of_South_Sudan_2011_p_196
- Roman Deckert, Tobias Simon: After the division: State of alarm between Sudan and South Sudan . In: inamo , No. 67, September 2011.
- Wolfram Lacher: State building in South Sudan: framework conditions, prospects for success and limits of international state building . SWP Study 2011 / S 19, August 2011 (PDF; 562 K; 575 kB).
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- Melha Rout Biel: Southern Sudan after the Comprehensive Peace Agreement . Tobias Netzbandt Verlag, Jena 2007, ISBN 978-3-937884-01-1 (with details of the constitution, members of the government and a current introduction).
- Thilo Thielke: War in the land of the Mahdi. Darfur and the disintegration of Sudan. Magnus Verlag, Essen 2006, ISBN 3-88400-505-7 .
- Øystein H. Rolandsen: Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan During the 1990s. Nordic Africa Institute , Uppsala 2005, ISBN 978-91-7106-537-7 (English).
- Melha Rout Biel (ed.): The Sudan between war and peace. Tectum Verlag, Marburg 2003, ISBN 3-8288-8592-6 .
- Douglas H. Johnson: The Root Causes of Sudan's Civil Wars , James Currey Publishers, 2003 (African Issues), ISBN 978-0-85255-392-3 .
- Mohamed Omer Beshir The Southern Sudan. Background to Conflict , C. Hurst & Co., London 1968.
- Database of indexed literature on the social, political and economic situation in South Sudan
- Gurtong Peace Project with information on South Sudan
- Mareike Schomerus, Tim Allen et al .: Southern Sudan at odds with itself. Dynamics of conflict and predicaments of peace (PDF; 5.7 MB). LSE and Destin, April 2010 (English).
- Roman Deckert, Tobias Simon: Violence in Jonglei: Why the fighting in South Sudan is not a “tribal war” . In: zenith - magazine for the Orient , September 2011.
- Country information from the Federal Foreign Office on South Sudan
- ^ The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011; according to Article 6 (accessed on July 9, 2011; PDF; 873 kB)
- ↑ South Sudan relocates its capital from Juba to Ramciel. In: Sudan Tribune. September 3, 2011.
- ↑ a b c World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations. Retrieved January 21, 2018 .
- ^ South Sudan. The World Factbook, CIA
- ↑  of the International Monetary Fund .
- ↑ Table: Human Development Index and its components . In: United Nations Development Program (ed.): Human Development Report 2020 . United Nations Development Program, New York 2020, ISBN 978-92-1126442-5 , pp. 346 (English, undp.org [PDF]).
- ^ South Sudan secures internet country domain. In: Sudan Tribune. August 11, 2011.
- ↑ South Sudan gets 211 dialing code. In: news24.com. Retrieved July 12, 2016 .
- ↑ Art. 1 of the transitional constitution (PDF; 873 kB)
- ↑ Standard country or area codes for statistical use (M49). United Nations - Department of Economic and Social Affairs - Statistics Division, accessed January 15, 2021 (English, see "Geographic Regions").
- ↑ a b The world has a new state - South Sudan is officially independent , in: Neue Zürcher Zeitung of July 9, 2011. Accessed on July 9, 2011.
- ↑ https://www.nzz.ch/international/nahost-und-afrika/suedsudan-als-failed-state-von-anfang-an-gescheitert-ld.104707
- ↑ a b South Sudan. The country information portal, May 2017, accessed on October 14, 2017 .
- ^ Sergio Peçanha: The Tough Task of Defining Sudan's North-South Border , in: New York Times, January 15, 2011.
- ↑ More than a Line: Sudan's North-South Border , Concordis International Sudan Report, September 2010 (PDF; 2.6 MB).
- ^ Sudan: Defining the North-South Border ( Memento of August 6, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), International Crisis Group, September 2010.
- ↑ a b c South Sudan. Federal Foreign Office , accessed on July 12, 2016 .
- ^ South Sudan National Bureau Of Statistics 2010 , accessed May 13, 2013
- ↑ Isaac Vuni: South Sudan parliament throw outs census results. In: Sudan Tribune. July 7, 2009.
- ↑ Maggie Fick: S. Sudan Census Bureau Releases Official Results Amidst Ongoing Census Controversy , In: enough Project , June 8, 2009.
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- ^ The Transitional Constitution of the Republic of South Sudan, 2011 . Government of South Sudan. Retrieved February 4, 2017. Part One, Page 3, 6 (1)
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- ↑ Dominic Johnson : South Sudan votes for independence , in: taz.de, January 21, 2011.
- ^ Clear the way for independence , in: Domradio, January 25, 2011.
- ↑ Simone Schlindwein: Result better than in socialism. In: taz.de , January 30, 2011.
- ↑ a b Jane Kani Edward: Conflict, customary law, gender, and women's rights. In: Amir Idris (ed.): South Sudan. Post-independence dilemmas. Routledge London, New York, 2018, ISBN 978-1-138-06063-0 , pp. 57-73, p. 60.
- ↑ Jane Kani Edward: Conflict, customary law, gender, and women's rights. In: Amir Idris (ed.): South Sudan. Post-independence dilemmas. Routledge London, New York, 2018, ISBN 978-1-138-06063-0 , pp. 57-73, p. 57.
- ^ North and South Sudan disengage institutions to form two independent states. In: Sudan Tribune. March 8, 2011.
- ↑ Khartoum opens embassy in Juba as South Sudan approaches separation. In: Sudan Tribune. March 20, 2011.
- ↑ Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung : North and South Sudan agree on withdrawal , June 21, 2011.
- ^ Ingrid Thurner: Tribal War in South Sudan? in: Die Presse , January 3, 2011
- ↑ Attempted coup and heavy fighting in South Sudan in: welt.de, December 16, 2013
- ^ Fear of a new civil war in South Sudan in: tagesanzeiger.ch, December 18, 2013
- ↑ Back to the Civil War in: taz.de, December 16, 2013
- ↑ Up to 500 deaths in South Sudan in: zeit.de, December 18, 2013
- ^ OCHA : South Sudan crisis Situation Report as of 26 December 2013 Report number 4 - 26 December 2013
- ↑ merkur.de : Crisis in South Sudan , December 19, 2013
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- ↑ Further deaths in the fight for posts in Akobo in: tagesspiegel.de, December 21, 2013
- ↑ United Nations Mission in South Sudan - PRESS RELEASE December 22, 2013 ( Memento of December 24, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), UNMISS (PDF file; 262 kB)
- ↑ South Sudan: UN has evidence of war crimes in: Spiegel Online, December 24, 2013.
- ↑ South Sudan: UN mission denies finding of mass graves in: Spiegel Online, December 25, 2013.
- ^ South Sudan army recaptures key town of Bor in: BBC News, December 24, 2013.
- ^ Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung : Government and rebels agree peace talks , December 31, 2013.
- ↑ Cessez-le-feu au Soudan du Sud. In: lemonde.fr. January 23, 2014, accessed July 12, 2016 (French).
- ↑ Dominic Johnson: Fighting in South Sudan: Civil War enters the second round. In: taz.de. February 20, 2014, accessed July 12, 2016 .
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- ↑ Justin Lynch: “UN expert warns of South Sudan 'population engineering'” Washington Post, March 14, 2017
- ↑ Federal Foreign Office: Support for South Sudan. Retrieved February 12, 2021 .
- ^ Fragile States Index: Global Data. Fund for Peace , 2020, accessed January 15, 2021 .
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- ^ Transparency International (Ed.): Corruption Perceptions Index . Transparency International, Berlin 2020, ISBN 978-3-96076-134-1 (English, transparencycdn.org [PDF]).
- ↑ Henneberg, Ingo (2013): The Political System of South Sudan. In: Constitution and Law Overseas - Law and Politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America. Vol. 2, 2013. pp. 174-196. DOI: 10.5771 / 0506-7286-2013-2-174 . P. 195.
- ↑ Johannes Dieterich: South Sudan - Pictures of a State Ruin In: Stuttgarter Nachrichten , April 6, 2018.
- ^ A b c > Øystein H. Rolandsen: Another civil war in South Sudan: the failure of Guerrilla Government ?. In: Journal of Eastern African Studies. 9, 2014, p. 163, doi : 10.1080 / 17531055.2014.993210 .
- ^ UN welcomes South Sudan as 193rd Member State , in: UN News Center, July 14, 2011.
- ^ African Union Welcomes South Sudan as the 54th Member State of the Union ( Memento from August 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), AU media release, July 28, 2011.
- ↑ UN calls on Sudan and South Sudan to end the violence. In: nzz.ch. Neue Zürcher Zeitung, accessed on July 12, 2016 .
- ↑ South Sudan and Sudan settle their oil dispute. In: Welt Online. August 5, 2012, accessed July 12, 2016 .
- ^ War in South Sudan: Khartoum and Juba are considering joint units. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. January 6, 2014, accessed July 12, 2016 .
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- ↑ Central Bureau of Statistics / Southern Sudan Center for Census Statistics and Evaluation: 5th Sudan Population and Housing Census - 2008 ( Memento from May 20, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 425 kB), Table: T02
- ^ Establishment or for the Creation of 28 States. (PDF) Sudan Tribune, October 2, 2015, accessed April 30, 2017 .
- ↑ The presidential decree contains a typo here and is therefore not clear.
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- ^ South Sudan rules out sharing oil revenue with North. In: Sudan Tribune. February 16, 2011.
- ^ South Sudan Shuts Off Oil in Dispute With Sudan , in: New York Times, January 23, 2012
- ^ Analysis: South Sudan's economy to be vulnerable after split , Reuters, January 6, 2011.
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- ↑ Lamu port project launched for South Sudan and Ethiopia , in: BBC News, March 2, 2012
- ↑ swissinfo : Sudan and South Sudan come to an agreement in the oil dispute , August 4, 2012.
- ^ South Sudan to export crude oil by road through Ethiopia
- ↑ Bernd Schröder: Petroleum - New approach in South Sudan. In: Telepolis , February 3, 2019 on heise.de.
- ↑ National Bureau of Statistics (ed.): South Sudan Statistical Yearbook 2011. National Bureau of Statistics, Juba 2011, OCLC 858577087
- ↑ International Debt. In: Sudan Tribune .
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- ^ The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved August 17, 2018 .
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- ↑ Internet Users by Country (2016) - Internet Live Stats. Retrieved April 4, 2018 .
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