|Cidade de Luanda
|Residents||6,945,386 (May 16, 2014)|
|density||2,872.4 Ew. / km²|
|founding||January 25, 1576|
|governor||José Maria dos Santos|
Luanda [Portuguese ˈlu̯ɐndɐ ] (originally São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda , spelling until the 19th century also Loanda ) is the capital of Angola and has about 6.9 million inhabitants (as of 2014). This number refers to the area that administratively belongs to Luanda. In fact, the city has grown considerably beyond these limits and has absorbed existing settlement centers; "Greater Luanda" could have ten million inhabitants.
Luanda is divided into two parts, the Baixa de Luanda (the lower Luanda, the lower town, the old town) and the Cidade Alta ("upper town", upper town, new district). The Baixa de Luanda is near the port, where there are still narrow streets and old colonial buildings. The coast is shaped by the Baía de Luanda (Bay of Luanda), formed by the protection of the continental littoral by the offshore peninsula Ilha do Cabo . To the south of the city center is the Baía de Mussulo (Bay of Mussulo), which was formed by the Mussulo reef.
Since independence, the population has more than tripled, so that the city has expanded to several times the area since 1975.
Luanda, founded in 1576, had its first town charter in 1605 and has since been the seat of its own district. After independence in 1975, the district was dissolved and the urban area was first divided into three and later into nine districts. These were Cazenga, Ingombota, Kilamba Kiaxi, Maianga, Rangel, Samba, Sambizanga, Cacuaco and Viana. Cazenga and Viana were the most populous.
The city grew considerably through immigration, during the civil war (1975-2002) and in the course of the economic growth that followed. Since then, new satellite cities have been built with Luanda Sul and Kilamba . In Camama , Zango and Kilamba Kiaxi , more high-rise estates were built. On the other hand, the slums (“musseques”) have steadily expanded - probably even more. The capital Luanda is growing partly beyond the provincial borders.
In this context, changes in the administrative structure were necessary. New districts and communities emerged and were reassigned. Since 2011, Luanda is again a separate district ( Município ) within the province of Luanda . The other districts of the Luanda metropolitan area since a reorganization in November 2016 are: Belas , Cacuaco , Cazenga , Kilamba Kiaxi , Talatona and Viana , the province of Luanda also includes the rural districts Ícolo e Bengo and Quiçama .
Luanda County is made up of seven boroughs:
- Ingombota (former Município) - the historical, political, commercial and cultural center of Luanda
- Rangel (former Município)
- Sambizanga (former Município)
- Samba (former Município)
- Maianga (former Município)
- Neves Bendinha
- Ngola Kiluanje
Luanda is located in the tropical climate zone . The annual average temperature is 24.4 degrees Celsius, the annual rainfall is 368 millimeters on average. The warmest months are February to April with an average of 26.7 to 27.0 degrees Celsius, the coldest July and August with an average of 20.2 to 20.4 degrees Celsius. Most precipitation falls in the months of March and April with an average of 97 to 124 millimeters, the least between June and October with an average of zero to seven millimeters.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Luanda
The supply of clean drinking water is one of the central environmental problems. According to Unicef, only 22% of Angola's rural population have access to clean water, compared to 57% in cities. But the situation is particularly problematic in the vast slums (musseques) of Luanda, where 70–80% of the population live; the population is constantly threatened by cholera epidemics.
Another problem in Luanda is garbage disposal. In many places in the city, garbage piles are piling up due to a lack of garbage collection. This causes enormous environmental damage, especially after heavy rainfall. Every second household in Luanda throws its garbage “outdoors”.
On February 11, 1575, the Portuguese captain Paulo Dias de Novais landed on the Ilha do Cabo with a first group of Portuguese settlers. There were around 700 people in total, including 350 armed men, clergy, merchants and officials. Since the location of the Ilha do Cabo offered unfavorable conditions for defense, the settlers settled on the opposite Morro de São Miguel . This hill had an ideal strategic position and also had water sources. On January 25, 1576, the city was founded as São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda (translated roughly: "Saint Paul of the Assumption of Mary in Loanda"). It became the center of the Portuguese presence in the territory of what is now Angola in 1627 and retained this function until the end of the colonial period in 1975 (with the exception of the years 1641 to 1648, when it was occupied by the Netherlands ).
The city was also the center of the slave trade to Brazil , the Caribbean and the USA until the second half of the 19th century . After the abolition of slavery in 1836, Luanda suffered an economic and social crisis. Numerous Europeans then left the city. The construction of the railway line to Funda in 1888 brought an economic boom through the exchange of goods with the hinterland. At that time Luanda only had 15,000 inhabitants, including 3,000 Portuguese. With the upswing, many Africans moved to the city and built their traditional mud huts there. At the end of the 19th century, the first building regulations were introduced, which led to the demolition of the non-standard housing. The poorer population was relocated to the outskirts of the city. The first musseques were created .
In 1930, electricity was introduced in Luanda, which was crucial for economic development. As a result, the white population in the city grew, which now took up the space from the center to the periphery. In 1942 the city administration issued the first urban planning master plan, which provided for the creation of various garden cities connected by a branched transport network and the construction of five satellite cities to accommodate the surplus population. In 1945 the new port and many roads were built. Rapid economic and industrial growth set in, resulting in further population growth and expansion of the city. In the 1960s and 70s, so-called “people's quarters” (Bairros Populares) were built for the poor whites and the black working class, but these later developed into musseques.
After Angola gained independence in 1975, a large part of the Portuguese population left Angola, including Luanda. The capital also suffered from the long civil war in Angola . Their population increased sharply due to strong internal migration. Since the end of the war in 2002, Luanda has experienced an upswing, which is most noticeable in the expansion of space, the rapid construction of modern high-rise buildings and the expansion of the infrastructure.
Christianity has gained a foothold in Luanda since proselytizing and colonization, the Catholics since the 16th century, the Protestants since the end of the 19th century. The first Church of Angola was built in Luanda 1575th 50 to 60 percent of the population describe themselves as Catholics. Among traditional Protestants (especially Methodists, Baptists, and Congregationalists) the figure is between 15 and 20 percent; in addition, since independence there have been numerous revival churches and sects, which are very popular. There are no longer followers of traditional African religions in Luanda. The so far completely insignificant number of Muslims has increased slightly in recent years due to immigrants from West Africa and other countries and is likely to be one to two percent of the population.
Luanda is the seat of the Catholic Archdiocese of Luanda and the joint Bishops' Conference of Angola and São Tomé ( Conferência Episcopal de Angola e São Tomé e Príncipe, CEAST ). In pastoral letters, this repeatedly calls for more social justice.
The Angolan Christian Council of Protestants (Conselho de Igrejas Cristãs de Angola - CICA) today has 22 member churches, including the above-mentioned Lutherans and Reformed churches.
The Angolan churches, through their influence, played a major role in the peace process towards the end of the civil war. The ecumenical committee for peace (Coiepa) founded by the churches was in charge of the development of the Angolan peace movement and has given civil society more room for maneuver. However, the Swiss pastor Benedict Schubert, who worked for the Reformed Church in Luanda for a long time, also dispels the common notion that the Catholic Church was a willing servant of the Portuguese colonial power in the colonial era, while the Protestant churches paid homage to Angolan nationalism. His book War and the Churches: Angola 1961–1991 shows that history is not that one-sided .
The meanwhile around 1,000 churches and other religious communities are mostly officially registered with the Instituto Nacional para os Assuntos Religiosos (INAR) , a department of the Ministry of Culture, but have no cohesion among themselves. Excesses such as the devil and witch madness are fought by the authorities and usually prevented.
Between 1990 and 2001 alone, Luanda's population doubled. In official statistics, the population of the capital is given as 2.6 million. According to the median estimate, however, over 5 million people now live in Luanda, over a quarter of the country's total population. A population and housing census was held in Luanda in 2014. The census showed a population of 6.7 million.
The inhabitants of Luanda are predominantly members of African ethnic groups such as the Ambundu , the Bakongo and the Ovimbundu (in that order). The official language is Portuguese. Native Bantu languages are also spoken, especially Kimbundu , Kikongo and Umbundu , but knowledge of these is steadily declining among the younger generation. The Portuguese spoken in Luanda (and in the rest of Angola on the way out) is interspersed with loan words from African languages and also develops idiomatic peculiarities.
The following overview shows the population figures according to the respective annual statistics.
These figures are quite accurate for the colonial period, but are only estimates for the post-colonial period up to 2014.
The explosive growth in the number of inhabitants, which is explained not least by the massive internal migration of the Bakongo and Ovimbundu , results in the procurement of living space and the development of infrastructures (roads, electricity and water supply, telephone network, etc.) to the greatest extent today often unsolved problems. While these are being resolved in principle in the large new building districts of the affluent classes, the rest of the population is faced with almost existential difficulties.
Due to Angola's rapid population growth combined with advancing urbanization, a population of 14.3 million is expected by 2050. Luanda would be among the 30 most populous agglomerations in the world.
The slums known as Musseques in Angola , without sewage and garbage disposal, mostly without water and often without electricity, have spread particularly on the periphery of Luanda. The majority of residents have a job and the average household income in Paraíso, for example, is around 44,000 Kwanzas (114 euros). However, the income is usually insufficient to send the children to private schools - there are no state schools in many of these neighborhoods. The consequence is high juvenile delinquency. The police do not patrol there at night as there is no lighting. However, attacks are carried out at any time of the day. The largest of these poor areas are: Kikolo , Catintón, Rocha Pinto, Dangereux, Simione, Mabor, Asa Branca, Malanjinho, Estalagem, 28 de Agosto, Maria Eugénia Neto, Soba Kapassa, Capalanca, Camadeira, Paraíso, Belo Monte, Bananeiras, Papá Simão , Malueca, Grafanil, Kapolo, Uengi Maka, Kimbango, Mulenvos, Sapu and Bita.
Violent crime and armed robbery are particularly common in Luanda. Preferred objects of theft are not only money, but also cell phones, which is why caution is advised when making calls on the street. Recently, in Luanda in particular, there have been attacks on motor vehicles that are unable to escape in stationary traffic. These assaults also take place during the day by armed perpetrators on motorbikes, who usually ask for the cell phone, wallet and documents to be handed over. The attacks on shops are also increasing. Those who belong to foreigners such as the Portuguese, Chinese and West Africans are particularly affected. But the poorer population is also affected. A new “trend” in some neighborhoods is extortion of protection money from hut and house dwellers in order not to be attacked at home. Since the police do not intervene, vigilante groups have formed to pick up such violent criminals and punish them with harsh vigilante justice. Burning car tires are put around their necks. Kidnappings with ransom extortion, to which foreigners, especially the Chinese, are the victims, are also showing a sharp increase. The number of kidnappings in Luanda rose from seven to 20 between 2017 and 2018, half of all such cases in Angola.
- Salvador da Bahia , Brazil
- Houston , USA (2003)
- Porto , Portugal (1999)
- Belo Horizonte , Brazil (1968)
Culture and sights
Angola is culturally shaped by African traditions, the 500 years of Portuguese colonial rule, the socialist phase of the late seventies and eighties and - increasingly in recent times - by the world of values as they are used by the US (music, youth culture, consumption) and Brazilian ( Music, fashion, vocabulary) media.
The most important cultural centers in the city include the Brazilian Cultural Center (CCBA) with theater and cinema, which opened in the former Grand Hotel in 2015 , and the Palácio de Ferro (Iron Palace), which was presumably built by Gustave Eiffel and shipped to Luanda since 2019 , and which is also one of the city's sights counts.
Music and theater
There is a lively music and theater scene. The popular music and dance style Kuduro originated in the Sambizanga district . In March 2017, Luanda had 159 theater groups in which around 3,000 young actors meet. So far, however, there are no professional theater groups in the country, and the entrance fees are too low to employ actors. Over 100 of these groups are attached to churches. They focus on education for the people, such as the spread of moral values, the condemnation of domestic violence, drug and alcohol abuse, the risk of AIDS , juvenile delinquency or the solution of existential problems in life. Many theater groups have been tied to churches since the beginning of the colonial era. In the 1980s, student theater groups were added. There are only a few theaters in Luanda, such as the Teatro Municipal de Luanda, Teatro Elinga or Teatro Avenida. Most of the performances take place in improvised halls and clubs, some in the Brazilian Cultural Center, in the Belas Shopping Center or in the Hotel Plaza in Talatona . The Angolan Theater Association (AAT) aims to create more theaters by 2021.
The São Miguel fortress of Luanda is the National Museum of Military History ; there is also the Museu Nacional de Antropologia in Luanda with a collection of African art, in particular a large number of masks, and the natural history museum Museu Nacional de História Natural . Southwest of Luanda is the Slavery Museum Museu Nacional da Escravatura in a chapel on a hill by the sea .
There are only a few parks in Luanda, as the vacant spaces were mainly occupied by informal settlements. In the historic city center, some parks have been preserved, such as Largo do Atlántico , which is covered with thick vegetation and trees, Jardim da Cidade Alta , which was created by the demolition of a dilapidated church, the neighboring Parque da Liberdade and Parque do Miramar , which on the slope of this quarter.
The Kissama National Park is 70 km south of Luanda, in the province of Luanda . It is the third largest national park in the country and is considered the most visited of the six national parks in Angola .
On May 28, 1972, the Autódromo de Luanda car racing track was opened. The international 3-hour race in Luanda in 1973 attracted particular attention . With the outbreak of the Angolan civil war after independence from Portugal in 1975, racing was suspended for over thirty years, and racing events are now being held here again.
The 2010 African Cup of Nations was hosted by Angola. In Luanda, the Estádio 11 de Novembro was one of four new stadiums in the country. Other football stadiums in Luanda include the Estádio Cidade Universitária and the historic Estádio Nacional dos Coqueiros . They are home to the capital's various clubs, some of which are among the top football clubs in Angola . Mention should be made of record champions Atlético Petróleos Luanda . Other permanent guests of the Girabola -Profiliga come from Luanda such as Atlético Sport Aviação , CD Primeiro de Agosto , GD Interclube , Kabuscorp FC do Palanca , Progresso Associação do Sambizanga or Sport Luanda e Benfica , a subsidiary of Benfica Lisbon founded in 1922 .
Luanda hosted the 1983 Women's African Championship and the 1989 African Basketball Championship . The city then also hosted the African Basketball Championships in 1999 and 2007 . The city has also hosted other major sporting events, such as the 2016 African Handball Championship for women and the 1985 African Handball Championship . Various international roller hockey tournaments were also held here.
The most popular running event in Angola is the Luanda New Year's Eve Run, organized by the Angolan Athletics Federation ( Federação Angolana de Atletismo , FAA). For the 59th edition of the São Silvestre de Luanda on December 31, 2014, the aim is to reach a record of 3,000 registered athletes of both sexes. 79 foreign runners from 21 countries have also registered. 1,000 police officers ensure security along the 10 km long route from the central square Largo da Mutamba to the Estádio dos Coqueiros .
In general, Angolan cuisine mainly relies on fish and seafood, cassava and / or corn, which are used to make spicy and spicy stews . Poultry is also widely used. Some recipes are: papaya with port wine , grilled prawns or grilled chicken, for dessert e.g. B. the coconut pudding Cocada Amarela . However, Portuguese cuisine has been gaining ground in cities for decades .
In 2007, Africa's most modern shopping center, Belas Shopping Center, opened in Luanda . The Brazilian company Odebrecht Angola invested US $ 35 million for this . It is the largest shopping mall in Angola. Belas Shopping Center is located in Talatona in the south of Luanda and has 100 different shops, a cinema with 8 halls with a total of 2400 seats and 17 restaurants.
Economy and Infrastructure
Driven by petrodollars , the capital experienced a construction boom at the beginning of the 21st century. For foreigners, Luanda was the highest cost of living city in the world in 2010, with rental prices reaching $ 15,000 a month. In a ranking of cities according to their quality of life, Luanda came 201st out of 231 cities in 2018.
In Luanda, among other things, petroleum distillates , clothing, vehicles and food are produced. The main export goods are crude oil, diamonds, iron ore, coffee and fish products.
The car manufacturer Zhongji Company , which is part of the Chinese Zhengzhou Nissan Automobile Co., Ltd., has existed in Luanda since April 2007 . listened to. Nissan automobiles are produced and exported to many countries on the African continent.
The image of Luanda, however, is largely dominated by a shadow economy.
Water and electricity supply
The 2014 census showed that only 28% of households in Luanda are connected to the public water supply network, while 46% are supplied with drinking water by cistern trucks. In the urban area, 68% of households are connected to the power grid.
The most important port in the country is located in the city. A railway line connects the capital with the iron ore mines in N'dalatando and the coffee-growing areas around Malanje inland. Luanda has an international airport, the Aeroporto Internacional Quatro de Fevereiro .
A four-lane Via Expresso has been completed east of Luanda, making it possible to drive around the capital in a large semicircle. This will relieve the suburb of Viana considerably from construction site and civil traffic.
Train traffic over the Luanda Railway is gradually becoming more important again as a means of transport for people and goods. After the Benguela Railway between Huambo and Benguela began operating again in stages in 2005, trains between Luanda and Viana have been running regularly since July 2007. The entire line between Luanda and Malanje was completely reopened in 2010, after the modernization of the railway line and the construction of its most important stations had been completed. Food and drinks are offered on some connections inland.
→ Main article: Port of Luanda
The cargo handling in the port of Luanda varies relatively strongly due to the economic situation. While the port handled more than four million tons of goods in the first half of 2010, it recorded 12 million tons and 744,000 container movements in 2014, but only 7.8 million tons and 520,000 container movements in 2017. It is mainly an export port, exports are only around a third of imports. In 2013, 70,000 cars were unloaded in Angola's capital, but 136,400 in 2014 and only 12,000 in 2017. The average stay of imported goods fell from 80 to 28 days due to customs clearance in the port in 2010.
Luanda has an international airport, Aeroporto 4 de Fevereiro. Since April 1, 2008 Lufthansa has been flying from Frankfurt am Main to Luanda twice a week. Aeroporto 4 de Fevereiro Airport was modernized and expanded in 2010.
Airlines and their destinations at 4 de Fevreiro airport :
- Air France (Paris)
- Air Namibia (Windhoek)
- Brussels Airlines (Brussels)
- Diexim Expresso (Cabinda, Benguela, Huambo, Lubango, Ondjiva, Soyo)
- Emirates (Dubai)
- Ethiopian Airlines (Addis Ababa)
- Kenya Airways (Nairobi)
- Lufthansa (Frankfurt)
- Royal Air Maroc (Casablanca)
- Sonair (Benguela, Cabinda, Catumbela, Lubango, Ondjiva, Soyo)
- South African Airways (Johannesburg)
- TAAG Angola Airlines (Amsterdam, Brazzaville, Brussels, Cabinda, Casablanca, Catumbela, Dundo, Frankfurt, Harare, Havana, Huambo, Ilha do Sal, Johannesburg, Cape Town, Kinshasa, Kuito, Lisbon, Lubango, Luena, Lusaka, Maputo, Menongue, Moçâmedes, Nairobi, Ondjiva, Paris, Porto, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, São Tomé, Saurimo, Soyo, Windhoek)
- TAP Portugal (Lisbon)
The Chinese Eximbank is financing another major international airport, Angola International Airport , which is to become Africa's largest airport. This is not in Luanda itself, but east of Viana.
Some of the roads in Luanda are in poor condition, not least because of the extremely high volume of traffic, which leads to chronic congestion, lots of traffic jams and, on the most important routes, often completely overstretched driving times. However, many new roads are currently being built and, above all, old traffic axes are being repaired and widened.
Regular taxis are available, but you should plan to wait. The taxis in Luanda and all over Angola are blue and white minibuses that take several people to different locations at once. There are rental cars with a driver, but they are very expensive. There are also increasing numbers of kupapatas in Luanda, i.e. motorbikes that have been used as taxis to transport people and goods in the rural areas of Angola for years.
Local public transport
In 2020, construction began on a 14.9 km long tram line from the port of Luandas to Cacuaco . It is known as the Metro de Superfície and is being built by Siemens Mobility as part of a public-private partnership . Private investors participate with 70%, the Angolan state with 30% of the capital. The planned cost is $ 3 billion.
The tourist infrastructure in Luanda improved significantly from 2009 to 2019. In 2009 there were only 27 hotels in the metropolis, ten years later there are 109 hotels, 50 resorts, 12 holiday complexes, 63 guest houses, 37 guest houses and 7 hostels. With the increased supply, the room rates also fell by more than half. However, for most of the locals, the prices are still too high. The hotel occupancy rate is only 15-30%.
The Angolan media are largely under state control. However, there are more and more private media companies, e.g. B. Media Nova . There is the daily newspaper ´ Jornal de Angola with a circulation of around 50,000 copies and the private newspaper O País . The largest weekly newspaper, Semanário Angolense, is owned by Jornal de Angola. The Rádio Nacional de Angola and the Televisão Pública de Angola television are also under state control and regulation .
For a long time the only source of news from Angola was the state news agency Agência Angola Press, founded in 1978 .
With the new constitution, the press law was reformulated in 1991, allowing freedom of the press and freedom of expression and thus the establishment of independent media. These include the private radio station Rádio LAC, the church-run station Rádio Ecclesia and the Rádio Despertar, which emerged in 2006 from the UNITA station VORGAN ( Voz Resistência do Galo Negro ) . Independent weekly newspapers are Folha 8, published by William Tonnet in Luanda since 1996, AGORA, Seminário Angolense, Actual Fax, fax service founded in 1995 and the Internet portals AngoNotícias and Angola24horas.
The media in Angola are subject to significant legal restrictions. Angola received the worst rating in the Southern Africa media barometer. The 2007 report states: “Relative media diversity only exists in the capital Luanda. In the countryside, on the other hand, there are hardly any newspapers and the vast majority of the population depends on the state shortwave broadcasters for information. Although a media law allows private radio broadcasters, the government has so far ignored the relevant applications: not a single notification has been issued for seven years. "
MISA, the media institute in Southern Africa, reports regularly on the state of media freedom in the countries of the region. Another important source is Human Rights Watch. In the opinion of experts, the restrictive media laws would have to be relaxed considerably so that the media can fulfill their task, especially with regard to elections.
Radio and television
In addition to the state television broadcaster Televisão Pública de Angola , the first private television channel TV Zimbo has existed since 2008 . A third private channel is in preparation with AngoTV . In February 2010, the Portuguese ZON Multimédia (30%) and the Angolan Finstar (70%) launched the satellite TV operator Zap to become the market leader in Angola. Finstar belongs to Isabel dos Santos.
Even before the current territory of Angola was taken into possession in the 20th century, there were some school facilities in Luanda, although they were intended for whites (possibly mixed race). From the middle of the 20th century one could speak of a school system - with a number of primary schools - the state schools for the "civilizados", the mission schools for the "indígenas" - and the Liceu Nacional Salvador Correia (initially only for whites). In the late colonial period, 1962–1974, racial and cultural discrimination was abolished and the school system at primary and secondary levels was greatly expanded. This development continued after independence, not least due to massive aid from Cuba.
The state university of Angola, which opened in the colonial era in 1963 but did not function until 1968, and the Catholic college for social work, which opened in 1962, were located in the capital. After independence, the former was transformed into the Universidade Agostinho Neto (UAN), which expanded rapidly and had faculties in all provincial capitals. In 2008/2009, however, the latter were grouped into new universities and the UAN was concentrated in the provinces of Luanda and Bengo. In the meantime, a Universidade Católica de Angola (Catholic University of Angola) has been founded in Luanda , which in 2009 also became the successor institution of the University of Applied Sciences for Social Work, the Instituto Superior João XXIII. Various Portuguese universities have now set up branches in Luanda (city and province), such as the University of Lusíada , the Universidade Lusófona and the Instituto Jean Piaget. There are also a number of private Angolan universities, such as the Universidade Privada de Angola and the Instituto Superior de Ciências Sociais e Relações Internacionais. In 2010, Saudi Arabia announced its intention to establish an Islamic university in Luanda.
In addition, the National Library of Angola is located in Luanda.
sons and daughters of the town
A large number of well-known public figures in Angola and Portugal were born in Luanda. These include the former Angolan President José Eduardo dos Santos and his wife, Ana Paula dos Santos , politicians like the Angolan Prime Minister Fernando da Piedade Dias dos Santos or the Portuguese Minister of Justice Paula Teixeira da Cruz , well-known Angolan musicians like Paulo Flores and Anselmo Ralph , or writers like the Angolan Ondjaki or the Portuguese Gonçalo M. Tavares .
President José Eduardo dos Santos (2007)
Marisa Cruz (2011), Portuguese TV presenter and former model
Teresa Nzola Meso at the European Indoor Athletics Championships in Turin 2009
Adolfo Luxúria Canibal, singer of the band Mão Morta (Lisbon 2005)
- Angola: Provinces, Cities & Places citypopulation.de
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- On the situation that was reached in the final colonial phase, see Ilídio do Amaral: Luanda: Estudo de geografia urbana . Junta de Investigações do Ultramar, Lisbon 1968
- Cristina Lucena & Jochen Oppermann ...
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- The importance of the Awakening Churches was vividly emphasized by a mass panic on December 31, 2012 when ten people were killed. The victims, four children and six adults, were trampled to death in the crowd in front of the Estádio Cidade Universitária and suffocated on the ground; see Treze mortos é o balanço da tragédia do Estádio da Cidadela (Portuguese). At the event, over 200,000 people (instead of the expected 80,000) streamed into the stadium for a service by Igreja Universal do Reino de Deus . See Angola vigil crush at Luanda stadium kills 10 . BBC News. Retrieved on September 28, 2013. and Público (Lisbon, 2/1/2012). Because only two of the four gates into and out of the stadium were open, the deadly crush ensued. Treze mortos é o balanço da tragédia do Estádio da Cidadela em Luanda (Portuguese). At least 120 people were injured in the tragedy . MORTES TRAGÉDIA EM LUANDA NO ESTÁDIO DA CIDADELA (Portuguese)
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- CM postage
- Foreign Office
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- See article Angola