|Residents||21,168,791 (estimate as of July 1, 2019)|
|density||36 inhabitants per km²|
|GDP||576,199 million R $
27,283 R $ per capita
The federal state of Minas Gerais ( Brazilian-Portuguese [ ˈminɐz ʒeˈɾajs ], European-Portuguese [ ˈminɐʒ ʒɨˈɾajʃ ], abbreviation : MG ; German "general mines") is located in southeastern Brazil . Its capital is Belo Horizonte . In short, it is often just called Minas ; the residents are called "Mineiros".
With around 586,520 km², Minas Gerais is roughly the size of metropolitan France and with 19,597,330 inhabitants according to the 2010 census of the IBGE (population density 33 inhabitants / km²), after São Paulo, it is the second most populous state in Brazil. As of July 1, 2019, the IBGE estimated the population to be 21,168,791.
The capital is Belo Horizonte . It was created at the end of the 19th century in place of the old capital Ouro Preto, which, however, symbolically receives this function back on high holidays. Other cities in Minas Gerais include Contagem , Uberlândia and Juiz de Fora .
The highest point is the Pico da Bandeira in the Serra do Caparaó with 2889 m. It is the third highest mountain in Brazil and lies on the border with the neighboring state of Espírito Santo . The most important rivers are São Francisco , Jequitinhonha, Doce, Grande, Paranaíba , Mucuri and Pardo.
Economy and Agriculture
The name of the state of Minas Gerais means something like "general mines". In fact, there are numerous mines and mining areas for various ores and phosphates . In particular, the " Iron Square " is rich in Precambrian iron ore deposits . There are aluminum and zinc produced. In Minas Gerais there are also large deposits of various minerals and rocks . The historical gold reserves that once established the state's wealth and power are now largely exhausted. Today, however, extensive diamond deposits are being exploited in the old gold mines .
In addition to gold and diamonds, numerous other minerals are mined. A total of around 670 minerals and their varieties have been found in the Minas Gerais area so far (as of 2011) . These include the beryl varieties emerald and aquamarine, known as gemstones, as well as jadeite , muscovite , rose quartz and spodumene , of which the gemstone variety Kunzite is known.
The area is also registered as a type locality for 35 minerals, including Brazilianite from the Córrego Frio Mine near Linópolis , Goyazite from Diamantina , Lindbergite from Sapucaia do Norte (Galiléia), Minasgeraisite- (Y) from the José Miranda Mine near Jaguaraçu , Palladium from Bom Sucesso Creek (Serro) and Tavorite from Sapucaia Mine (Sapucaia do Norte).
History and culture
Around 1695 gold was found in Minas Gerais. When diamonds were also discovered, the region boomed. Slaves from Africa were brought here to work in the mines and numerous settlers and traders from Europe settled here.
In the state, the sauropod Maxakalisaurus topai was discovered, the largest of the 15 species of dinosaurs discovered in Brazil so far (as of 2006).
The state of Minas Gerais is responsible for the Universidade do Estado de Minas Gerais, which is spread over six locations .
On November 5, 2015, an environmental disaster occurred in Minas Gerais when a retention basin of an iron ore mine broke near the town of Mariana . Toxic sludge got into the Rio Doce and into the Atlantic Ocean .
On January 25, 2019, a dam broke in Minas Gerais in the municipality of Brumadinho, causing a mudslide and widespread destruction. See: Brumadinho dam breach .
The ten largest parishes of the 853 municipal towns in Minas Gerais are according to the 2010 census:
|rank||local community||2010 census||
July 1, 2018 estimate
|4th||Juiz de Fora||516.247||564.310|
|7th||Ribeirão das Neves||296.317||331.045|
Ethnic groups according to the statistical classification of the IBGE statistical office (2000 status with 17,866,402 inhabitants, status 2010 with 19,597,330 inhabitants): Of these, 14,658,502 inhabitants lived in urban areas (81.87%) and 3,246,631 in rural areas in 2010 Area (18.13)%, in 2010 there were 16,714,976 inhabitants in urban areas (85.29%) and 2,882,354 in rural areas (14.71%).
For the first time in the 2010 census, the Afro-Brazilian population of Pardos and Pretos exceeded that of the whites. The indigenous population is made up of members of the Xacriabá , Maxakali , Krenak , Pataxó , Kaxixó , Aranã , Mukurim , Pankararu and Xukuru-Kariri ethnic groups .
|Brancos||9,594,370||53.58||8,830,978||45.06||Whites, descendants of Europeans|
|Pardos||6,737,420||37.63||8,736,860||44.58||Mixed races, mulattos , mestizos|
|Indigenous people||48,720||0.27||31.601||0.16||indigenous population|
- Heinrich Gutersohn : The heartland of Minas Gerais. A contribution to the cultural geography of Brazil. In: Mitteilungen der Geographisch-Ethnographische Gesellschaft Zürich, 42 (1943–1944), pp. 52–112.
- Government website , Governo do Estado de Minas Gerais (Brazilian Portuguese)
- Legislative Assembly website , Assembleia Legislativa do Estado de Minas Gerais (Brazilian Portuguese)
- Minas Gerais - Panorama. In: cidades.ibge.gov.br. IBGE (Brazilian Portuguese, updated statistics).
- Minas Gerais. In: cidades.ibge.gov.br. IBGE (Brazilian Portuguese, basic statistical information).
- Minas Gerais - Panorama. In: cidades.ibge.gov.br. IBGE , accessed September 4, 2019 (Brazilian Portuguese).
- Jolyon Ralph, Ida Ralph: English-language mineral list for the Minas Gerais site on mindat.org. The type localities appear in bold.
- Humberto Trajano, Raquel Freitas: Romeu Zema, do Novo, é eleito governador de Minas Gerais. In: globo.com. G1, October 28, 2018, accessed January 27, 2019 (Brazilian Portuguese).
- Carla Rahn Philipps: Trade in the Iberian empires, 1450-1750. In: Douglas A. Irwin (Ed.) Trade in the pre-modern era, 1400–1700 , pp. 330–331.
- Anne Herrberg: A lifeline that has become muddy brown . Environmental disaster in Brazil. In: tagesschau. ARD, November 27, 2015, accessed on December 2, 2015 .
- IBGE : Sistema IBGE de Recuperação Automática - SIDRA: Tabela 2093. Retrieved April 8, 2020 (Portuguese, database query, search terms Minas Gerais and Cor ou raça).