|Estado do Acre
|density||4.5 inhabitants per km²|
|Political party||Partido Progressista (PP)|
|GDP||R $ 8,477,000 (2010) R $ 11,567 per person (2010)
Acre [ ˈakɾi ], officially Portuguese Estado do Acre , is the westernmost state in Brazil . It is part of the Região Norte and is located in the southwest of the Brazilian Amazon basin . Its capital is Rio Branco .
As of the 2010 census, Acre had 733,559 residents. As of July 1, 2019, the population was estimated at 881,935 residents, who live in an area of around 164,124 km² (2018), the population density increased from 4.5 to 5.3 inhabitants / km².
Acre belonged to Bolivia until the end of the 19th century. However, it was inhabited by Brazilian immigrants who had effectively formed an independent territory within Bolivia.
In 1899 there were increased attempts by the Bolivian side to bring the area under control. However, this sparked unrest among the Brazilian people, who tried several times to establish an independent republic. On July 14, 1899, the adventurer Luis Galvez Rodriguez de Arias founded the Republic of Acre ( 1st Republic ) with the support of the Brazilian state of Amazonas in the disputed area between Brazil, Bolivia and Peru .
In March 1900, Bolivian troops marched in . The Acre government went underground and sparked an anti-Bolivian uprising on September 17, 1900. In November 1900, the Acre Republic was proclaimed again ( 2nd Republic ). On December 25, 1900, Bolivian troops put down the uprising. On July 11, 1901, Bolivia decided to lease Acre to US and British investors, but on August 6, 1902 another anti-Bolivian uprising broke out and with the support of the "rubber barons" a war against Bolivia broke out. January 1903 ended.
On January 27, 1903, the Acre Republic was proclaimed again ( 3rd Republic ).
On November 17, 1903, the Treaty of Petrópolis was signed between Bolivia and Brazil . It stipulated that Brazil cedes areas of Mato Grosso and paid £ 20 million; in return, Bolivia Acre ceded to Brazil. In addition, Brazil committed to building the Madeira-Mamoré Railway . Acre was thus incorporated into Brazil and divided into three departments. In 1920 the departments were united into one territory and on June 15, 1962 Acre was given the status of a federal state with its own legislative assembly .
Acre came to international public awareness on December 22, 1988, when the rubber collector Chico Mendes was murdered. He was an important leader of the rubber gathering movement (Seringueiros) , who organized themselves against the interests of ranchers and the timber industry in the struggle for the preservation of their livelihood - the forest from which rubber and Brazil nuts are collected.
* Estimate as of July 1, 2019
Source: IBGE (2011)
Ethnic groups according to the statistical classification of the IBGE (status 2000 with 557,526 inhabitants, status 2010 with 732,793 inhabitants):
|Brancos||201,280||171,257||Whites, descendants of Europeans|
|Pardos||346.909||490.507||Mixed races, mulattos , mestizos|
|Indigenous people||8.009||15,704||indigenous population|
The languages of the indigenous peoples (" Indios ") living in Acre belong to four language families. The Madiha (Kulina), Yine (Manchineri) and Asháninka (Kampa) speak languages of the Arawak family. The Karipuná speak a language of the Tupí-Guaraní family . The Katukína language (almost extinct) represents a separate language family. The origin of the Papavo language has not yet been identified.
The languages of all other races belong to the Pano family. The languages of some formerly pan-lingual groups have died out, others are only spoken by a few elderly people.
The state is divided into 22 municipalities, the municípios . The largest cities by population according to the 2010 census are:
- Rio Branco - 336.038
- Cruzeiro do Sul - 78,507
- Sena Madureira - 38.029
- Tarauacá - 35,590
- Feijó - 32,412
- Brasiléia - 21,398
- Senador Guiomard - 20,179
The remaining places have a population below 20,000.
- Acre em números 2017. Rio Branco, 2017 (Brazilian Portuguese; PDF, 8.6 MB).
- Portal do Governo do Acre (Portuguese)
- Eduado Carneiro: Índios no Acre in the historianet (Portuguese)
- IBGE : Produto Interno Bruto - PIB e participação das Grandes Regiões e Unidades da Federação - 2010. Accessed June 21, 2014.
- IBGE : Estados @ Acre Síntese 2010. November 29, 2010, accessed on August 11, 2013 .
- Acre Panorama. In: cidades.ibge.gov.br. IBGE , accessed August 29, 2019 (Brazilian Portuguese).
- Gladson Cameli 11 (Governador). In: eleicoes2018.com. Eleições 2018, accessed January 12, 2019 (Brazilian Portuguese).
- Atlas do desenvolvimento humano no Brasil - Acre . Retrieved May 3, 2020 (Brazilian Portuguese).
- IBGE : Sistema IBGE de Recuperação Automática - SIDRA: Tabela 2093. Retrieved on June 3, 2020 (Portuguese, database query, search terms AAcre and Cor ou raça).
- Acre . In: ethnologue . Retrieved August 11, 2013.
- IBGE : Censo Demográfico 2010. November 29, 2010, accessed on August 11, 2013 .