Angola


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Portuguese República de Angola
Kimbundu, Umbundu and Kikongo:
Repubilika ya Ngola
Republic of Angola
Flag of Angola
Angola's coat of arms
flag coat of arms
Motto : Virtus Unita Fortior
( lat. "United bravery is stronger")
Official language Portuguese , official languages ​​(língua nacional) as well as Umbundu , Kimbundu , Kikongo , TuChokwe , Ngangela , Oshivambo
Capital Luanda
Form of government republic
Government system Presidential system
Head of state , also head of government President
João Lourenço
surface 1,246,700 km²
population 25,789,024 (2014 census)
Population density 21 inhabitants per km²
Population development   + 3.49% per year
gross domestic product
  • Total (nominal)
  • Total ( PPP )
  • GDP / inh. (nominal)
  • GDP / inh. (KKP)
2018
  • $ 105.9 billion ( 63rd )
  • $ 200.4 billion ( 65th )
  • 3,621 USD ( 123. )
  • 6,851 USD ( 133. )
Human Development Index   0.581 ( 147th ) (2017)
currency Kwanza (AOA)
Namibia Dollar (NAD) (only in Santa Clara )
independence November 11, 1975
(from Portugal )
National anthem Angola Avante
National holiday November 11th (Independence Day)
Time zone UTC + 1 (WAT)
License Plate ANG
ISO 3166 AO , AGO, 024
Internet TLD .ao
Telephone code +244
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Angola ( German [ aŋˈgoːla ], Portuguese [ ɐŋˈgɔlɐ ]; called "Ngola" in Kimbundu , Umbundu and Kikongo ) is a state in southwestern Africa . The national holiday is November 11th, the anniversary of independence in 1975. Angola borders on Namibia , Zambia , the Republic of the Congo , the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Atlantic Ocean - the Angola exclave Cabinda is located in the north between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo on the Atlantic Ocean .

The name Angola derives from the title Ngola the kings of Ndongo from, one east of Luanda situated vassal state of the historic Congo Empire . The region around Luanda received this name in the 16th century from the first Portuguese seafarers who landed on the local coast and erected a padrão , a stone cross as a sign of possession for the Portuguese king. The designation was the end of the 17th century in the region around Benguela expanded in the 19th century then the time not yet circumscribed territory whose colonial occupation to Portugal undertook.

geography

Geographical location

The Republic of Angola is between 4 ° 22 'and 18 ° 02' south latitude and 11 ° 41 'and 24 ° 05' east longitude. The country is roughly divided into a narrow depression along the Atlantic coast, which rises to the east, inland, to the highlands of Bié : It makes up most of Angola, is flat in the south and mountainous in the center of the country. The highest mountain is the Môco in this highland with 2619 m above sea level. The Zambezi River flows through the east of Angola .

climate

Angola is divided into three climate zones:

It is tropical on the coast and in the north of the country, which means there are high daytime temperatures between 25 and 30 ° C all year round, and it is only slightly cooler at night. November to April is the rainy season. The climate is strongly influenced by the cool Benguela Current (17–26 ° C), so fog is common. The average amount of precipitation is 500 mm, in the south hardly 100 mm annually.

The highlands in the center and south of the country are temperate-tropical, there are significant temperature differences between day and night, especially in winter. In Huambo , for example, the temperatures in July are between 25 ° C during the day and 7–8 ° C at night, plus enormous drought. Similar to the coast, the rainy season is from October to April. An average of around 1000 mm of rain falls per year.

In the south-east of the country it is mostly hot and dry with cool nights in winter or heat and occasional rainfall in summer. The annual precipitation fluctuates around 250 mm.

Hydrology

The climatic zones of Angola with the main catchment areas (dotted lines)

The highlands of Bié form the country's “ water tower ”. From there, Angola is divided into 5 main catchment areas. The two largest are those of the Congo and the Zambezi. Together they drain over 40% of the country's area. The areas that run off over the Okavango are around 12%. Thus, a good half of the country drains out of the country via very large catchment areas. In addition, there is the Cuanza , also with around 12%, and the Cunene with just under 8%. The Cuvelai-Etosha catchment area, which drains to the south, should also be mentioned. The remaining 20% ​​of the country are coastal rivers . The water resources in southern Angola are of great importance to the neighboring countries of Botswana and Namibia. Therefore, in 1994 they jointly founded the Permanent Okavango River Basin Water Commission .

Flora and fauna

The black stones of Pungo Andongo in Malange
The Kalandula Falls

Due to the climate, the vegetation ranges from tropical rainforest in the north and in Cabinda to tree savannas in the center to dry grass savannah, which is interspersed with euphorbias (milkweed family), acacias and baobabs . Starting from Namibia, a strip of desert stretches along the southwest coast. Angola's fauna is rich in wildlife, including elephants , hippos , cheetahs , wildebeest , crocodiles , ostriches , rhinos and zebras . The expansion of agriculture but also the destruction caused by the civil wars and the trade in ivory endanger the survival of many species.

In Angola there are 13 nature reserves (national parks and nature reserves) with a total area of ​​162,642 km², which make up 12.6% of the national territory.

See also: National parks in Angola

history

Queen Nzinga of Matamba negotiates with Portuguese colonial rulers

The first inhabitants of what is now Angola were Khoisan , who were largely ousted by Bantu ethnic groups from the 13th century onwards. In 1483 the establishment of Portuguese trading posts began on the coast, especially in Luanda and its hinterland, and a century later in Benguela . It was not until the beginning of the 19th century that the systematic conquest and occupation of today's territory began, which was not completed until the mid-1920s.

From the mid-1920s to the early 1960s, Angola was subject to a "classic" colonial system. The colonial power Portugal was ruled by a military dictatorship from 1926 until the Carnation Revolution in 1974 ( Carmona until 1932 , Salazar until 1968 , Caetano until 1974 ).

Up until the end of the colonial period, Angola's most important economic basis was agriculture and cattle breeding, which took place both on the large farms of European settlers and on the family farms of the Africans. The mining of diamonds was of central importance to the colonial state. Another important component was trade. Modest industrialization and development of the service sector did not occur until the late colonial phase, i.e. in the 1960s and 1970s. In the 1950s, oil deposits were located on the mainland, and in the 1960s in the sea off Cabinda, but it was not until the end of the colonial period that major production began.

In the 1950s, nationalist resistance began to form, which culminated in an armed liberation struggle in 1961 (1960 - in the " Africa year " - 18 colonies in Africa (14 French , two British , one Belgian and Italian ) were independent from their own Colonial powers acquired; see also decolonization of Africa ).

As a result, from 1962 Portugal carried out far-reaching reforms and introduced a late colonial phase that created a qualitatively new situation in Angola, but did not bring the war of independence to a standstill. The war of independence came to an abrupt end when, on April 25, 1974, a military coup in Portugal triggered the Carnation Revolution and the collapse of the dictatorship there, and the new democratic regime immediately began to decolonize.

The coup in Portugal sparked armed clashes in Angola between the liberation movements FNLA , MPLA and UNITA , whose ethnic roots differed widely in the country. The USA, Zaire (since 1997 " Democratic Republic of the Congo ") and South Africa (still under the apartheid regime) intervened on the side of the FNLA and UNITA, the Soviet Union and Cuba on the side of the MPLA. The latter retained the upper hand and proclaimed independence in Luanda in 1975, at the same time as FNLA and UNITA in Huambo .

The "counter-government" of FNLA and UNITA dissolved quickly, but immediately after the declaration of independence, a civil war broke out between the three movements, from which the FNLA left after a short time, while UNITA held it until the death of its leader Jonas Savimbi in 2002 continued. At the same time, the MPLA established a political and economic regime that was modeled on that of the then socialist countries. Cuba’s civil development aid during this period was remarkable.

This regime was abandoned in 1990/91 during a break in the civil war in favor of a multi-party system. In 1992 elections took place in which UNITA also took part. The MPLA achieved an absolute majority in parliament, while its presidential candidate, José Eduardo dos Santos , only received a relative majority and, according to the constitution, a second ballot (against Jonas Savimbi) would have been necessary.

The result was a bizarre situation that lasted until 2002. On the one hand, representatives of UNITA and the FNLA took part in parliament and even the government; on the other hand, UNITA's military arm resumed armed struggle immediately after the election. The political system developed into an authoritarian presidential democracy, while in the country destruction z. T. of considerable extent.

After Jonas Savimbi was discovered and shot by the army in the east of the country in 2002, UNITA immediately stopped the fight. She dissolved her military arm, which was partly taken over into the Angolan army. Under a new chairman, Isaias Samakuva, it has taken on the role of a normal opposition party. In 2008 there were renewed parliamentary elections, in which the MPLA received just over 80% of the votes and UNITA and FNLA hardly received any numerical weight.

Meanwhile, the reconstruction of the destroyed cities, villages and infrastructures is underway; In many places there is a build-up that goes well beyond the state at the end of the colonial era. Thanks to oil production and the high oil price , there is enough foreign currency for this .

A new constitution passed in January 2010 strengthens the position of the MPLA and especially of the state president to an extent that justifies speaking of a strongly authoritarian presidential system.

population

Population of Angola
year Residents
1940 3,738,010
1950 4,145,266
1960 4,840,719
1970 5,620,001
2014 25,789,024
Population development in millions of inhabitants
Age pyramid in 1000 inhabitants (2017)

Since the “Recenseamento Geral da População e Habitação” census in 2014, reliable data has been available for the first time on the population of Angola. Accordingly, the population was 24.4 million. 52% are female. The United Nations, on the other hand, estimate the population at 26.9 million in 2014. In 2017 the United Nations estimated the population at 29.8 million. Other sources estimate the population for 2017 to be 29.3 million or 24.3 million. Angola's population is one of the fastest growing in the world. In 2018 the population growth was 3.49% and the fertility per woman was 6.09 children. The average age of the population was 15.9 years. According to the UN's mean population forecast, a population of over 76 million is expected for 2050 and over 172 million for 2100.

An acute demographic problem, with unforeseeable economic, social and political consequences, has arisen in Angola from the state of war that has dragged on for over four decades. Around 2000, a significant part of the rural population had fled to the cities, to impassable areas (mountains, forests, marshland) or to neighboring countries (Namibia, Botswana, Zambia, Congo-Kinshasa, Congo-Brazzaville). Contrary to all expectations, there was no massive return flow after the peace agreement. Although part of the population has returned to their places of origin, - as the surveys of recent years show - on balance, the inland has even continued to lose population. This is not least due to the fact that the economy - with the exception of agriculture and diamond mining - is predominantly concentrated on the coastal strip. However, the 2014 census revealed that the decline in the rural population was less drastic than feared, despite generally poor living conditions: it makes up just over 60% of the total population.

Ethnic groups

Map of the ethnic groups in Angola, 1970
A “Quimbo”, a typical village along the Luanda-Uíge highway, October 2008

Most of the Angolans are Bantu and belong to three ethnic groups: more than a third are Ovimbundu , resident in the central highlands, the adjacent coastal strip and now also strongly present in all larger cities outside of this area; almost a quarter are Ambundu (language: Kimbundu ), which predominate in a wide area from Luanda to Malanje; after all, 10 to 15% belong to the Bakongo , a people who are settled in the west of the Congo-Brazzaville and the Democratic Republic of the Congo as well as in the north-west of Angola and now also represent a strong minority in Luanda.

Numerically smaller ethnic groups are the Ganguela , actually a conglomerate of smaller groups from Eastern Angola , then Nyaneka-Nkhumbi in the southwest, who are mostly shepherd farmers, the Ovambo (Ambo) and Herero Southern Angolas ( with relatives in Namibia) and the Tshokwe (including the Lunda ) northeastern Angola (and southern DR Congo and northwestern Zambia), which have migrated south in small groups over the past century. Some small groups in the extreme southwest are known as Xindonga . Finally, there are residual groups of the Khoisan ( San ) who live scattered in southern Angola and do not belong to the Bantu.

About 2% of the population are mestiços , i.e. mixed race of Africans and Europeans. With 320,000 to 350,000 people at the end of the colonial period, the Portuguese were the largest ethnic group in the country of European descent. More than half of them were born in the country, not infrequently in the second or third generation, and felt that they belonged to Angola more than Portugal. The others had immigrated in the late colonial phase or were transferred to there as employees / officials of state institutions (including the military). Most Portuguese fled to Portugal, Brazil or South Africa shortly before or after Angola's declaration of independence in late 1975, but their number has now grown back to around 170,000, possibly adding 100,000 other Europeans and Latin and North Americans. In addition to the Europeans, there is now a large group of Chinese, estimated at around 300,000 people, who came and are coming to Africa in the course of a wave of immigration. In 2017, 2.1% of the population were born abroad.

Up to 1974/75 about 130 German families ( Angola-Germans ) lived as farmers or entrepreneurs in the country, especially in the regions around Huambo and Benguela ; In the city of Benguela there was even a German school at the time. Almost all of them have since left the country.

In contrast to other (African and non-African) countries, the ethnic differences in Angola were only moderately socially explosive. When Bakongo, who had fled to the Congo-Kinshasa in the 1970s, settled in Luanda in large numbers on their return, this led to mutual "alienation" between them and the local Ambundu, but not to massive or even violent ones Conflicts. When Ambundu and Ovimbundu faced each other during the civil war, the conflict also took on ethnic overtones at its height; since there was peace, these have clearly subsided. Such demarcations can come into play again in conflicts of all kinds. In addition, the problem of racial relations between blacks, mixed race and whites is by no means over, especially since it is manipulated by politics and in turn determines politics.

languages

Almost all of the languages ​​spoken in Angola belong to the Bantu language family . Portuguese is the official language in Angola. It is spoken at home by 85% of the urban population and 49% of the rural population. Of all African countries, Angola has probably adopted the language of the former colonial power the most. Among the African languages ​​of Angola the most widespread are the Umbundu , which is spoken by 23% of the population, especially the Ovimbundu ethnic group , the Kikongo (8.24%) of the Bakongo , the Kimbundu (7.82%) of the Ambundu and the Chokwe (6.54%) of the Chokwe. Other languages ​​are Ngangela , Oshivambo ( Kwanyama , Ndonga ), Mwila , Nkhumbi , Otjiherero and the Lingala, introduced in the 20th century by returnees from Zaire . A total of around 40 different languages ​​/ dialects are spoken in Angola (depending on the classification criteria).

Religions

Pilgrimage church "Nossa Senhora da Conceição" from the 16th century on the Rio Kwanza, November 2009

There are almost 1,000 religious communities in Angola. According to the 2014 census, the Protestant churches , which were often founded during the colonial era, belong to 38.1% of the population, while 41.1% of the population are supporters of the Roman Catholic Church . 12.3% of the population do not belong to any religious community.

Methodists are particularly represented in the area from Luanda to Malanje, Baptists in the northwest and Luanda. In Central Angola and the neighboring coastal cities, the Igreja Evangélica Congregacional de Angola (Evangelical Congregational Church of Angola) is particularly represented. Various smaller communities also originate from the colonial period, such as Lutherans (e.g. in southern Angola) and Reformed (especially in Luanda). In addition, there are Adventists , New Apostolic Christians and (not least due to influences from Brazil) since independence, a variety of Pentecostal-charismatic free churches and Jehovah's Witnesses . The new communities, including, for example, the “ Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus ” (IURD, United Church of the Kingdom of God) organized as a commercial enterprise, which arose in Brazil and from there spread to the other Portuguese-speaking countries, are particularly in the larger ones Cities and some of them have a considerable number of visitors.

Due to influences from South Africa and Namibia, a small offshoot of the Anglican Church of Southern Africa was formed in the 2000s . After all, there are two Christian syncretistic communities, the Kimbangists, rooted in the DR Congo, and the Tokoists, who emerged in colonial Angola .

Only a tiny fraction of the population still adheres exclusively to traditional religions , but it is not uncommon for Christians to find fragments of ideas that stem from these religions.

According to the 2014 census, the proportion of Muslims (almost all Sunni ) is only 0.4 percent. It is made up of immigrants from different, mostly African countries, who due to their diversity do not form a community. Saudi Arabia tried to spread Islam in Angola. In 2010 it announced that it would finance the establishment of an Islamic university in Luanda. In November 2013, however, Islam and numerous other organizations were refused recognition as a religious community because they were incompatible with Christianity. In addition, buildings that were erected without a building permit were earmarked for demolition. More than 60 mosques in the country have been closed.

The Catholic Church, the traditional Protestant churches and some free churches maintain social institutions that are designed to compensate for shortcomings in social or state provision. The Catholic Church and the traditional Protestant Churches occasionally speak out on political issues and receive different hearings.

Social

Angolan children in a village

health care

From a European perspective, the food and health situation of the Angolan population is largely catastrophic. Only around 30% of the population have access to basic medical care and only 40% have access to sufficiently clean drinking water . Thousands of people die every year from diarrhea or respiratory infections. In addition, malaria , meningitis , tuberculosis and diseases caused by worm infestation are common. According to UNAIDS estimates, the infection rate with HIV is 2% and therefore very low for the region. The reason given for this is the country's isolation during the civil war.

Around a third of the population is partially or completely dependent on foreign food aid . In 2015, 14.0% of the population was malnourished. In 2000 it was 50.0% of the population.

Development of child mortality (deaths per 1000 births)

The under-five mortality rate is the second highest in the world; statistically, one child dies every three minutes in Angola. Due to the lack of medical care, the number of women who die during childbirth is also extremely high. The average life expectancy at birth is given as 60.2 years (women: 63.0 years, men: 57.4 years). Leprosy remains a major concern for health officials in the country in Angola. In 2010, a total of 1048 cases of this chronic infectious disease were recorded.

Development of life expectancy
Development of life expectancy
Period Life expectancy in
years
Period Life expectancy in
years
1950-1955 31.4 1985-1990 41.5
1955-1960 32.5 1990-1995 42.2
1960-1965 34.1 1995-2000 44.7
1965-1970 36.0 2000-2005 50.0
1970-1975 38.1 2005-2010 55.6
1975-1980 40.0 2010-2015 60.2
1980-1985 40.9 2015-2020 61.8

Education

School class in Kuito

During the colonial period, education was neglected until the last decade and was always an instrument of colonial policy. After independence, a systematic new beginning began, in which cooperation with Cuba played an important role. The civil war hampered these efforts and led to a blatant teacher shortage, especially in rural areas. However, the development of a new education system continued overall, especially in the cities, where gradually half of the population was concentrated. Since the peace in 2002, great efforts have been and are being made to improve the situation and to remedy the enormous deficits. At the same time, school reform began in Angola with the aim of making the content of the school more relevant to the children and achieving better results.

In Angola, fewer than two-thirds of school-age children go to school. In elementary schools , 54% of children repeat one or more classes. When the children reach the fifth grade, only 6% of the children in their age group go to school. This also has to do with the fact that a valid identity card has to be presented for promotion to higher classes, which many do not have. This high school dropout rate corresponds to the lack of fifth and sixth grade schools. The literacy rate of the adult population was 71.1% in 2015 (women: 60.2%, men: 82.0%)

Of the population> 18 years of age, 47.9% have no school leaving certificate, 19.9% ​​have a primary school certificate, 17.1% have a middle school leaving certificate (I ciclo do ensino secundário), 13.2% have a secondary school certificate (II ciclo do ensino secundário) and 2.0% have a university degree. For 18–24 year-olds, the rates are 25% (no school leaving certificate), 34% (primary school leaving certificate), 29% (middle school leaving certificate), 13% (secondary school leaving certificate) and 0% (university leaving certificate). The proportion of people> 24 years of age with a university degree varies greatly from province to province. Luanda (5.4%) and Cabinda (3.8%) have the highest proportion, and Cunene (0.6%) and Bié (0.5%) have the lowest .

In cooperation with the Angolan Ministry of Education, the aid organization Ajuda de desenvolvimento de Povo para Povo em Angola operates seven teacher training centers in Huambo , Caxito , Cabinda , Benguela , Luanda , Zaire and Bié , the so-called Escolas dos Professores do Futuro , of which there will be more until the end of 2006 than 1,000 teachers have been trained for use in rural areas. By 2015 eight more of these teacher training centers are to be set up and 8,000 teachers trained.

The higher education system consisted of the state Universidade Agostinho Neto until the late 1990s , whose approximately 40 faculties were scattered across the country and were generally in poor condition. In addition, there was only the Universidade Católica de Angola (UCAN) in Luanda.

There are now a growing number of private universities, especially in Luanda. These include the Universidade Lusíada de Angola , the Universidade Lusófona de Angola and the Universidade Jean Piaget de Angola , all of which are closely associated with the universities of the same name in Portugal. The Angola Business School was also established with the support of a Lisbon university .

Purely Angolan initiatives are the Universidade Privada de Angola , the Universidade Metodista de Angola , the Universidade Metropolitana de Angola , the Universidade Independente de Angola , the Universidade Técnica de Angola, the Universidade Gregório Semedo , the Universidade Óscar Ribas , the Universidade de Belas , and that Instituto Superior de Ciências Sociais e Relações Internacionais .

All of these universities are located in Luanda, although some have offices in other cities called “pólos”, such as the Universidade Privada de Angola in Lubango , the Universidade Lusófona de Angola in Huambo and the Universidade Jean Piaget in Benguela . In the interests of decentralizing the higher education system, however, it was crucial that in 2008/2009 six regional universities, each with their own name, were spun off from the Universidade Agostinho Neto, which took over the existing faculties and mostly founded more, and which within their respective area of ​​responsibility in other cities “pólos “Set up. In Benguela the Universidade Katyavala Bwila was created , in Cabinda the Universidade 11 de Novembro , in Huambo the Universidade José Eduardo dos Santos with “pólo” in Bié , in Lubango the Universidade Mandume ya Ndemufayo (see also Mandume yaNdemufayo ) with “pólo” in Ondjiva , in Malanje with Saurimo and Luena the Universidade Lueij A'Nkonde and in Uíge the Universidade Kimpa Vita .

In most cases, the namesake were African leaders from pre-colonial times or from the time of primary resistance to colonial conquest. All universities are struggling with structural problems. The area of ​​responsibility of the Universidade Agostinho Neto was limited to the provinces of Luanda and Bengo. The qualitative inadequacies of higher education have only been partially overcome by this development. In Luanda, due to the diversity of universities, some of them are struggling with decreasing demand.

politics

Political conditions

José Eduardo dos Santos , chairman of the MPLA and from 1979 to 2017 President of the Republic of Angola (photo from 2014)

In the 2017 country report Freedom in the World by the US non-governmental organization Freedom House , the country's political system was rated as “not free”. In the “political rights” category, Angola received a grade of 6, and for the protection of civil rights, it also received a grade of 6 (grade 1 is the best and 7 is the worst). Angola is not one of the electoral democracies. In the 2019 democracy index of the British magazine The Economist, Angola ranks 119th out of 167 countries and is considered an "authoritarian regime".

Political power is currently concentrated in the presidency. Until 2017, the executive branch consisted of the long-standing President, José Eduardo dos Santos , who was also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces and head of government, and the Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers, consisting of all government ministers and vice ministers, meets regularly to discuss political issues. The governors of the 18 provinces are appointed by the president and act according to his ideas. The constitutional law of 1992 establishes the essential characteristics of the government structure and specifies the rights and duties of citizens. The legal system, based on Portuguese law and common law, is weak and fragmented. Courts operate in only twelve of the more than 140 city administrations. The Supreme Court serves as an appeal instance. A constitutional court - with the ability to assess impartially - was not appointed until 2010, despite the law providing for it. João Lourenço has been president since 2017 and seems to be clearing up some of his predecessor's corruption, although he is still chairman of the ruling party and Lourenço is his deputy. In December 2019, Isabel dos Santos , the old president's daughter, was frozen in assets, estimated at $ 2.2 billion .

The constitution adopted by parliament in 2010 further tightened the authoritarian features of the political system. It should be emphasized that the presidential election has been abolished and that in future the chairman and vice-chairman of the party that receives the most votes in the parliamentary elections will automatically be President and Vice-President respectively. The President controls all state organs through various mechanisms, including the constitutional court that has now been created; As a result, one cannot speak of a separation of powers. So it is no longer a presidential system, as is the case in the USA or France, but a system that constitutionally falls into the same category as the Caesarist monarchy of Napoleon Bonapartes , the corporate system of António de Oliveira Salazar after the Portuguese Constitution of 1933, the Brazilian military government under the Constitution of 1967/1969, and various authoritarian regimes in contemporary Africa.

The 27-year civil war in Angola has severely damaged the country's political and social institutions. The UN suspects that there were 1.8 million refugees in Angola. Several million people were directly affected by acts of war. Every day the living conditions across the country, especially in Luanda (due to immense rural exodus , the capital has grown to over five million inhabitants), reflected the collapse of the administrative infrastructure and the many social institutions. Hospitals often had no medicines or basic equipment, schools had no books, and civil servants had no equipment to go about their daily work. Massive reconstruction efforts have been made since the end of the civil war in 2002, but traces of it can be found all over the country. The various problems and possibilities of the reconstruction are described in great detail by the Angola Portuguese José Manuel Zenha Rela.

The two most influential unions are:

  • UNTA (União Nacional dos Trabalhadores Angolanos); National Union of Angolan Workers
  • CGSILA (Confederação Geral dos Sindicatos Independentes e Livres de Angola); General Confederation of Free and Independent Trade Unions in Angola

houses of Parliament

National Assembly building

On September 5 and 6, 2008, the Angolans elected a new National Assembly for the first time since the end of the civil war . According to election observers from SADC and the African Union (AU), the election was “generally free and fair”. EU observers pointed to the very good technical and logistical preparation of the elections, the high turnout and the peaceful voting process. However, the chaotic holding of the elections, especially in the capital Luanda, was criticized. In the opinion of international observers, there were no free and equal for all parties for fair elections in the period before the elections. Almost all observers unanimously emphasized that the state media outlets were massively abused for the benefit of the MPLA and that opposition parties outside Luanda did not have free access to electronic media. Angolan civil society speaks of state-funded election gifts from the MPLA and intimidation by their sympathizers.

The MPLA won the election with almost 82% of the votes cast, while UNITA received a little more than 10% of the votes. The largest opposition party initially lodged a complaint against the election, but admitted defeat when it was rejected.

The following parties had seats in parliament after this election:

In 2011/2012, the regime confirmed its intention to hold parliamentary elections again in 2012, thus for the first time respecting the constitutional provision that elections must take place every four years. In addition to the parties represented in parliament, another 67 parties were entitled to run in these elections. José Eduardo dos Santos has repeatedly announced his intention not to run again in these elections, so the question arose of who would be his successor as President.

The elections then took place on August 31, 2012. Contrary to his previous statements, José Eduardo dos Santos was again the top candidate of the MPLA. According to the preliminary results, the MPLA received a little more than 70% of the votes - less than in 2008, but still a very comfortable majority, which not least guaranteed José Eduardo dos Santos to remain in office. UNITA received around 18% and the newly founded CASA (Convergência Ampla de Salvação de Angola) around 6%. No other parties will move into parliament, as none received even 2% of the vote. Noteworthy are the strong differences between the regions, especially with regard to the results of the opposition: it received around 40% in the provinces of Luanda and Cabinda, where the level of politicization is particularly high.

Elections were held again on August 23, 2017. President dos Santos did not run. The MPLA received around 65% of the vote and thus continued to provide the president. UNITA achieved around 27%.

Human rights

President João Lourenço (2018)

In 2008, according to Amnesty International, there were repeated arbitrary arrests of people who had exercised their right to freedom of expression or to freedom of assembly and association. There is no state social security system. Single women face additional difficulties, especially in rural areas. In some communities women are traditionally prohibited from owning and cultivating their own land.

After the 2017 national assembly elections, freedom of expression, press and assembly improved under the new President João Lourenço . The state media report more freely and independently, their management staff, which consisted of high officials of the ruling MPLA party, were exchanged and contracts with media companies belonging to the family of the former president and acting as the party's mouthpiece were terminated. Even during the election campaign, the media reported on the opposition appearances in elections and all parties were given airtime on state television. Freedom of assembly was also largely guaranteed. Since the new president took office, there has been no evidence of the convictions or arrests of journalists critical of the government.

Until well into the 21st century, homosexuality in Angola could be punished by imprisonment or a labor camp under Articles 71 and 72 of the Criminal Code as a "violation of public morality". Not only were these provisions abolished in 2018, but discrimination based on sexual orientation was banned. Employers who refuse to hire people based on their sexual orientation can face imprisonment for up to two years. Same-sex relationships have long been taboo in parts of society.

In an open letter, several human rights groups and personalities from the country called on US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton to address the state of democracy in Angola on her 2009 trip to Africa. “There is a worldwide notion that Angola is making great democratic strides. In reality, people with ideas other than government ideas are being persecuted and arrested. The right to rally does not exist, ”complained David Mendes from the organization“ Associação Mãos Livres ”(Association of Free Hands). China is getting more and more influence in Angola. "And everyone knows that China does not respect human rights," said Mendes. In 2007, Amnesty International sent an open letter to the EU to address the difficult human rights situation in Angola and put it on its agenda.

Observers in the country rate the general living conditions in Angola as potentially violent. The historical course from the violence-oriented action of the former Portuguese state power in the colonial war to the independence of the state in 1975, a subsequent 30-year civil war and extremely insecure social conditions with armed local conflicts up to the present day has caused large parts of the Angolan population to be violent on all sides used in everyday life. In the course of the more recent history of the country, respect for individual human life has been impaired and it is now the everyday experience of many citizens that only the ends would justify the means.

Statements in the media that support executions show that the “physical extinction” of suspected or actual criminals is welcomed among the population. There is little orientation towards constitutional standards, such as the right to life. Populist opinion-forming, also disseminated by and in authorities, use the people's perceived fear of crime to keep Angolan citizens away from the rule of law, to distance themselves from human rights or not to demand their civil rights in everyday life. This development is accompanied by regionally occurring incidents, which lead to attacks and murders among the civilian population, which are not followed by any clarification or criminal consequences for the perpetrators. These everyday experiences contradict the political proclamations of the Angolan government in favor of supposedly guaranteed constitutional norms in the country.

Political protest

Apparently under the influence of the popular uprisings in Arab countries, attempts were made on March 7, 2011 and then again at a later date to organize a large-scale demonstration against the political regime in Angola in Luanda. They were attempts to articulate protest independently of the opposition parties. The MPLA held a "preventive counter-demonstration" in Luanda on March 5, allegedly with a million supporters. During the following months protests took place on the internet and at rap events. On September 3, 2011, permission was again granted for a demonstration that was critical of the regime, especially against the person of the president, which was then forcibly broken up with the use of batons and firearms when it began to cross the permitted area. About 50 people were arrested and awaited summary sentencing.

Foreign policy

Angola has been a member of the United Nations since 1976, a member of the WTO since 1996 and of OPEC since 2007 as well as a founding member of the South African Development Community SADC , as well as the AU ( African Union ) and the CPLP , the Community of Portuguese Language States.

On October 15, 2013, Angola terminated its strategic partnership with Portugal . President dos Santos said relations between the two countries would not be good. The cause is the fact that the Portuguese judiciary has brought some politically important Angolans, who belong to the immediate vicinity of the president, on charges of crimes committed in Portugal (especially massive money laundering).

See also: List of Angolan Ambassadors to the Holy See , List of Angolan Ambassadors to Brazil , List of Angolan Ambassadors to France , List of Angolan Ambassadors to São Tomé and Príncipe

Administrative division

Territorial division

Angola is divided into 18 provinces (Portuguese: províncias , singular - província ):

No. province Capital population

2014

No. province Capital population

2014

map
1 Bengo Caxito 356,641 10 Huíla Lubango 2,497,422 Angola Provinces numbered 300px.png
Namibia Sambia Republik Kongo Demokratische Republik Kongo Botswana Provinz Cabinda Provinz Zaire Provinz Luanda Provinz Uíge Provinz Bengo Provinz Cuanza Norte Provinz Cuanza Sul Provinz Malanje Provinz Lunda Norte Provinz Lunda Sul Provinz Moxico Provinz Huambo Provinz Benguela Provinz Bié Provinz Namibe Provinz Huíla Provinz Cunene Provinz Cuando Cubangomap
About this picture
2 Benguela Benguela 2,231,385 11 Luanda Luanda 6,945,386
3 Bié Kuito 1,455,255 12 Lunda Norte Lucapa 862.566
4th Cabinda Cabinda 716.076 13 Lunda Sul Saurimo 537,587
5 Cuando Cubango Menongue 534.002 14th Malanje Malanje 986.363
6th Cuanza Norte N'dalatando 443.386 15th Moxico Luena 758,568
7th Cuanza Sul Sumbe 1,881,873 16 Namibe Moçâmedes 495.326
8th Cunene Ondjiva 990.087 17th Uíge Uíge 1,483,118
9 Huambo Huambo 2,019,555 18th Zaire M'banza Congo 594.428

These 18 provinces are further subdivided into 162 municípios , 559 communes and 27,641 localities (Localidades).

Cities

No reliable figures are available for the population of cities for the post-colonial period up to the 21st century. Qualitative progress was expected from the publication of the 2008 Instituto Nacional de Estatística survey , which was available after 2011. After the 2014 census, the official statistics only published the population of the municípios, but not the individual municipalities. In addition to the largest city in the district, a município also includes some smaller towns in the area. Accordingly, the following picture emerges for the municípios:

  • Luanda as the capital has grown explosively. According to the 2014 census, the city has 6.7 million people.
  • Cabinda (600,000 inhabitants) in the oil-rich province of the same name and the provincial capital Uíge (494,000 inhabitants) have shown the strongest percentage growth since the last census in 1970 .
  • Of all the larger cities, Lubango suffered the lowest post-colonial tremors, but it is precisely because of this that it has grown to around 730,000 inhabitants due to the inflow not only from the narrower and wider surrounding areas, but above all from the central highlands
  • A very strong growth can be observed in the coastal cities of Benguela (513,000 inhabitants), Lobito (324,000 inhabitants) and Moçâmedes (282,000 inhabitants).
  • After independence, Huambo initially became Angola's second largest city, but was then largely destroyed and depopulated. Since 2002 its population has increased again to 665,000.
  • Kuito was much more destroyed than Huambo and in 2014 it had 424,000 inhabitants again.

military

The Angolan armed forces maintain a military force of around 110,000 , the Forças Armadas Angolanas (FAA). Angolas spent almost 2.2 percent of its economic output or 3 billion US dollars on its armed forces in 2017. Defense spending is among the highest in Africa. There are three branches of the armed forces: Army , Navy and Air Force and Air Defense Force , of which the army is numerically the largest. Military equipment comes mainly from the former Soviet Union . Small contingents are stationed in the Republic of the Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo . Chief of Staff since October 2010 is a former UNITA general, Geraldo Sachipengo Nunda .

economy

General

With a gross domestic product of 95.8 billion US dollars (2016), Angola is the third largest economy in Sub-Saharan Africa after South Africa and Nigeria. At the same time, a large part of the population lives in poverty.

The gross domestic product per capita was US $ 3,502 in the same year (US $ 6,844 adjusted for purchasing power). Angola was thus in 120th place worldwide (out of approx. 200 countries in total)

Angola's economy is suffering from the consequences of decades of civil war . Thanks to its mineral resources - primarily oil and diamond mining - the country has enjoyed a major economic boom in recent years. Angola's economic growth is the greatest in Africa in 2019. However, the income from the raw material deposits does not reach the majority of the population, but rather corrupt beneficiaries within the political and economic rulers of the country and a slowly forming middle class. In 2015, only 4.4 million of the then 26 million inhabitants belonged to the middle class. A large proportion of the population is unemployed and around half live below the poverty line, with drastic differences between urban and rural areas. A survey by the Instituto Nacional de Estatística from 2008 came to the result that around 58% were considered poor in the countryside, but only 19% in the cities, a total of 37%.

In the cities where more than 50% of Angolans now cluster, the majority of families rely on strategies for survival. This is also where social inequality is most tangible, especially in Luanda. In the Human Development Index of the United Nations Angola always occupies a place among the last.

Unemployment stands at 24.2% nationwide, with hardly any differences between men and women. However, there are large differences between the provinces. While unemployment is highest in Lunda Sul (43%), Lunda Norte (39%), Luanda (33%) and Cabinda (31%), it is highest in Namibe and Huíla (17%), Malanje (16%), Cuanza Sul and Benguela (13%) the lowest.

The most important trading partners for the export of goods and raw materials are the USA, China , France , Belgium and Spain . Import partners are mainly Portugal , South Africa , USA, France and Brazil . In 2009, Angola developed into Portugal's largest export market outside of Europe, and around 24,000 Portuguese have moved to Angola in recent years, looking for work there or setting up companies. Much more important, however, is China's presence in the form of a number of large companies. After the end of the civil war in 2002, Angola asked China for a loan of US $ 60 billion for infrastructure measures such as the construction of railways, roads, housing and hospitals. It is to be repaid with oil deliveries. However, the projects carried out by Chinese firms, including Chinese workers, are of very poor quality. Newly built roads and railways have to be repaired every two years, the apartments show cracks and water infiltration after a few years, the municipal hospital Hospital Geral de Luanda , completed by the Chinese in 2006, had to be demolished just six years after its inauguration and reopened in 2015.

Of fundamental importance for the population of Angola is the shadow economy, which developed during the “socialist” phase and grew exponentially in the phase of liberalization, and which the government is currently trying to push back.

For a long time Angola was dependent on its oil exports. Almost everything is imported, even mineral water, although the country has countless water sources. The fall in the price of oil put pressure on the state budget of the South West African country. For several years now, it has been trying to diversify its economy - away from oil alone. This requires the expansion of the infrastructure, the modernization of the energy supply and better conditions for private investors.

In the Global Competitiveness Index , which measures a country's competitiveness, Angola ranks 137th out of 140 countries (as of 2018). Outside of oil production, domestic industry is very weak. The state has a great influence on economic activity. At the same time, corruption is very pronounced in the state sector. In 2018, the country only ranks 164th out of 180 countries in the index for economic freedom .

fish factory

Elizabete Dias Dos Santos invested $ 25 million in her Solmar fish factory . The processing plant opened in autumn 2016. This type of assembly line production is unique in the sector in Angola. 120 people work in the factory. The suppliers also benefit, as more than 50,000 people live from traditional fishing in Angola. 40% of the purchases are made from small-scale fishermen. In order to attract private investors, the Angolan government had improved the conditions for domestic and foreign companies through, among other things, tax breaks, help with financing and simplified procedures for company formation.

Steel mill

At Aceria de Angola , north of the capital Luanda , a steel mill with a capacity of 500,000 tons per year went into operation in 2015. $ 350 million was invested. The plant has more than 500 jobs and offers many people training. The plant primarily recycles scrap and uses it to produce structural steel for concrete structures. The aim of the Lebanese-Senegalese operator Georges Fayez Choucair is to export. Therefore the capacity of the plant is twice as high as the Angolan demand.

With the plant, the region was also electrified and the water supply developed. A high-voltage line had to be laid here. Unemployment in the region fell from around seventy to around twenty percent. Fayez Choucair is convinced: “You cannot invest in a new country, in a completely new population and arrive and settle down according to the motto 'I am rich' - no! You have to win over the population today, this is not an individual project, but a community project! "

Privatization program

At the end of 2018, with Presidential Decree Nº141 / 18, the privatization authority IGAPE (Institito de Gestão de Activos e Participação do Estado) was founded, with which the government wants to privatize 195 state-owned companies in whole or in part in order to strengthen the private sector and thus the growth of the country promote. The program covers the most important economic sectors such as the energy sector ( Sonangol ), telecommunications and IT, the financial sector (banking ( BAI ), insurance ( ENSA ), capital funds), the transport sector ( TAAG ), tourism as well as the manufacturing sector including food processing and the Agriculture. Most of the companies are expected to be sold in 2020.

Electricity supply

In 2011, Angola ranked 119th in terms of annual generation with 5.512 billion kWh and 114th place in the world for installed capacity with 1,657 MW. In 2014 the installed capacity was 1,848 MW, of which 888 MW in thermal power plants and 960 MW in hydropower plants .

By 2014, only 30 to 40% of the population were connected to the electricity grid. As a result, the government began planning significant investments ($ 23.4 billion by 2017) in the electricity sector. This includes the construction of new power plants, investments in the transmission networks and rural electrification. A number of hydropower plants are to be built on Cuanza and Kunene in order to exploit the hydropower potential (estimated 18,000 MW). The hydropower potential of the Kunene has already been a basis for projects and partial investments in extensive and never fully implemented plans that arose as part of the former Cunene project between South Africa and Angola or Portugal. The Laúca dam with a planned output of 2,070 MW is currently being built. It is expected to go into operation in July 2017.

At present (as of April 2015) there is no national network in Angola , but there are three independent regional networks for the north, center and south of the country as well as other isolated island solutions. As a result, the surpluses from the northern network cannot be fed into the other networks. By far the most important network is the northern one, which also includes the capital Luanda . After completion of the Laúca dam, the three power grids will also be connected to one another.

The power supply is unreliable across the country and is associated with regular blackouts that have to be compensated for by running expensive generators. The price per kWh is 3 AOA (approx. 2.5 € cents), but is heavily subsidized and does not cover costs.

Regional disparities

Street scene in Porto Amboim, May 2010

A structural problem of the Angolan economy is the extreme differences between the different regions, which are partly due to the protracted civil war. Around a third of economic activity is concentrated in Luanda and the neighboring province of Bengo, which is increasingly becoming the expansion area of ​​the capital. On the other hand, there is a standstill or even regression in various inland regions. At least as serious as the social inequality are the clear economic differences between the regions. In 2007, 75.1% of all business transactions and 64.3% of jobs were concentrated in Luanda in (public or private) commercial enterprises. In 2010, 77% of all companies were located in Luanda, Benguela, Cabinda, the province of Kwanza Sul and Namibe. In 2007, GDP per capita in Luanda and the neighboring province of Bengo grew to around 8,000 US dollars, while in western central Angola, thanks to Benguela and Lobito, it was slightly below 2000 US dollars, but in the rest of the country it was well below 1000 US dollars. The tendency towards the concentration of the economy in the coastal strip, especially in the "water head" Luanda / Bengo, has not decreased since the end of the civil war, but has continued and brings with it an "emptying" of a large part of the interior. The global growth figures hide the fact that the Angolan economy is suffering from extreme imbalances.

corruption

One of the most prominent features of Angola today is pervasive corruption . In the surveys of Transparency International , the country regularly appears among the world's most corrupt, in Africa in a category with Somalia and Equatorial Guinea . In the first five years of the 21st century, it was estimated that oil revenues worth four billion US dollars, or 10% of the then gross domestic product, seeped away through corruption.

The fight against corruption has been part of the government's program for years, but it is only very seldom that it can be proven that this declaration of intent is actually being implemented. A sensational exception at the end of 2010 was the dismissal of ten department heads and almost 100 officers from the Immigration and Border Police SME (Serviço de Migrações e Estrangeiros), who are not only responsible for border control but also for issuing entry, residence and exit permits is.

The new President João Lourenço is apparently taking decisive action against corruption and nepotism. In his first year in office he replaced several provincial governors, ministers, high officials and administrators of state companies, such as the head of the state oil company Sonangol , Isabel dos Santos , daughter of the previous president or the chairman of the supervisory board of the state oil fund with a value of 5 Billion US dollars, José Filomeno dos Santos , son of predecessor. José dos Santos was arrested in September 2018 and is suspected of illegally transferring US $ 500 million of the sovereign wealth fund abroad. He was released from custody in March 2019 and has since waited at home for his trial, which began in Luanda on December 9, 2019.

economic sectors

Oil platform off Luanda
  • Mining: Angola has rich offshore oil deposits and diamond mines in the northeast of the country, as well as other mineral deposits in the country. The natural resources make Angola one of the richest countries in Africa. Angola sells rough diamonds worth around one billion euros every year . The gemstones will also be processed in the country itself from 2019 in order to increase sales revenue. Most of the Angolan economy, however, lives from oil and its products. In 2016, with a production volume of 87.9 million tons, the country was Africa's second largest oil producer and exporter after Nigeria (see oil / tables and graphics ). According to OPEC, the proceeds from crude oil production account for around 95% of exports and 45% of Angola's gross domestic product. The most important buyer of oil is the People's Republic of China , which has replaced the United States as its main trading partner. On January 1, 2007, Angola became the 12th member of OPEC , but has only participated in the quota regime since March 2007. In 1975 uranium deposits were also discovered on the border with Namibia . In April 2019, deposits of around 23 billion tons of mineral raw materials with economically interesting contents of rare earth metals were discovered in the province of Huambo , which are to be mined from 2020.
  • Agriculture: Around 85% of the working population are engaged in agriculture. The most important agricultural product for export is coffee , followed by sugar cane. Other important export goods are corn and coconut oil. The production of potatoes, rice and cocoa is also worth mentioning. The breeding of cattle and goats is relatively widespread. Overall, agriculture is still suffering severely from the consequences of the civil war. Because of the danger posed by remaining landmines , many farmers refuse to work their fields. Agricultural production is not enough to meet its own needs, and the country is dependent on the import of food. Agriculture is experiencing a slight upswing.
  • Industry: The country's industry is poorly developed and suffered from the civil war. The main industry in Angola is the processing of agricultural products, primarily grain, meat, cotton, tobacco and sugar; along with the refining of petroleum. Other important products are fertilizers, cellulose, adhesives, glass and steel.

Economic indicators

The gross domestic product and foreign trade of Angola have grown massively in recent years due to increasing income from oil exports. When the oil price fell from 2014 onwards, there was a slump.

The important economic indicators of gross domestic product, inflation, budget balance and foreign trade developed as follows:

Change in gross domestic product (GDP), real
in% compared to the previous year
year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Change in% yoy 18.3 20.7 22.6 13.8 2.4 3.4 3.9 5.2 6.8 4.8 3.0 0.0
Source: World Bank
Development of GDP (nominal)
absolute (in billion US $) per inhabitant (in thousands of US $)
year 2014 2015 2016 year 2014 2015 2016
GDP in billion US $ 126.8 103.0 89.6 GDP per inhabitant (in thousands of US $) 4.7 3.6 3.1
Source: World Bank
Development of the inflation rate Development of the budget balance
in% compared to the previous year in% of GDP
("minus" means deficit in the national budget)
year 2013 2014 2015 2016 year 2008 2009 2010 2011
inflation rate 8.8 7.3 10.3 34.7 Budget balance -7.2 -1.0 ≈ 6.6 ≈ 4.3
Source: bfai ≈ = estimated
Development of foreign trade
in billion US $ and its change compared to the previous year in%
2013 2014 2015
Billion US $ % yoy Billion US $ % yoy Billion US $ % yoy
import 26.8 -6.8 28.8 7.5 16.8 -41.7
export 67.7 -4.4 58.7 -13.4 33.0 -43.7
balance 41.0 29.9 16.3
Source: GTAI

State budget

The state budget included expenditures in 2016 of the equivalent of 33.5 billion US dollars , which were income equivalent to 27.27 billion US dollar against. This results in a budget deficit of 6.5% of GDP .

Angola's debts totaled $ 31.4 billion in December 2011. According to Finance Minister Carlos Alberto Lopes, almost half of this, around 17.8 billion, was foreign debt. The main creditors of the Angolan government were China with 5.6 billion, Brazil with 1.8 billion, Portugal with 1.4 billion and Spain with 1.2 billion. Domestic debt of $ 13.6 billion resulted primarily from bonds and Treasury bills in support of ongoing government investment programs.

In 2006, the share of government expenditure (as a percentage of GDP) was as follows:

In October 2019, a value added tax (IVA) of 14% was introduced to make the national budget more independent of oil exports. Previously there was only a consumption tax (IC) of 10%, which was then abolished. The calculated additional revenue for 2020 through the IVA is 432.4 billion Kwanzas, the calculated state revenue for 2020 excluding the oil sector is 712.3 billion Kwanzas.

The state budget for 2020 is 15.9 trillion Kwanzas (27 billion euros). The government assumes an average oil price of 55 US dollars / barrel, an inflation rate of 24% and real economic growth of 1.8%. Social spending is 40.7% of total spending. This also includes environmental protection, the expenditure of which has increased by 180% compared to the previous year.

Foreign investment

Since the end of the civil war, private investment by Angolans abroad has increased steadily. This has to do with the fact that in the country the accumulation is concentrated on a small social group and this group is keen to scatter their property for reasons of security and profit maximization. The preferred investment target is Portugal, where Angolan investors (including the President's family) are present in banks and energy companies, in telecommunications and in the press. B. Buy up wineries and tourism properties.

traffic

Angola with road and rail network

Rail transport

Rail transport in Angola is geared towards the ports. It operates on three networks that are not connected. Another route not connected to the three networks has since been discontinued. There are both freight and passenger traffic. The total length of the route is 2,764 kilometers, of which 2,641 kilometers are in the Cape gauge common in southern Africa and 123 kilometers in the 600 millimeter gauge (as of 2010). The sole operator is the state company Caminhos de Ferro de Angola (CFA).

Long-distance bus transport

There are long-distance buses operated by Macon and Grupo SGO that connect Luanda with the largest cities in the country. Macon offers international connections to Windhoek and Kinshasa .

Air traffic

In Angola, 10 airlines are licensed for domestic flights: Aerojet, Air Guicango, Air Jet, Air 26, Bestfly, Heliang, Heli Malongo, SJL, Sonair and TAAG. Sonair has the largest fleet for the domestic market with six aircraft. The airports with the most passengers in 2016 were: Luanda, Cabinda, Soyo, Catumbela and Lubango. TAAG is the international airline of Angola.

Maritime transport

There are catamaran connections for passengers from the center of Luanda to the suburbs of Benfica, Samba, Corimba, Cacuaco and Panguila as well as a fast ferry connection for the transport of people, vehicles and goods from Luanda to Cabinda, which are operated by the state Instituto Marítimo e Portuário de Angola . Further ship connections to Lobito, Namibe and Porto Amboim are planned.

telecommunications

Angola has 14 million cell phone users, or 46% of the population. The market is divided between the two companies Unitel (82%) and Movicel (18%). 20% of the population have internet access, here too the two market leaders are Unitel (87%) and Movicel (12%). The fixed telephone network is used by only 0.6% of the population. This market is led by Angola Telecom (58%), followed by MsTelecom (21%), TV Cabo (19%) and Startel (2%). Television is only used by 7% of the population, the market leader in this segment is the company ZAP (69%), followed by DStv (28%) and TV Cabo (3%).

On December 26, 2017, AngoSat-1 , the first Angolan communications satellite , was launched into geostationary orbit from the Russian rocket launch site at Baikonur . However, the planned orbital position could not be reached and it was abandoned a few months later.

On September 26, 2018, the South Atlantic Cable System , a 6,165 km long submarine cable that connects Angola with Brazil in 63 milliseconds, went into operation. It also enables the Luanda - Miami connection (via Fortaleza ) in 128 milliseconds.

Culture

literature

Some well-known Angolan writers are Mário Pinto de Andrade , Luandino Vieira , Arlindo Barbeitos , Alda Lara , Agostinho Neto , Pepetela , Ondjaki, and José Eduardo Agualusa .

Under the entry Arquivos dos Dembos / Ndembu Archives , 1160 manuscripts from Angola from the 17th to the early 20th century were included in the UNESCO list of World Document Heritage .

music

In music, Angola has a rich variety of regional styles. The music had a great influence on Afro-American music, especially Brazilian music, through the deported slaves. But contemporary Angolan pop music is also heard in the other Portuguese-speaking countries. Kizomba and Kuduro are styles of music and dance that have spread to the world from Angola. Conversely, an increasing influence from the US and Brazilian music markets can be felt in the modern musical life and youth culture of Luanda.

The most famous pop musicians include Waldemar Bastos , Paulo Flores , Bonga , Vum Vum Kamusasadi , Maria de Lourdes Pereira dos Santos Van-Dúnem , Ana Maria Mascarenhas , Mario Gama , Pérola , Yola Semedo , Anselmo Ralph and Ariovalda Eulália Gabriel .

media

In the 2017 press freedom ranking published by Reporters Without Borders , Angola was ranked 125th out of 180 countries. The situation of press freedom in the country is rated by Reporters Without Borders as "difficult".

watch TV

Televisão Pública de Angola (Angolan, public), TV Zimbo (Angolan, private), AngoTV (Angolan, private), Rádio Televisão Portuguesa (Portuguese, public), Rádio Televisão Portuguesa Internacional (Portuguese, public), Televisão Comercial de Angola (Angolan, state), ZON Multimédia (private), TV Record (Brazilian, private) TV Globo (Brazilian, private), Televisão de Moçambique (TVM) (Mozambican, state)

radio

RNA (Rádio Nacional de Angola) (state), Rádio LAC (Luanda Antena Comercial), Rádio Ecclesia (Catholic radio station), Rádio Cinco (sports radio), Rádio Despertar (related to UNITA), Rádio Mais (private), TSF (Portuguese radio ), Rádio Holanda (in Portuguese)

Internet

In 2016, 23.0% of the population used the Internet.

Newspapers

Jornal de Angola (state)

Weekly newspapers (all private): Semanário Angolense, O País , A Capital, Folha 8, Agora, Angolense, Actual, Independente, Cara, Novo Jornal, O Apostolado (church), Gazeta de Luanda

Business newspapers: Jornal de Economia & Finanças (state), Semanário Económico (private), Expansão (private)

Magazines

Rumo (business magazine, private)

News agencies

Agência Angola Press (ANGOP; state)

Sports

Soccer
Fans of the Angolan national team at the 2006 World Cup in Germany

On October 8, 2005, the Angolan national soccer team unexpectedly qualified for the 2006 World Cup in Germany. A close 1-0 win at the bottom of the group in Rwanda was enough to get the ticket and to throw Nigeria , which has participated in every World Cup finals since 1994, out of the competition. The Angolan team took part in a World Cup finals for the first time, where they were eliminated in the group third in the preliminary round after a 0: 1 against Portugal, a 0: 0 against Mexico and a 1: 1 against Iran. The team also took part in the African Championships (Africa Cup) in 1996 , 1998 , 2006 , 2008 , 2010 (as host), 2012 , 2013 and 2019 .

basketball

The Angolan men's national basketball team has won eleven of the last thirteen events of the African Cup, making it the most successful team in the history of the competition. Therefore, she regularly takes part in the World Cup and the Olympic Games . At the 1992 Games , Angola was the first opponent of the US Dream Team . The greatest sporting successes so far have been surviving the preliminary round at the 2002 , 2006 and 2010 World Championships .

Handball

The women's national handball team has won the African championship eleven times and is also the first African team to reach the finals at a World Cup.

Roller skate hockey

This sport has been practiced in Angola since the Portuguese colonial times. In March 2019, the first African championship in roller skate hockey was held in Luanda . Angola won the title after beating Mozambique .

Surfing

The surfing is becoming increasingly popular in Angola. Since 2013 the Social Surf Weekend has been held every year in October with participants from home and abroad in Cabo Ledo with the support of the Ministry of Tourism. In 2018 it developed into Angola's largest summer festival with over 4,000 participants. In September 2016, the country's first national surf championship also took place in Cabo Ledo. It was organized by the Angolan Water Sports Association. In July 2018, Angola became a member state of the International Surfing Association (ISA).

literature

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  • Global Witness: Os Homens dos Presidentes . London 2002.
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  • Fernando Andresen Guimarães: The Origins of the Angolan Civil War: Foreign Intervention and Domestic Political Conflict. Houndsmills, New York 1998.
  • Franz-Wilhelm Heimer : The decolonization conflict in Angola. Munich 1980.
  • Franz-Wilhelm Heimer : Social Change in Angola. Munich 1973.
  • Tony Hodges: Angola from Afro-Stalinism to Petro-Diamond Capitalism. Bloomington, Indianapolis 2001.
  • Tony Hodges: The Anatomy of an Oil State. Bloomington, Indianapolis 2004.
  • Human Rights Watch: The Oil Diagnostic in Angola: An Update Complete Report. New York 2001.
  • International Monetary Fund: IMF Staff Country Report No. 99/25: Angola: Statistical Annex. Washington, DC 1999.
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  • Manfred Kuder, Wilhelm Möhlig (ed.): Angola. Munich 1994.
  • Manfred Kuder: Oil and diamonds: Angola's competitive export goods. In: Geographical Rundschau. Vol. 55, issue 7/8. Braunschweig 2003. pp. 36-38.
  • Brank Lazitch: Angola 1974–1988: A Defeat of Communism. Meyers Verlagsgesellschaft, Stuttgart 1989.
  • Yves Loiseau, Pierre-Guillaume Roux: Jonas Savimbi. Cologne 1989.
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  • Manuel Alves da Rocha: Economia e Sociedade em Angola. 2nd edition. Nzila, Luanda 2009, ISBN 972-33-0759-6 .
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Web links

Wiktionary: Angola  - explanations of meanings, origins of words, synonyms, translations
Commons : Angola  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Angola  Travel Guide
Wikimedia Atlas: Angola  - geographical and historical maps

Remarks

  1. “Presidential system” is not to be understood as a variation of a democratic system, since the 2010 constitution abolishes the basic democratic principle of the separation of powers and the president controls the other constitutional organs.
  2. In Angola itself, the pronunciation in Portuguese, as in most African languages, is [ aŋˈgɔːla ]
  3. Anti-colonial war 1961–1974, decolonization conflict 1974/75, civil war 1975–2002.
  4. See the article by Fernando Pacheco, a very good expert on the subject, in the Angolan newspaper Novo Jornal on May 15, 2015.
  5.  ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) lack credibility, as they update the last colonial statistics according to unrealistic criteria. Your supposedly exact numbers are basically pure fiction@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / bevoelkerungsstatistik.de
  6. The assumptions of UNHabitat offer a certain point of reference. See, for example, The State of African Cities 2010: Governance, Inequality, and Urban Land Markets , Nairobi: UNEP / UNHabitat, 2010. It assumes that 80% of Angola's population will live in cities by the middle of this century.
  7. This does not include the surrounding area (including parts of the neighboring province of Bengo), which together with the city represents "Greater Luanda".

Individual evidence

  1. Resultados Definitivos do Recenseamento Geral da População e Habitação de Angola. (PDF; 13.8 MB) Results of the 2014 census. In: embajadadeangola.com. March 2016, p. 15 , accessed December 6, 2019 (Portuguese).
  2. a b c Africa - Angola. In: The World Factbook . CIA , archived from the original on December 31, 2018 ; Retrieved on March 2, 2019 (English, original is not persistent; information is based on an archived version).
  3. ^ World Economic Outlook. GDP and GDP / capita nominal and according to purchasing power parity. In: imf.org. Retrieved August 18, 2018 .
  4. ^ Human Development Index Trends. In: hdr.undp.org. UNDP , accessed on January 14, 2019 .
  5. Chamwe Kaira: Trade in kwanza may extend beyond Oshikango. In: namibian.com.na. September 25, 2014, archived from the original on March 5, 2016 ; accessed on May 14, 2019 .
  6. ^ On Africa's River Basin Organization - Source Book. Retrieved March 23, 2020 (English).
  7. Angola aumenta áreas de conservação ambiental terrestre angop.ao , February 6, 2019, accessed on May 12, 2019.
  8. Bernardo Kessongo Menezes: Harmonização da grafia toponímica do município de Benguela. (PDF; 1.4 MB) Master's thesis. In: run.unl.pt. Faculty of Social and Human Sciences of the New University of Lisbon , June 12, 2015, pp. 24, 33 , accessed on October 6, 2019 (Portuguese, Section 2.1: Penetração dos Bantu em Angola ; p. 24 bottom right, or p. 33 on the top left of the scoring track).
  9. ^ David Birmingham: Trade and Conflict in Angola. The Mbundu and their Neighbors under the Influence of the Portuguese. 1483-1790 . Oxford 1966
  10. René Pélisier: Les guerres grises , Volume I, Resistance et revoltes en Angola (1845-1941). Self-published, Montamets / Orgeval 1977. In 1885, today's Cabinda was placed under Portuguese rule as the Portuguese Congo.
  11. Franz-Wilhelm Heimer: The decolonization conflict in Angola , Munich: Weltforum Verlag, 1979 and René Pélissier, Volume II, La colonie du minotaure: Nationalismes et revoltes en Angola (1926–1961) , Montamets / Orgenval: Selbstverlag, 1978
  12. ^ The Petroleum Sector ( Memento of October 3, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), Banco Kwanza Invest Online, accessed October 1, 2015
  13. Elisete Marques da Silva: O papel societal do sistema de ensino na Angola colonial, 1926–1974 , Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos (Lisbon), 16/17, 1992–1994, pp. 103–130 (reprinted in Kulonga (Luanda) , Special issue 2003, pp. 51–82)
  14. ^ Johanna Götz: Ethnic borders and front lines in Angola , Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe, 2002
  15. ^ A detailed reconstruction can be found in Franz-Wilhelm Heimer : The Decolonization Conflict in Angola. Weltforum Verlag. Munich 1979.
  16. See MR Bhagavan: Angola's Political Economy 1975–1985. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Uppsala 1986. Philippe Le Billon: Angola's economy of war. The role of oil and diamonds . In: African Affairs , 100, 2001, pp. 55–80 and ders .: Thriving on war: The Angolan conflict and private business . In: Review of African Political Economy , 90, 2001, pp. 629-652. Edith Laudowicz illustrates the specific living conditions that prevailed at that time: I will work and fight: Women in Angola , in: dies. (Ed.): Liberated Land - Liberated Life? Women in Liberation Movements and Revolutions . Pahl-Rugenstein, Cologne 1987, pp. 57-93.
  17. See Christine Hartzky: Kubaner in Angola: South-South Cooperation and Education Transfer 1976–1991. Oldenbourg, Munich 2012.
  18. Leonid Futini: The collapse of the socialist state: Angola and the Soviet Union . In: W. Zartman (Ed.): Collapsed states: The disintegration and restoration of legitimate authority. Lynne Rienner, Boulder 1995, pp. 143-156.
  19. ^ Hermann Pössinger: Angola: a new beginning? In: Peter Meyns (Ed.): Democracy and structural reforms in Portuguese-speaking Africa . Arnold Bergstraesser Institute, Freiburg 1992, pp. 97–117
  20. Margaret Anstee: Orphan of the Cold War: The inside story of the collapse of the Angolan peace process, 1992–1993 , New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996, Analyzing the amalgamation of civil war and oil production, George Jedrzy Frynas & Geoffrey Wood, Oil and war in Angola , Review of African Political Economy , 90, 2001, pp. 587-606. The international dimension is addressed in Dominic Johnson : Warlords out of control: Angola's ongoing tragedy and the war in the region , sheets for German and international politics , 44 (3), 1999, pp. 121-134
  21. The Army Chief of Staff has been a former UNITA general since 2010, Geraldo Ndunda
  22. On the situation of Angola at the end of the civil war, see the balance sheet of Angolan authors in Manuel Ennes Ferreira (ed.): Angola à procura do seu passo , special issue of the journal Política Internacional (Lisbon), 25/2002. An example of rebuilding can be found in Luanda Sul
  23. Uni Bern , see also English Wikipedia and wipo.int
  24. a b c Angola Census (Portuguese), accessed August 10, 2015
  25. a b c d e f g World Population Prospects - Population Division - United Nations. Retrieved October 28, 2017 .
  26. "Somos 24 milhões" , President José Eduardo dos Santos in Parliament on October 16, 2014
  27. ^ The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved October 28, 2017 (English).
  28. ^ BBC - Angola country profile. Retrieved October 28, 2017 (English).
  29. See the study by Manuel Alves da Rocha cited below.
  30. ^ CIA World fact Book Angola. Retrieved June 20, 2017 .
  31. Gerald Bender, Stanley Yoder: Whites in Angola on the Eve of Independence: The politics of numbers . In: Africa Today , 21 (4) 1974, pp. 23-37
  32. Portugal and Angola switch from crime thriller to cooperation nzz.ch , September 19, 2018, accessed on June 15, 2019.
  33. Franz-Wilhelm Heimer, Cristina Udelsmann Rodrigues, Carlos Manuel Lopes: Angola Country Report in: Bertelsmann Stiftung (ed.): Bertelsmann Transformation Index 2010 . Bertelsmann Stiftung publishing house , Gütersloh 2010 (text on DVD). See also: BTI 2010 | Angola Country Report. In: bertelsmann-transformation-index.de. Archived from the original on November 19, 2011 ; accessed on April 25, 2019 .
  34. Jonas A. Müller: Angola as a migration destination in the Portuguese imagination . BA thesis, Humboldt University, Berlin 2013
  35. Dilma Esteves: Relações de Cooperação China - África: O caso de Angola . Lisbon 2008; China's reach for Africa. Retrieved August 9, 2010 .
  36. Migration Report 2017. (PDF) UN, accessed on September 30, 2018 (English).
  37. ^ Origins and Destinations of the World's Migrants, 1990–2017. In: pewglobal.org. 2017, accessed on October 2, 2018 .
  38. See the dissertation of the Angolan historian Fidel Raul Carmo Reis: Das politicas de classificação à classificações políticas (1950–1996): A configuração do campo político angolano. Contributo para o estudo das relações raciais em Angola . ISCTE-Instituto Universitário de Lisboa, Lisbon 2010.
  39. a b Resultados Definitivos do Recenseamento Geral da População e Habitação de Angola. (PDF; 13.8 MB) Results of the 2014 census. In: embajadadeangola.com. March 2016, p. 51 , accessed April 20, 2020 (Portuguese).
  40. ^ Page 4: Society & Culture Angola. In: inwent.org. Archived from the original on January 5, 2007 ; accessed on October 25, 2018 .
  41. Languages ​​of Angola Ethnologue: Languages ​​of the World, Fifteenth edition (English)
  42. ^ Fátima Viegas: Panorama das Religiões em Angola Independente (1975–2008) . Ministério da Cultura / Instituto Nacional para os Assuntos Religiosos, Luanda 2008
  43. Results of the 2014 census p. 52 (PDF)
  44. Lawrence W. Henderson: The Church in Angola: A river of many currents. Pilgrim Press. Cleveland / Ohio 1989; Benedict Schubert: The war and the churches: Angola 1961–1991. Exodus, Lucerne 1997.
  45. ^ IURD Angola Online. Retrieved March 6, 2019 .
  46. ^ Angola - Country Information Sheets. Swiss State Secretariat for Migration, February 1, 1998, accessed on March 14, 2019 .
  47. ^ O País Online (Luanda) October 11, 2010 edition
  48. William Turvill: Angola bans Islam and shuts down all mosques across the country Because it 'clashes with state religion of Christianity'. dailymail.co.uk of November 25, 2013 (English), accessed March 6, 2019
  49. Religion in Africa - Angola takes action against Islamic minority. In: spiegel.de. November 26, 2013, accessed April 22, 2019 .
  50. See the pastoral letter of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of Angola and São Tomé and Príncipe of March 2011, in O País of March 29, 2011, opais.net .
  51. HIV and AIDS estimates (2014). In: unaids.org. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
  52. Prevalence of undernourishment (% of population) - Angola. In: data.worldbank.org. Retrieved April 6, 2020 .
  53. Defeat leprosy in Angola. In: angolarising.blogspot.com. February 3, 2011 (English).
  54. Source: UN: UNdata | record view | Life expectancy at birth, both sexes combined. Retrieved July 15, 2017 .
  55. Elisete Marques da Silva: O papel societal do sistema de ensino na Angola colonial (1926-1975) . In: Revista Internacional de Estudos Africanos , 16/17, 1992-1994, pp. 103-120.
  56. ^ Christine Hatzky : Cubans in Angola: South-South Cooperation and Educational Transfer 1976–1991 . Habilitation thesis in history, University of Duisburg-Essen, 2009, 423 pp.
  57. Issa Sikiti da Silva: Angola: A Decidedly Mixed Bag. In: chalkboard.tol.org. May 3, 2010, accessed December 12, 2019 .
  58. See for example O País ( Memento from September 3, 2013 in the web archive archive.today ) (archive version).
  59. Results of the 2014 census p. 55 (PDF)
  60. Results of the 2014 census p. 58 (PDF)
  61. Expansion plan of the ministry with ADPP (PDF; 1.9 MB) Ajuda de Desenvolvimento de Povo para Povo em Angola (ADPP, an NGO )
  62. ^ Franz-Wilhelm Heimer , Paulo de Carvalho, Víctor Kajibanga: Angola. In: D. Teferra, P. Altbach (Eds.): African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook. Bloomington & Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2003, pp. 162-175
  63. ^ Universidade Lusíada de Angola
  64. See Universidade Lusófona de Angola
  65. ^ Universidade Jean Piaget de Angola
  66. ^ Angola Business School
  67. Universidade Privada de Angola ( Memento from December 12, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  68. ^ Universidade Metodista de Angola
  69. Universidade Metropolitana de Angola ( Memento from July 1, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  70. ^ Universidade Independente de Angola
  71. ^ Universidade Técnica de Angola
  72. ^ Universidade Gregório Semedo .
  73. Universidade Óscar Ribas ( Memento of April 26, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  74. Universidade de Belas. In: angolaformativa.com. Retrieved November 7, 2018 (Portuguese).
  75. ^ Angola. Retrieved December 13, 2017 .
  76. Democracy-Index 2019 Overview chart with comparative values ​​to previous years , on economist.com
  77. Fabian Urech: She was considered the inviolable "princess" of Angola - now her assets have been frozen. In: nzz.ch . January 4, 2020, accessed January 14, 2020.
  78. See the detailed expert opinion of the well-known Portuguese constitutional lawyer Jorge Miranda, which has remained undisputed: Jorge Miranda: A Constituição de Angola de 2010 , published in the journal O Direito (Lisbon), 142nd volume, 2010 - 1 (June).
  79. See his Angola: O futuro já começou , Luanda: Nzila, 2005. A few years later Didier Péclard (ed.) Draws a critical balance sheet: L'Angola dans la paix: Autoritarisme et reconversions , special issue of the journal Politique africaine , 110, 2008
  80. ^ Observers draw positive conclusions after the election in Angola , September 8, 2008
  81. Anton Bösl: Partly free - but by no means fair. The parliamentary elections in Angola in 2008. (PDF; 39.4 kB) In: kas.de. Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, September 11, 2008, accessed on October 14, 2018 .
  82. ^ Angola's ruling MPLA wins parliamentary poll. In: reuters.com. September 10, 2008, accessed April 10, 2019 .
  83. Parliamentary elections in Angola - opposition admits defeat. In: tagesschau.de. October 13, 2008, archived from the original on October 13, 2008 ; accessed on October 19, 2019 .
  84. ^ Novo Jornal (Luanda), 2/3/2012.
  85. eleicoes2012.cne.ao ( Memento from September 2, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  86. Johannes Beck: Comment: Angola needs democracy not only on election day. In: dw.com . August 24, 2017, accessed January 17, 2020.
  87. ^ Angola 2009. Annual report. In: amnesty.de . May 25, 2009, accessed March 15, 2020.
  88. ^ Franziska Ulm: Women-specific persecution / semi-immunity / social - administrative dispute proceedings of an Angolan woman. In: amnesty.de . November 24, 2009, accessed March 24, 2020.
  89. Answer of the Federal Government to the minor question from the Alliance 90 / THE GREENS parliamentary group (PDF) p. 5, German Bundestag , December 3, 2018, accessed on October 7, 2019
  90. ^ Angola: Homosexuality Without Punishment dw.com , February 8, 2019
  91. Request for Information on Chinese Engagement in Angola and Potential Areas for Cooperation. ( Memento of December 22, 2010 on the Internet Archive ) Wikileaks : Cablegate , (ID: 10LUANDA84) Cable of February 26, 2010, published December 8, 2010; Retrieved December 19, 2010.
  92. Clinton pays tribute to the reconstruction of Angola. In: focus.de . August 9, 2009, accessed November 30, 2019 .
  93. Visit to Africa - USA wants to intensify relations with South Africa. In: tagesspiegel.de . August 9, 2009, accessed May 3, 2020.
  94. ^ Angola: Open letter to EU regarding the situation of human rights defenders in Angola. (PDF; 99.8 KB) Open letter from Amnesty International to the EU. In: amnesty.org. July 31, 2007, accessed July 27, 2020 .
  95. a b Rafael Marques de Morais: Angola's killing fields. A Report on extrajudicial executions in Luanda 2016-1017 . P. 14, online at www.makaangola.org (English, PDF document p. 15)
  96. revolucaoangolana.webs.com ( Memento of July 17, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) See also Público (Lisbon) March 2, 2011
  97. Angola: Responses to the Call for Revolution (UNITA and PRS announced that they would not participate in order not to provide an excuse for repression) , de.glöobalvoices.org, March 5, 2011
  98. Manifestação em Angola travada violentamente pela polícia , publico.pt, of September 3, 2011 (Portuguese)
  99. Manifestantes presos em Luanda vão ter julgamento sumário , publico.pt, September 5, 2011
  100. The Fischer World Almanac 2008 , Fischer Taschenbuch-Verlag, Frankfurt 2007, ISBN 978-3-596-72008-8
  101. Johannes Beck: Angola lets ex-motherland Portugal flash back. In: dw.com . October 16, 2013, accessed June 15, 2020.
  102. Results of the 2014 census p. 28 (PDF)
  103. The preliminary results of the 2014 census for the Municípios censo.ine.gov.ao
  104. ^ Angola: Provinces, Cities & Places - Population Statistics in Maps and Tables. Retrieved December 15, 2017 .
  105. Home | SIPRI. Retrieved July 10, 2017 (English).
  106. Publico article ( Memento of March 13, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (Portuguese)
  107. World Economic Outlook Database April 2017. Retrieved June 5, 2017 (American English).
  108. Dubai in Africa ; . In: The time . No. 40, September 29, 2011. Retrieved July 18, 2013. According to another source, it was 121.701 billion at that time, see list of countries according to gross domestic product
  109. "Many people will fall back into poverty". In: domradio.de. May 11, 2009. Retrieved May 27, 2009 .
  110. Federal Foreign Office - Angola overview , last seen on January 13, 2017.
  111. Meet The Angolan Fast Fashion Retailer That's Ready To Take Over Europe forbes.com , October 29, 2015, accessed on July 28, 2019
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  113. See for example Luanda: A vida na cidade dos extremos , in: Visão , 11/11/2010, pp. 88-106
  114. The HDI 2010 ranks Angola in 146th place out of 169 countries covered; Haiti ranks 145th. See Human Development Index and its components. undp.org ( Memento of November 24, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  115. Results of the 2014 census, pp. 63–64 (PDF)
  116. ^ Portugal Turns to Angola to Grow . New York Times website July 14, 2010. Retrieved July 14, 2010.
  117. Sabine Fandrych: China in Angola: Sustainable Reconstruction, Calculated Election Campaign Aid or Global Interest Politics ? , Bonn: Friedrich Ebert Foundation, 2006
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  122. See Carlos Manuel Lopes: Roque Santeiro: Entre a ficção ea realidade , Lisbon: Princípia, 2007
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Coordinates: 12 °  S , 17 °  E