Rio de Janeiro
|Município do Rio de Janeiro
"Rio"Rio de Janeiro
Image montage Rio de Janeiro
|Location of the municipality in the state of Rio de Janeiro|
|founding||1st March 1565 (age 456)|
|State||Rio de Janeiro|
|Metropolitan area||Metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro|
|climate||tropical Atlantic climate, Am|
|density||5,265.9 Ew. / km²|
|estimate||6,747,815 (July 1, 2020)|
|Parish code||IBGE : 3304557|
|Postal code||20000-000 to 28990-000|
|Telephone code||(+55) 21|
|Time zone||UTC −3|
|Website||www.rio.rj.gov.br (Brazilian Portuguese)|
|City Prefect||Eduardo Paes (2021-2024)|
|Political party||TO THE|
|Patron saint||Saint sebastian|
|GDP||364,052,058 thousand R $
54,426 R $ per person
|HDI||0.799 (high) (2010)|
Rio de Janeiro [ ˈʁi.ud (ʒi) ʒɐˈne (j) ɾu , ˈʁi.ud (ʑi) ʑɐˈne (j) ɾu ], officially Portuguese Município do Rio de Janeiro , is the second largest city in Brazil after São Paulo and the capital of the state of the same name . It is located on Guanabara Bay in the southeast of the country. The name ( German River of January ) is based on a mistake made by the seafarer Gaspar de Lemos , who discovered the bay on January 1, 1502 and believed it to be the mouth of a large river.
A little over 6.7 million people live in the administrative city area (2019 estimate). The metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro has around 13.3 million inhabitants (2018 estimate). Thus, Rio de Janeiro is one of the megacities on earth.
From 1815 to 1821 Rio de Janeiro was the capital of the Kingdom of Portugal and Brazil and after the independence of Brazil from 1822 to 1960 the capital of the country. After that, she ceded this function to Brasília , but remains the country's most important commercial and financial center after São Paulo . From 1808 to 1822 the city was also the seat of the Portuguese court, which had to flee to Brazil because of an attack by Napoleon Bonaparte . The inhabitants of the city are called Cariocas, after a word from the Tupi-Guaraní language of the Tupinambá , which means "the white man's hut".
Landmarks of Rio de Janeiro are the Sugar Loaf , the 38 meter high figure of Christ on the summit of Corcovados and the beach in the Copacabana district , which is one of the most famous beaches in the world. The city is also known for the annual Rio Carnival . The colorful parade of samba schools is one of the largest parades in the world.
Rio de Janeiro is located immediately north of the Tropic of Capricorn , embedded between the Atlantic Ocean in the south, Guanabara Bay in the east and the foothills of the Serra do Mar , part of the central Brazilian highlands, in the north and west. The administrative urban area has an area of 1182 square kilometers and is on average 31 meters above sea level . It is characterized by the bays and beaches along the banks, as well as by granite hills called Morros , which belong to the foothills of the Serra do Mar.
These granite hills also include the two landmarks of Rio, the 394 meter high Sugar Loaf , located directly on a peninsula in Guanabara Bay, and the 704 meter high Corcovado with the Christ statue on the summit. Another is the 533 meter high Morro Dois Irmãos . The highest point of the urban area is the 1022 meter high Pico da Tijuca , which is located in the middle of an extensive nature reserve.
The urban area is divided into two parts by a chain of hills. The Zona Sul (south zone) stretches along the Atlantic coast with the famous beach districts of Ipanema and Copacabana . The northern part, on the other hand, includes the historic city center and today's business center as well as the districts in the north.
Rio de Janeiro is divided into 4 geographical regions ( north , south , west and central ), these are further subdivided into 8 subprefectures (Subprefeituras) , 33 administrative regions (Regiões Administrativas) and 160 districts (Bairros) . These, in turn, are statistically assigned to five planning areas (Áreas de Planejamento). The planning areas are:
- Area de Planejamento 1: Centro , Paquetá , Portuária , Rio Comprido , Santa Teresa , São Cristóvão
- Area de Planejamento 2: Botafogo , Copacabana , Lagoa , Rocinha , Tijuca , Vila Isabel
- Area de Planejamento 3: Anchieta , Complexo do Alemão , Ilha do Governador , Inhaúma , Irajá , Jacarezinho , Madureira , Maré , Méier , Pavuna , Penha , Ramos , Vigário Geral
- Area de Planejamento 4: Barra da Tijuca , Cidade de Deus , Jacarepaguá
- Area de Planejamento 5: Bangu , Campo Grande , Guaratiba , Realengo , Santa Cruz
Due to Rio de Janeiro's location in the lower latitudes, on the Atlantic Ocean and on Guanabara Bay, the city's climate is tropical with twelve humid months. It is dominated by a warm climate, which is, however, tempered by the constant trade winds .
The highest temperature in Rio de Janeiro was officially measured on January 14, 1984 at the weather station in the Bangu district with 43.2 ° C, the lowest on July 19, 1926 at the weather station in the Campo dos Afonsos district with 4.8 ° C.
The annual average temperature is 22.6 ° C with only slight monthly deviations (maximum temperature in January / February: 25.5 ° C, minimum temperature in July: 20.2 ° C) and an average annual precipitation of 1173 millimeters. The highest rainfall falls in the months of December to April, when it is summer in the southern hemisphere. The least precipitation falls in the winter months of July and August.
Long-term mean temperature and precipitation (1961–1990)
Source: World Meteorological Organization;
According to the Treaty of Tordesillas , the Portuguese laid claim to what is now Brazil, which was discovered at the end of the 15th century. France , however, refused to recognize the treaty and founded in 1555 on the Ilha do Serigipe off the coast of present-day Rio de Janeiro under Vice Admiral de Villegagnon the Fort Coligny ; the area controlled from here was named France Antarctique . On the opposite coast, de Villegagnon then founded the Henriville settlement . At that time, Tupi Indians from the Tamoios and Tupinambás tribes, with whom the French allied themselves , lived in this region . It was not until ten years later, in 1565, that the French were expelled from there by the Portuguese, who then founded the city of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro on March 1, 1565 at what is now Morro do Castelo .
In 1680 Rio de Janeiro became the capital of the southern regions of Brazil; At that time, the settlement with around 4,000 inhabitants was one of the most important Portuguese bases on Brazilian territory. Since 1700, Rio de Janeiro has developed into the most important port city in Brazil, mainly triggered by gold discoveries in the neighboring region of Minas Gerais .
Although the city was attacked and occupied by the French in 1710/1711 (→ Battle of Rio de Janeiro ) and was only able to withdraw the French for a large ransom, it recovered quickly in the following years and became the capital on January 27, 1763 of the Viceroyalty of Brazil.
Rio de Janeiro experienced a further significant increase in importance in 1808, when the Portuguese court fled there in connection with the French invasions from Napoleon's armed forces marching on Lisbon . A large number of artists, scientists and nobles moved to Brazil with the court, and the economic and cultural life of the city underwent an enormous change. The Brazilian National Library, for example, goes back to the holdings that the Portuguese royal family brought with them. In 1815 Rio de Janeiro became the capital of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves .
In the course of this, many colonial restrictions were lifted, which strongly promoted economic development and triggered a population explosion that lasted into the 1980s. Within almost a hundred years the population rose to over 500,000 inhabitants (1891) and reached around five million by 1980.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Rio became a hub for the African slave trade in South America. About 900,000 slaves came to the continent via the Valongo wharf in the city center, which was started in 1811 .
The Portuguese royal court returned to Portugal in 1822 as a result of the Liberal Revolution that broke out in Portugal in 1820 . After the departure of the Portuguese court, Brazil declared itself an independent empire under Prince Dom Pedro de Alcântara . Rio de Janeiro retained the status of the capital , in which the prince now resided as Emperor Pedro I. Due to disputes over the succession to the throne in Portugal and domestic political problems in Brazil, he abdicated in 1831 and left his underage son behind. He ascended the throne as Dom Pedro II in 1840. Among other things, he initiated the construction of a railway , the first section of which was opened in Rio de Janeiro in 1858, followed by Companhia Ferro-Carril de São Cristóvão in 1873.
Also as in 1889 Brazil after a military coup to the Republic was left Rio de Janeiro capital. A splendid urban development unfolded here during the Belle Époque Brasileira , financed by rubber and coffee oligarchs. In the first half of the 20th century, Rio de Janeiro experienced a social boom, as the city became a focal point for film stars and international high society . Some Portuguese novelist as the writer and translator Jorge de Sena were in Rio de Janeiro refuge from that of António de Oliveira Salazar founded " corporatist " oriented authoritarian dictatorship Estado Novo in Portugal. One of the last cultural influences of this epoch was the emergence of the Brazilian jazz bossa nova from 1957, which became world famous through songs such as Garota de Ipanema / The Girl from Ipanema by Antônio Carlos Jobim and Vinícius de Moraes .
Due to the emergence of mass tourism in the second half of the 20th century, the image of the districts near the beach, in particular, has changed significantly, which today is mainly characterized by numerous hotels, while the districts further away from the sea were mainly characterized by the increasing slump . Called favelas .
In 1960 Rio de Janeiro lost its status as capital to the newly built city of Brasília under Juscelino Kubitschek . At the same time, the city became an independent city-state of Guanabara , which was merged with the state of Rio de Janeiro in 1975 . The city became the capital of the new state. The city gained international political attention again in 1992 when the UN Environment Summit was held there.
As a venue for the 2014 World Cup and host of the 2016 Summer Olympics , the city once again attracted the world's attention, but was only able to keep afloat financially afterwards with the help of the federal government.
Carioca (plural Cariocas ) is the name given to the inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro. The word comes from the language of the Tupi indigenous people who lived there. However, its meaning is controversial. The most likely origin comes from the combination of two Tupi words kara'iwa or kari (white man) + oka (house) and means "house of the white man". This meant the whitewashed houses of the Portuguese.
Cariocas are described as exceedingly friendly, according to a study by Robert Levine published in American Scientist Magazines. The article presents the Cariocas as follows:
“There is an important word in Brazil: lovable (simpático)… It relates to a number of desirable social characteristics - friendly, nice, agreeable and good-natured. A person who is funny and who likes to be around ... Brazilians, and especially the Cariocas of Rio de Janeiro, want to be lovable. And making an effort to help a stranger is part of this picture. "
With the development of industry and trade in the period after the Second World War , numerous people immigrated from the interior of the country ( urbanization ); Rio de Janeiro expanded greatly. The city's population has doubled to 6.7 million (as of 2019) since the mid-1950s. The high birth surplus for decades (→ Demography of Brazil ) also contributed to this. In the meantime, the population is hardly growing in the actual urban area, but almost only in the suburban belt, which has grown strongly.
The social situation in Rio de Janeiro is shaped, among other things, by the high tolerance between the various ethnic groups that is typical of Brazil, as well as by the low average age (more than 25% of the population are younger than 18 years, over 80% are under 60).
The main problem of the city is the dramatic differences in the social situation of the residents. On the slopes of the city are the favelas consisting of poor dwellings , while the more posh residential areas in the south, near the beaches on the Atlantic coast, such as Copacabana , Ipanema and Leblon . In the Rocinha, the largest favela in South America, on the southern edge of the city, 200,000 people alone live under sometimes catastrophic conditions, such as poverty or an extremely high crime rate . One problem in the favelas is that the armed forces of the drug mafia have created a legal vacuum and are defending it against the executive. Sometimes they monitor entire districts and terrorize their residents, while the police do not appear there.
The following overview shows the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status. 1680 and 1750 are estimates, since 1799 census results.
Information on the population development of the Rio de Janeiro conurbation :
According to the 2007 IBGE, there were 11.714 million people in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. The ethnic composition resulted in the following statistics:
- 53.6% - 6,278,704 - White, people with white skin
- 33.6% - Pardo , people with brown skin 3,935,904 -
- 12.3% - Afro-Brazilian 1,440,822 -
Most of the residents of Rio de Janeiro are of Portuguese descent. Afro-Brazilians and people with light and dark parents (who are mostly of Portuguese and African origins) also make up a large number. They are mostly called pardos in Brazil. Other important ethnic groups are German , Italian , Spanish , Arabic , Jewish and Asian (most of them are of Korean and Japanese origin).
The majority of the population is Christian. Catholics make up the majority here, although Protestant churches and, in recent years, the Pentecostal spectrum have also become increasingly important. Judaism (23,862 followers) and Islam (656 followers), as well as derivatives of Christian denominations such as Adventists , are in the minority. Far Eastern religions, religions based on various Brazilian customs such as Umbanda and Candomblé and other spiritual movements are numerically insignificant. The open confession of lack of faith is strongly represented.
The Catedral de São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro , also known as the Catedral Metropolitana , is architecturally interesting . The cathedral, named after the patron of the city, was completed in 1979 and is located on the edge of the city center. The height of the conical modernist building is 96 meters, the diameter at the bottom 106 meters. The capacity is given as 20,000 people.
At the end of July 2013, the World Youth Day of the Catholic Church took place in Rio de Janeiro.
Development of the living situation
The demographic development since the middle of the 20th century has led to a partially uncontrolled expansion of Rio de Janeiro. Since urban planning could not keep up with these changes, countless irregular settlements ("Loteamentos irregulares") and illegal settlements ( favelas ) arose on the periphery . A quarter of the people in the city live in these simple neighborhoods. Nevertheless, there is a basic infrastructure almost everywhere (running water, sewage pipes, power supply, garbage disposal, schools). Most of the residents also own the basic products of a medium-sized company (refrigerator, gas stove, television, internet connection, air conditioning).
Today, extensive, sprawled peripheries with little urban infrastructure extend around a densely populated city center. For the majority of Rio de Janeiro's residents, informal construction is the only way to get housing. The inadequate housing situation of the population and the numerous ecological problems have made the rulers responsible for thinking about a new urban planning policy. Since 1993, the Favela Bairro urbanization program has attempted to reintegrate these informal settlements into the formal city.
In a ranking of cities according to their quality of life, Rio de Janeiro ranked 118th out of 231 cities worldwide in 2018.
A big problem for the city is the high crime rate. The 1993 Candelária massacre caused a sensation .
According to the Brazilian Ministry of Justice, the murder rate in Rio de Janeiro in 2002 was over 60 people per 100,000 inhabitants, while the average in Brazil was 30 per 100,000 inhabitants (Germany 1 per 100,000 inhabitants), the number fell significantly to 37.7 by 2006 . 80 percent of homicides were caused by firearms . In 2015, the homicide rate was 18.6.
In addition to homicides, the police also have to deal with kidnappings, robberies and organized drug and criminal syndicates (such as the Comando Vermelho ). According to estimates by the Brazilian police, the Comando Vermelho (CV) in Rio is made up of around 5,000 criminals, some of whom are armed with war weapons. It controls about 40 percent of the local illicit drug market. According to expert studies, the clearance rate of the murders in Rio de Janeiro is one percent.
On December 28, 2006, a series of attacks against police stations and other civilian facilities took place in Rio de Janeiro, killing over 18 people. The series of attacks was preceded by a massive police presence shortly before the New Year holidays, with ten favelas being occupied by the military police . There were numerous shootings in the favela of Vila Cruzeiro and even in a well-known shopping center. These actions were presumably controlled by the Comando Vermelho.
In the poor areas of Rio de Janeiro, which are controlled by drug trafficking, attacks by so-called “milícias” take place, who attack and expel members of the drug gangs and rule favelas themselves. It is believed that the militias are controlled or even formed by plainclothes police officers, former security forces and firefighters. They reportedly demand some sort of security levy from residents in the neighborhoods they control. A few cases of attacks against residents who are not willing to pay have become known. Even if the militias sometimes ensure calm, they are often overzealous: if a person is denounced by several residents, they can be killed by the militias.
In July 2017, 8,500 soldiers were posted to the city to support the security forces. According to Amnesty International, there were 2,600 shootings with 800 deaths across the city in the first half of the year, the total number of deaths from acts of violence rose in the first half of 2017 by 10.2 percent to 2,723 100 police officers killed. This despite a high level of security in the intensely protected tourist centers and some favelas.
Since January 1st, 2009 Eduardo Paes ( PMDB ) ruled the city of Rio de Janeiro. He won the runoff election on October 26, 2008 against Fernando Gabeira ( PV ) with 50.8 percent of the votes cast. Paes replaced César Maia ( PFL ), who won the local elections three times (1992, 2000 and 2004), in his office as mayor.
Eduardo Paes' successor on January 1, 2017, was Marcelo Crivella (PRB), who won the runoff of the mayoral election on October 30, 2016 with 59% of the vote. In the 2020 local elections , Paes and Crivella faced each other again. Paes won the runoff election on November 29, 2020 with 64.1% of the vote, so he will take up the post of city prefect again on January 1, 2021.
In addition to the federal and state level, local politics has an increasing influence on the lives of the citizens of Rio de Janeiro. The mayors are elected in general, direct elections for four years in office. Local election campaigns are largely influenced by people and local issues.
Voter turnout is very high because of the general compulsory voting in the country, but non-voters can justify their absence without problems and unbureaucratically. Overall, only 15 percent of those eligible to vote do not vote, and another five percent cast either invalid or deliberately white ballot papers.
Rio de Janeiro has partnerships with the following cities in the named countries:
Culture and sights
The Theatro Municipal (city theater) is the most impressive building on the “Praça Floriano”, in the “Cinelândia” district - this is where the opera and the orchestra of the city of Rio de Janeiro are located. It was built between 1905 and 1909 by Francisco de Oliveira Passos, who was inspired by the splendid Parisian Opéra Garnier .
Various marble arcades, but also bronze details and Vitreaus imported from Europe decorate the stylish building - the stage curtain was painted by Eliseu Visconti (1866–1944) and portrays a total of 75 famous personalities from the artistic field, such as Carlos Gomes and Rembrandt van Rijn and Richard Wagner . In the basement is the Mosaic Café do Teatro in the Assírio Hall.
Classical concerts, musicals, operettas and opera
The Cidade das Artes (City of the Arts) is an event complex in the Barra da Tijuca district , designed by the French architect Christian de Portzamparc . It is the headquarters of the Brazilian Symphony Orchestra, the large hall with up to 1,222 seats offers space for theater, classical concerts, musicals and operas.
The city is home to various museums (for example the "Museu Paço Imperial" and the "Museu do Indio"). The “Museu Chácara do Céu” shows works by Pablo Picasso and other modern masters such as Henri Matisse , Amedeo Modigliani and Claude Monet . The " Museu Histórico Nacional " is one of the few remaining buildings from the 16th century. It is dedicated to Brazilian history and shows furniture and other objects from the colonial times of Brazil.
The “Museu da República” is located in the Catete district south of the city center, near the “Catete” subway station. Not to be forgotten is the " Museu Nacional do Brasil " in the northern part of the city. The " Museu Nacional de Belas Artes " (National Museum of Fine Arts) opened in 1938 in the center of the city and houses an important collection of Brazilian art from the 19th and 20th centuries as well as Italian and French masters from the 17th to the 19th centuries.
Also worth seeing is the “ Museu de Arte Moderna ”, MAM for short, designed by the well-known Brazilian architect Affonso Eduardo Reidy . The MAM owns exhibits of modern Brazilian art and the history of cinema. After the catastrophic fire in 1978, the collection was rebuilt through various donations and purchases. Since 1993, the museum has also housed the collection of art patron Gilberto Chateaubriand.
In the museum of the art school “Dom João VI.” There are works and documents of the Brazilian art production of the 19th and 20th centuries, mainly from Rio de Janeiro, but also European art. The “Museu Castro Maya” houses the collections of Raymundo Ottoni de Castro Maya (1894–1968) in two facilities: the “Museu do Açude” (decorative arts) and the “Chácara do Céu”, the museum for Brazilian art and iconography.
A famous landmark of Rio de Janeiro is the Christ the Redeemer , which is located on the Corcovado mountain - to be reached with the Corcovado mountain railway . The statue is 30 meters high, stands on an 8 meter high pedestal and weighs 1145 tons. From there you can also see the famous Sugar Loaf.
At the southern end of the “Avenida Rio Branco” in the city center is the “Praça Floriano”, one of the most impressive squares in Rio de Janeiro. “Cinelândia” on the one hand is a lively district with cafés, bars and cinemas. The magnificent “Theatro Municipal” is located in the northern part of the Praça.
There are also two large neo-classical buildings on Avenida Rio Branco: the “Biblioteca Nacional” (opened in 1910) and the “Museu Nacional de Belas Artes”. Also worth seeing is the Art Nouveau “Confeitaria Colombo” on the “Rua Gonçalves Dias”.
On the "Avenida República do Chile" you will find the modern " Catedral Metropolitana ", which looks like a volcano made of concrete and has a capacity for 20,000 believers. Near the new cathedral , a steep cobblestone street leads over the aqueduct "Arcos da Lapa" from the 18th century to the bohemian quarter "Santa Teresa".
Numerous old churches and monasteries such as the “ Candelária Church ” (Igreja da Candelária) as well as the “São Bento” monastery (Mosteiro de São Bento) and other buildings from the colonial era such as the residential palace “ Paço de São Cristóvão ” stand in stark contrast to this modern architecture .
In the city center opposite the cube-shaped Petrobrás building (Brazil's state oil company) is the small park Largo da Carioca. Behind it rises on a hill the simple, white "Igreja e Convento de Santo Antônio", the oldest and probably most beautiful church in Rio de Janeiro. Next to the Franciscan monastery “Santo Antônio” stands the “São Francisco da Penitência” church , which is decorated with splendid baroque décor.
The Praça Quinze de Novembro (Praça XV) near the shore of the Guanabara Bay was the main square of colonial Rio de Janeiro; the elegant three-storey building on the southeast side is the " Paço Imperial ", the first residence of John VI built by the French architect Auguste Henri Victor Grandjean de Montigny . (1767–1826), King of Portugal after he had moved his court to Brazil in 1807.
Not so far away, at the “Praça Pio X” is the church “Nossa Senhora da Candelária”. Its magnificent interior is decorated entirely with different colored marble , and marble angels support the two huge bronze pulpits.
The most famous parks in Rio de Janeiro are the Botanical Garden (Jardim Botânico) and the " Quinta da Boa Vista ", the largest park in the city. Located in the São Cristóvão district, the park offers green gardens, lakes, sports facilities and playgrounds. Its main attractions include a zoo , which has over 350 different species of animals, and the National Museum, which was founded during the imperial era. In the district of Barra da Tijuca there is the Bosque da Barra , a nature reserve and park in which the original vegetation of the Baixada de Jacarepaguá has been preserved.
The Botanical Garden, at the beginning of the 19th century at the instigation of Prince Regent Johann VI. is one of the most important green spaces in the city. There are several sights in it, including the “Kuhlmann Museum”, the seat of the garden administration, the portal of the former “Academia Imperial de Belas Artes” (Imperial Academy of Fine Arts), which was built by Grandjean de Montigny (1772–177) after the building was destroyed. 1850) was relocated here in the 1930s, as was the former gunpowder factory. Nearby are the "Horto Florestal", the tree nursery, and the "Solar da Imperatriz", the former palace of the empress (on the Estrada Dona Castorina). The Lage Park is also historically significant .
The " Sugar Loaf ", a landmark of Rio de Janeiro, is a 394 meter high granite rock, which is located in front of the city on a peninsula in the Atlantic, in the Guanabara Bay. In Brazil it is called "Pão de Açúcar" (literally carrot, the Portuguese term for sugar loaf) because it has the same shape. In addition, the Indians living there called the mountain Pandasuka, whereby the Portuguese understood Pão de Açucar.
A cable car (" O Bondinho ") leads to the top of the mountain , its cabin is made of glass all around so that you can see the rock as you go up. The first section of the cable car was completed on October 27, 1912, but only the second section, which was completed in 1913, led to the top of the mountain.
The steep wire ropes of the railway have also been used for artistic arts. In 1967, for example, a German rode a motorcycle up the ropes and in 1977 the American tightrope walker Steven McPeak balanced to the summit. In 1979 the mountain was the backdrop of a fight between James Bond ( Roger Moore ) and Beißer (English: Jaws), played by Richard Kiel , in the film " James Bond 007 - Moonraker - Top Secret ".
On the southern side of the "Sugar Loaf" are the beaches of Copacabana, Ipanema and Leblon, up to the rock of Gávea . On the northern side is the Bay of Guanabara with the neighboring districts of Botafogo, Flamengo, Ilha de Governador and the hill " Dedo de Deus " near Teresópolis . In the west stands the Christ the Redeemer on the Corcovado .
freetime and recreation
The recreational areas near the city include the beaches, especially those of Ipanema and Copacabana , the mountain gorges of the Barra da Tijuca and the islands of the Guanabara Bay, which was heavily polluted in January 2000 by oil leaks after an accident.
Copacabana is one of the most famous districts of Rio de Janeiro, which is located directly on the Atlantic Ocean and has the famous four kilometer long sandy beach. The crescent-shaped beach with the promenade is also called "Princesinha do Mar" (Little Sea Princess) and saw its golden age in the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s. As a district of bohemian, wealth and glamor, Copacabana has become the subject of many pieces of music, books and pictures. The term “Die Copacabana”, which is common in German-speaking countries, does not exist in Brazil, as the name refers to the district as a whole. The busy coastal road with its attractive marbled Portuguese strolling sidewalks that separates the beach from the buildings is called "Avenida Atlantica".
Ipanema is the name of a district and a famous beach of Rio de Janeiro. In addition to Copacabana, Ipanema owns the most important beach in Rio de Janeiro. The neighborhood that adjoins it is one of the more upscale and pleasant areas of Rio. The combination of the beach and the pleasant city district is unique in this form. To the west of Ipanema, separated by the connecting canal between the Lagoa da Freitas and the sea, is the smaller and quieter district of Leblon. Both form a unit between the rock formations as in the case of Copacabana. The quarter also became famous for the song "Garota de Ipanema" ( The Girl from Ipanema ) by Antônio Carlos Jobim . Between the calm beach of Copacabana (clear water) and the beach of Ipanema (wild water) lie the rocky promontory Arpoador ("Harpunator") and a fort used for military purposes. The Ipanema-Leblon beach differs from that of Copacabana in that the buildings are more recent, it does not have the attractive shape of the "crescent moon" (like that of Copacabana) and that the sun shines a few minutes longer in the evening .
Football is a national sport in Brazil. Each of the 26 states and the Distrito Federal do Brasil holds its own football championship (Torneio estadual) in the first half of the year. Some tournaments like the “Campeonato Carioca” in Rio de Janeiro have been held since the beginning of the 20th century and attract hundreds of thousands of fans to the stadiums.
The "Campeonato Carioca" is the scene of one of the most important and world-famous classical duels, that between Flamengo Rio de Janeiro and Fluminense Rio de Janeiro . Flamengo is the club that has won the national championship of Rio de Janeiro , the "Campeonato Carioca", most often . Flamengo was champion 32 times, Fluminense 31 times, CR Vasco da Gama 22 times and Botafogo FR 19 times. America FC , a former great club in Rio de Janeiro, have won 7 times and Bangu AC won 2 titles.
The city's most successful club in the Brazilian soccer league is Flamengo. The club won the Brazilian championship seven times , followed by CR Vasco da Gama and Fluminense with four titles and Botafogo with two national titles.
In the first Brazilian league play Vasco da Gama (with a following more from the population of Portuguese origin), Botafogo (from the district of the same name, with a very mixed following), Flamengo (the most popular club in Brazil with the largest following mainly from the poor districts and favelas from Rio de Janeiro) and Fluminense (followers come from the middle class and the rich, white population of Rio de Janeiro).
Games between these four clubs are usually played in the Maracanã (actually Estádio Jornalista Mário Filho), which was built for the 1950 World Cup . It was supposed to seat around 200,000 spectators during the 1950 Games. In the course of several renovations in 1998, 2006 and 2010-2013, the audience capacity was significantly reduced. With a capacity of 78,838 (national games) or 74,738 spectators (international games) it is still the largest football stadium in Brazil, but the largest football stadium in South America is now the Estadio Monumental "U" in Lima.
Other stadiums are the Estádio Olímpico João Havelange (opening: 2007, capacity: 45,000 spectators), the home ground of Botafogo, the Estádio São Januário (opening: 1927, capacity: 25,000 spectators), the home ground of Vasco da Gama, the Estádio das Laranjeiras (Opening: 1919, capacity: 8000 spectators), the home ground of Fluminense and the Estádio da Gávea (opening: 1938, capacity: 4,000 spectators), the home ground of Flamengo.
From July 13th to 29th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro hosted the XV. Pan American Games . The center of the games was the Barra da Tijuca district. 5662 athletes from 42 countries took part in the two-week competitions. Medals were awarded in 332 disciplines and 35 sports. The Pan American Games are traditionally played every four years in North or Latin America, one year before the Summer Olympics in the Olympic sports.
On October 2, 2009, the IOC selected Rio de Janeiro from among its competitors Chicago , Tokyo and Madrid as the venue for the 2016 Summer Olympics . To this end, the city has presented an investment plan for around 11 billion euros, a large part of which is to be used to improve public transport and strengthen security measures. In Rio, this acclaimed decision is seen as the dawn of a new phase in the city's history, nationwide as a clear signal for modern Brazil. Occasionally there is resistance to the evacuation of the favela Villa Autódromo , which is to give way to the Olympic Park.
Carnival in Rio
Large numbers of people take part in Rio's annual colorful Carnival , which takes place on the eve of Lent. The carnival officially (actually earlier) starts on the Friday before Ash Wednesday and is one of the main attractions of the city. The multi-colored parade of the samba schools is one of the largest parades in the world.
Most of the magnificently costumed "kings", "queens", "princesses" and "baianas" have worked hard all year round to be able to afford the costumes they wear here for just a few hours. The carnival is organized by so-called samba schools - the "Escolas de Samba".
There is space for 60,000 spectators in the stands. The parades begin every evening in the 700-meter-long arena of the Sambodromo and last around twelve hours per festival day. This means that the last two parades will be held the following morning.
Every year on January 20th the celebrations in honor of St. Sebastian take place. The statue of Rio de Janeiro's patron saint is carried through the city in a procession. The procession begins in the Saint Sebastian Church in Barra da Tijuca and leads to the Catedral Metropolitana , where a solemn service takes place.
In June the bonfire festival (with games, dances, bonfires and fireworks) and the gay and lesbian parade Rio de Janeiro Pride are held. In July, Anima Mundi, the largest Latin American animation festival, takes place and numerous cinemas have events on the subject, at the end of July the Rio de Janeiro Marathon .
In September the “International Book Biennale” is held in the Centro de Convenções. The “Festival do Rio BR” - one of the most important audiovisual media festivals in Latin America - and the “ Festival do Rio ” - one of the largest international film festivals - take place in October .
On December 31st, the religious festival of the sea goddess " Iemanjá " is celebrated on the beaches of Copacabana, Ipanema and Leblon. Flowers are thrown into the water and offerings in the form of combs, mirrors, soaps and perfume are made to the sea on small, handmade boats.
Also on New Year's Eve, the New Year celebrations, known here as "Réveillon", take place on Copacabana beach with open-air concerts, parties and fireworks.
Rio de Janeiro's cuisine reflects the influences of the peoples who have shaped this city. In the beginning it was the Africans, the indigenous population and Portuguese, later also French, Italians and numerous others. The exotic fish from the Amazon region , the spicy dishes from the northeast and rustic dishes from Minas Gerais , the “ churrasco ” (roasted spit on the charcoal grill) from the south of the country and many others come from other regions of Brazil . Originally from Rio de Janeiro, only the “ Feijoada ” (a bean dish with meat and side dishes) served on Wednesdays and Saturdays is served . Even if you can eat quite well in Rio, if you know where, the restoration is by no means Mediterranean on the tourist beaches. The best are the “churrascarias” in the street canyons away from the beach, also with regard to the first-class pork and chicken in Brazil . Beef , since in Rio mostly comes from tropical Zebu cattle, is, apart from the coveted "Filet Mignon", often hard and has a stubborn taste.
The nightlife is very diverse and offers a wide range of alternatives with numerous cafes, scotch bars, discos, pubs and beer halls. There are good cultural programs all year round. The people of Rio de Janeiro are very enthusiastic about beef. There are three basic types of service: plate dishes, self-service buffet, which is billed by the kilo, or the rodízio, where the guest is continuously served the food ( pizza , sushi , beef, chicken and sausage). There are also the “Chopes” (ice-cold draft beer ) and Aipim dumplings (Aipim is a form of cassava that is prepared like potatoes and tastes similar to it).
Economy and Infrastructure
Since the city was founded as a fortress and Portuguese trading post, Rio de Janeiro has expanded and gradually filled the entire area between the coast and the mountains of the hinterland. Up until the 20th century, the Portuguese royal family, who had moved to Brazil and Rio de Janeiro, feared workers' unrest and there was no significant industrial settlement in the city. This explains the lagging economic development of Rio de Janeiro behind the economically strongest city in Brazil, São Paulo . The current economic core of the city is concentrated around the Avenida Presidente Vargas and the Avenida Rio Branco . This includes some tall office buildings. There are extensive industrial and residential areas in the north.
The gross domestic product (GDP) of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro in 2005 was 118.980 billion real . The GDP per capita was 19,524 real (approx. 6,489 euros) (Brazil: 11,658 real and the state of Rio de Janeiro: 16,052 real). The share of the community in the GDP of Brazil (2.147 trillion real) was 5.5 percent, the share of the GDP of the state of Rio de Janeiro (246.936 billion real) was 48.2 percent. According to a study from 2014, the greater Rio de Janeiro area has a gross domestic product of 208 billion US dollars (KKB). In the ranking of the economically strongest metropolitan regions worldwide, it took 53rd place.
As Rio de Janeiro is the most popular tourist destination in the country, the city's major economic sectors are also linked to tourism, services and the financial sector. In South America , the city ranks second behind São Paulo in economic terms. Rio de Janeiro is also one of the main locations of the manufacturing industry in Brazil, mainly clothing, chemical and pharmaceutical products, furniture, metal goods, food, ships and textiles are manufactured here.
Banking is dominant, and the country's second largest stock exchange , the “Bolsa de Valores do Rio de Janeiro”, is based in the city, but since the move to São Paulo in 2000, only public stocks have been traded. In the past few decades, all supraregional banks have also relocated their headquarters to São Paulo, so that Rio de Janeiro's financial influence on Brazil is steadily decreasing.
Agriculture in the vicinity of the city plays an important role in Rio de Janeiro's economy. The main export goods are mainly coffee and soybeans. Problems are caused by inflation and high unemployment, and the differences between the poor and rich population are serious, which is one of the reasons why crime has developed into an unofficial economic sector. Tourists in particular are often victims of petty theft.
Since the new national currency, the real , was introduced in 1994, Rio de Janeiro's economy has stabilized. In 1990 economic growth was falling and inflation was extremely high. The city was heavily in debt and politics had no direction. Foreigners have been allowed to invest on the stock exchanges in the country since 1996. In order to attract more foreign investment, the Brazilian government has also removed trade restrictions, privatized industrial sectors and lowered tariffs . These measures have made it easier for foreign companies to enter Rio de Janeiro and increase their profit margins.
Several of the country's largest companies, including Embratel and Petrobras , are headquartered in the city. The most important, partly international, groups with branches in Rio de Janeiro include ExxonMobil , Petróleo Ipiranga , Shell and Texaco . The high concentration of consulates compared to other cities has prompted numerous companies to relocate their South American headquarters to Rio de Janeiro. The most important investors are US corporations, but also German and Japanese. Most of the trading venues and companies are located in the city center and in Barra da Tijuca.
Rio de Janeiro is an important port city on the shipping routes that connect the coastal cities in the north-east of the country with the economically more developed areas in south-east Brazil. The city is connected to the rest of the country by an extensive network of railways and airlines.
The Rio de Janeiro region has a total of five airports. Three are used for civil air traffic and two for military flight operations.
The Rio de Janeiro-Antônio Carlos Jobim Airport (Galeão) is an important international commercial airport in Brazil and the main airport of Rio de Janeiro. The name comes from the Brazilian musician Antônio Carlos Jobim . In February 2000 a new terminal hall with a capacity of up to eight million passengers per year was completed here. In the 1970s, the "Antônio Carlos Jobim" airport was a Concorde destination .
In addition to the international airport, there is also the local airport Rio de Janeiro-Santos Dumont for domestic traffic. The “Aeroporto de Jacarepaguá” in the Tijuca district is operated by the “Aeroclube do Brasil”. The two military airfields are the "Base Aérea de Santa Cruz" and the "Campo dos Afonsos".
The Metrô Rio de Janeiro was inaugurated on March 15, 1979 and runs on two lines: General Osório-Uruguai (20 stations) and Botafogo-Pavuna (22.0 kilometers, 25 stations). Both lines share a route between the city center and Botafogo. Another four lines are being planned. These include a privately financed route from Carioca train station on Line 1 through an underwater tunnel under Guanabara Bay to Niterói and São Gonçalo . The operating company of the metro is Opportrans – Concessão Metroviária SA Several bus routes are integrated into the metro tariff.
The more public transport is the rapid transit system SuperVia , the Bus Rapid Transit System BRT Rio , the cable car system Teleférico do Alemão (since 2016 in repair) and a dense city bus ensures -Netz. These networks each have their own tariff system .
On January 30, 1859, the city's first horse-drawn tram went into operation. The seven-kilometer route between Rio de Janeiro and the suburb of Tijuca was the second after those of New York (1832), Paris (1855), Boston (1856), Santiago de Chile (1857), Havana and Mexico City (both 1858) seventh in the world.
On October 8, 1892, the Vice President of Brazil, Floriano Peixoto, opened the country's first electric tram between Largo da Carioca and Largo do Machado in Rio de Janeiro . Due to the increasing car traffic, the previously extensive network was almost completely shut down in the 1960s. In 2011 the tram only ran an eight-kilometer stretch to Silvestre (connection to the Corcovado cable car ) and Paula Mattos, both stations in the Santa Teresa district. The location of the tram outside the city center and the spectacular route from the city-side terminus over the “Arcos da Lapa” aqueduct saved it from being closed until 2011. In addition to the tram in Braunschweig , this tram was the last in the world to have a gauge of 1100 millimeters. The operation of the "Bonde de Santa Teresa" was suspended after an accident with six deaths on August 28, 2011 until further notice. At the beginning of 2016, four kilometers were put back into operation.
A modern tram has also been running in Rio de Janeiro since 2016 , which was opened on the occasion of the Olympic Games in the same year.
A mountain railway leads up to the 704 meter high Corcovado . The order for the railway was placed on January 7, 1882 by Emperor Dom Pedro II . The two engineers Teixeira Soãres and Francesco Passos received the concession to build the railway. The meter-gauge rack railway was opened in 1884, but the summit could only be reached from July 1, 1885. In 1910, the single-track line was electrified by Sulzer AG from Switzerland . It was the first electrically operated train in Brazil.
Trolleybuses ran around town between September 3, 1962 and April 1971.
The print media are of great importance in Rio de Janeiro. Their level is relatively high, as the press is primarily aimed at the upper and middle income groups. Newspapers like “Jornal do Brasil” and the political magazines “Istoé” and “Veja” need not shy away from international comparison. With “O Povo na Rua” (The People in the Street), Rio also has a large tabloid that is more aimed at broader segments of the population.
Rio de Janeiro is the headquarters of the media group Grupo Globo , which includes numerous newspapers such as O Globo and other publications, as well as Rede Globo , the third largest television network in the world. The headquarters are located in the Jardim Botânico district in the Zona Sul. In the Central Globo de Produção , the "Globo Production Center" or "Projac" for short, from "Projeto Jacarepaguá", in Jacarepaguá in the west of the city, many of these programs, such as the Novelas, are produced.
90 percent of the city's residents have a television. The television stations are based on the North American model and predominantly prefer entertainment programs and films that promise high ratings and advertising income. The telenovelas , referred to here only as novelas, are particularly popular .
In many favelas there are local radio stations, some of which are illegal, which mainly allow music and artists from the favelas to have their say.
Cable TV is gaining ground in Rio de Janeiro and includes all the major national TV channels such as TV Globo , Record, Bandeirantes, Rede TV and TV Cultura, but also the programs of the sports channel ESPN and its Brazilian branch, the news channel CNN , the Italian RAI and MTV as well as all major radio stations. These include Rádio CBN (Central Brasileira de Noticias), Jovem Pan, Radiobrás, Rádio Eldorado, Nove de Julho and Rádio Católica.
The Portuguese language is the official language and therefore the language of education. English and Spanish are usually taught as part of the official higher education system. There are also international schools such as the American School of Rio de Janeiro, Lady of Mercy School, the German School Corcovado and the British School of Rio de Janeiro.
Primary schools are largely under local government, while the state plays a larger role in the extensive network of secondary schools, with schools such as the prestigious Colégio Pedro II . The agglomeration of Rio de Janeiro is home to numerous universities, colleges and technical schools, research institutes and libraries. Leading educational institutions include the Federal University (founded in 1792 and reopened in 1920), the University of the State of Rio de Janeiro (1950) and the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (1940). The city is also home to the Instituto Militar de Engenharia Military Technical University , the National Archives and the Brazilian National Library .
The Universidade Federal Fluminense , on the bay in Niterói , also has a good reputation, as do a few municipal and many private denominational institutions, most notably the Cândido Mendes University. The large Estácio de Sá University has branches in almost all parts of the city and in the suburbs. A number of state national research centers in Rio de Janeiro conduct studies in areas such as economics, geography and statistics, biology and physics, as well as in public policy, such as the Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas or the Instituto de Matemática Pura e Aplicada .
The literacy rate for Cariocas aged ten and older is almost 95 percent, well above the national average. In 1995 there were 1,033 primary schools in Rio de Janeiro with 25,594 teachers and 667,788 students and 370 secondary schools with 9,699 teachers and 227,892 students. There were also 53 preparatory schools with 14,864 teachers and 154,447 students. The city has six major universities and 47 private schools for higher education. In Rio de Janeiro there are currently more than 80 universities recognized by the MEC (Ministry of Education).
The Light Serviços Eletricidade , SA is an energy company from Rio de Janeiro. The company is listed in the IBOVESPA financial index . Light Serviços Eletricidade was privatized by the Brazilian government in 1996 when it was bought by a consortium of Houston Industries , AES Corporation and Électricité de France for $ 1.7 billion.
sons and daughters of the town
Rio de Janeiro is the birthplace of numerous prominent personalities.
Films in and with Rio de Janeiro
- Orfeu Negro , City of God (Cidade de Deus), Central Station (Central do Brasil) and to blame for it is Rio (Blame It on Rio).
- The Internet Movie Database offers a selection of more than 300 titles with Rio de Janeiro as the setting.
- The series CSI: Miami plays the first episode of the fifth season in Rio de Janeiro.
- The James Bond film James Bond 007 - Moonraker - Top Secret is set in part in Rio de Janeiro.
- L'homme de Rio (Adventure in Rio) with Jean-Paul Belmondo is set in Rio and Brasilia, which is under construction.
- Tropa de Elite and Tropa de Elite 2 by director José Padilha focus on the work of a special unit of the Rio de Janeiro military police called Batalhão de Operações Policiais Especiais in the fight against organized crime. The film was awarded the Golden Bear for best film in 2008.
- The film Four Fists Against Rio, starring Bud Spencer and Terence Hill , was shot in Rio de Janeiro in 1984.
- The Hindi film Dhoom 2 - Back in Action is partly set in Rio de Janeiro.
- Rio - family animated film about the last living blue Spix's macaws .
- Fast & Furious Five
- The Incredible Hulk (Favela Rocinha)
- Breaking Dawn - Bite to the End of the Night, Part 1
- The music video for the song They Don't Care About Us (1996) by Michael Jackson was partly shot in the favela Santa Marta.
- Elisabeth Blum, Peter Neitzke : FavelaMetropolis. Reports and projects from Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. Birkhäuser Basel 2004, ISBN 3-7643-7063-7 .
- Jürgen Dietz: Urban development, housing shortages and self-help in Rio de Janeiro. Assessment and evaluation of favela programs and projects. Institute for Brazilian Studies / Brazilian Studies -Verlag, Mettingen 2000, ISBN 3-88559-076-X . (At the same time Erlangen, Nuremberg, University, dissertation, 1999).
- Heike Werner: Rio de Janeiro for architects. Werner, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-9809471-7-6 (with an urban history section and a representation of the most important buildings).
- City Administration Citizens Portal, Prefeitura Municipal (Brazilian Portuguese)
- City Council website , Câmara Municipal (Brazilian Portuguese)
- Entry on the website of the UNESCO World Heritage Center ( English and French ).
- Consulate General of the Federal Republic of Germany
- Goethe Institute Rio de Janeiro
- Jump upRio de Janeiro climate: average temperature, weather by month, Rio de Janeiro weather averages. In: de.climate-data.org. Retrieved October 1, 2019 .
- IBGE: Rio de Janeiro - Panorama. Updated statistics. Retrieved February 16, 2020 (Brazilian Portuguese).
- IBGE : Estimativas da população residente no Brasil e unidades da federação com data de referência em 1 ° de julho de 2018. (PDF; 2.6 MB) In: ibge.gov.br. 2018, accessed on November 3, 2018 (Brazilian Portuguese, addition of the individual cities in the metropolitan area).
- IBGE: Area Territorial Oficial
- Ciudad Maravillosa: Acerca de Rio de Janeiro
- Brasil Abaixo de Zero: A super onda de frio do inverno de 1955
- World Meteorological Organization: World Weather Information Service
- Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro: Datas Históricas e Comemorativas / Janeiro ( Memento of October 28, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on August 30, 2011
- Valongo Wharf Archaeological Site - UNESCO World Heritage Center
- De onde vêm os termos "carioca" e "gaúcho"? , Só português, accessed June 11, 2014 (Portuguese)
- Can't find a good Samaritan? Don't blame it on Rio. csmonitor.com, accessed June 11, 2009 .
- There is an important word in Brazil: simpático,…. It refers to a range of desirable social qualities - to be friendly, nice, agreeable, and good-natured. A person who is fun to be with and pleasant to deal with… Brazilians, especially the Cariocas of Rio…, want very much to be seen as simpático. And going out of one's way to assist strangers is part of this image.
- see for example FAZ.net May 7, 2021: At least 25 dead in the bloodiest police operation in Rio's history
- Brodwyn M. Fischer: A Poverty of Rights: Citizenship and Inequality in Twentieth-Century Rio de Janeiro. Stanford University Press, Stanford 2009, ISBN 0-8047-5290-7
- IBGE: Ethnic groups in Rio de Janeiro
- IBGE: População residente por cor ou raça e religious
- IBGE: Religions - 2000 Population Census (Note: detailed figures are inconclusive, as the figures for the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro add up to 145% of those surveyed.)
- Mercer's 2018 Quality of Living Rankings. Retrieved August 18, 2018 .
- Mapa da Violência dos Municípios Brasileiros 2008. (PDF; 2.7 MB) Rede de Informação Tecnológica Latino Americana (RITLA), January 29, 2008, accessed on October 26, 2008 (Portuguese).
- Dietmar Lang: Rio de Janeiro is the master of murders. In: brasilienmagazin.net. September 22, 2006, accessed August 5, 2016 .
- Rio de Janeiro: In 2015 there were "only" 1,202 murders , n-tv, January 15, 2016
- Klaus Hart: Brazil's “Haiti”: Church denounces the massacre and terror of the death squads in Rio de Janeiro. In: ila-web.de. Latin America Observatory, archived from the original on April 8, 2014 ; Retrieved August 5, 2016 .
- Der Spiegel: Drug Mafia Kills 18 People , December 28, 2006
- War scenes in Rio - military occupies a runaway favela , September 22, 2017
- Der Standard: Defeats for President Lula's party in runoff election , October 27, 2008
- Marcelo Crivella é eleito no Rio com 59.36% dos votos válidos . In: Folha de S. Paulo , October 30, 2016.
- Resultado das Eleições e Apuração Rio de Janeiro-RJ no 2º turno , accessed on December 2, 2020.
- Asociation de Agencias de Turismo del Cusco: Ciudades hermanas
- Program of the Cidade das Artes
- Website of the Museu do Amanhã .
- Gerd Helge-Vogel: The Lage Park in Rio de Janeiro - a gem of Brazilian garden art . In: Die Gartenkunst 20 (2/2008), pp. 277–284.
- Worldstadiums.com: Stadium List
- Carsten Janke: Olympia 2016 in Rio: A favela offers resistance . In: the daily newspaper . December 8, 2012 ( taz.de [accessed August 5, 2016]).
- Official match report Germany - Argentina on the FIFA website for the 2014 World Cup, accessed on July 14, 2014.
- The Race - Maratona do Rio. In: maratonadorio.com.br. June 10, 2013, archived from the original on June 10, 2013 ; accessed on August 5, 2016 .
- IBGE: Produto Interno Bruto dos Municipios 2002-2005
- Alan Berube, Jesus Leal Trujillo, Tao Ran, and Joseph Parilla: Global Metro Monitor . In: Brookings . January 22, 2015 ( brookings.edu [accessed July 19, 2018]).
- Metrô Rio de Janeiro: Official website
- Railways in Rio de Janeiro. In: bahnen.de. Archived from the original on December 25, 2004 ; Retrieved August 5, 2016 .
- Tages-Anzeiger: Five dead in an accident on the tourist train , from August 29, 2011
- Return of Rio's popular tourist train Tagesschau 6, January 2016
- Encyclopædia Britannica: Education in Rio de Janeiro
- Cities of the World: Education in Rio de Janeiro
- Ser Universitario: Faculdades reconhecidas pelo MEC
- IMDb: Titles with locations including Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil