Clockwise from top:
Skyline (2017), The Great Wall of China at Badaling (2008), Temple of Heaven (2004), National Center for the Performing Arts (2007), Beijing National Stadium (2008), Tiananmen (2005)
Beijing outline map
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Government immediate city||Beijing|
|status||Government immediate city|
|Residents||21,500,000 (March 2016) ( 2nd )|
|density||1,279.2 Ew. / km²|
|Time zone||UTC + 8|
|mayor||Cai Qi (executive)|
Beijing (or officially Beijing , Chinese 北京, Pinyin Běijīng , W.-G. Pei-ching - "Northern Capital", [ pei˨˩tɕiŋ˥˥ ] ) is the capital of the People's Republic of China . Beijing has over three thousand years of history and is now a city under the government , i. In other words, it is directly subordinate to the central government and thus placed on an equal footing with provinces , autonomous areas and special administrative areas .
The entire 16,807 square kilometer administrative area of Beijing has 21.5 million inhabitants (as of March 2016) . It is not a contiguous urban area; with its dominant rural settlement structure, it is more comparable to a province. Of the total population, 11.8 million are registered residents with permanent residence (戶口 / 户口, hùkǒu ) and 7.7 million temporary residents (流動 人口 / 流动 人口, liúdòng rénkǒu ) with temporary residence permits (暫住 證 / 暂住 证, zànzhùzhèng ). If the core city (high density of buildings and closed local form) is taken as the basis, 7.7 million people live in Beijing with their main residence (as of 2007) . The metropolitan area (including suburbs) has 11.8 million inhabitants (as of 2007) . As of 2018, the metropolis is to become the core of a megalopolis of 130 million inhabitants called Jing-Jin-Ji .
As the capital, Beijing is the political center of China. Due to its long history, Beijing is home to an important cultural heritage . This includes the traditional residential area with hutongs , the Tian'anmen Square (天安門廣場 / 天安门广场 - ". Literally place at the Gate of Heavenly Peace"), which in 1987 by the UNESCO for World Heritage declared Forbidden City , the new and old Summer Palace and various temples, such as B. 2012 the Temple of Heaven , the Temple of Lama and the Temple of Confucius.
The name Beijing , German Peking (北京, Běijīng ), literally means "Northern Capital". The names of the cities Nanjing (南京, Nánjīng ) for "southern capital" 'and Tokyo ( Japanese 東京 Tōkyō ) and Tonkin - in Chinese both Dōngjīng (東京 / 东京) - for "eastern capital" were formed in the same way .
The name “Peking”, which is common in German, follows the spelling of the old transcription system of the Chinese Post . In standard Chinese , the city is pronounced [ b̥èɪ̯.d̥ʑ̥íŋ ] ( ). In the official Pinyin transcription it is written Běijīng or Beijing without the tone sign .
In Germany z. For example, the German Foreign Office continues to use the spelling “Beijing”. In German-language publications from China, only the official Chinese spelling "Beijing" is used. The German media have made increasing use of this form in recent years. In contrast, the city was historically known in German as "Peking" and "Pecking".
Beijing is located 110 kilometers northwest of the Gulf of Bohai in the middle of the Hebei province , but is an independently administered city under the government with an area of 16,807.8 km², which roughly corresponds to the land area of the federal states of Thuringia or Styria . Of this, however, only 1,369.9 km² (8%) belong to the core city (high density of buildings and closed local form). 15,398.4 km² (92%) consist of suburbs and areas with a rural settlement structure. The metropolitan area of Beijing, including the suburban belt surrounding the actual city, has an area of 8,859.9 km².
The city is located on the northwestern edge of the densely populated North China Plain, an average of 63 meters above sea level, and is surrounded by mountains (Mongolian Plateau). The highest point in the administrative area of Beijing is the Ling Shan (more precisely: Dongling Shan東 靈山 / 东 灵山) with 2303 meters. The area extends over 180 km in north-south direction and 170 km in east-west direction. Other large cities in the administrative area of Beijing are (as of January 1, 2007): Mentougou 205,574 inhabitants, Tongzhou 169,770 inhabitants, Shunyi 122,264 inhabitants, Huangcun 109,043 inhabitants and Fangshan 100,855 inhabitants.
The North China Plain (Great Plain), in which Beijing lies, is geologically a collapse field that was later filled in by the delta formations of the North China rivers. It consists of alluvial loess and sands that have been brought in from the rivers from the western mountainous countries. The plain is therefore a continuation of the loess land.
Also climatically - hot, humid summers and dry, cold winters with dust storms - and plant-geographically - parkland with steppe-like trains - it is similar to the neighboring Loessberg countries. The North China Plain represents a huge alluvial cone that the Huang He , the muddy river on earth, has raised over the course of many millennia and whose foothills north and south of the Shandong Peninsula reach the Yellow Sea .
The area is exposed to strong tectonic stresses which repeatedly lead to earthquakes , which is why the Jiufeng earthquake station was set up as early as 1930 . The cause is the slow shift of the Indian continental plate northwards into the Eurasian continental plate. The speed of plate tectonics averages around four centimeters per year.
On July 28, 1976 , the most serious earthquake of the 20th century occurred in Tangshan , 140 km east of Beijing (see the 1976 Tangshan earthquake ). It had a magnitude of 8.2 on the Richter scale . The official figure of the government of the People's Republic of China about the number of deaths is 242,419, but some estimates give a number of up to 800,000 deaths, and the official figure is only 7.8. The quake also caused damage in Beijing and other cities in the region.
The inner city of Beijing (marked in red and blue) without a suburban belt is made up of six urban districts . On 1 July 2010 the Municipality were Chongwen (崇文區 / 崇文区, Chongwen Qū ) in the district Dongcheng and the District Xuanwu (宣武區 / 宣武区, Xuānwǔ Qū ) in the District Xicheng incorporated.
- Chaoyang (朝陽 區 / 朝阳 区, Cháoyáng Qū ),
- Dongcheng (東城 區 / 东城 区, Dōngchéng Qū ),
- Fengtai (豐台 區 / 丰台 区, Fēngtái Qū ),
- Haidian (海澱 區 / 海淀 区, 'Hǎidiàn Qū ),
- Shijingshan (石景山 區 / 石景山 区, Shíjǐngshān Qū ),
- Xicheng (西 城區 / 西 城区, Xīchéng Qū ),
In the vicinity of downtown Beijing (marked in green) there are another six boroughs. Between 1986 and 2001, these were converted from districts into city districts.
- Mentougou (門頭溝區 / 门头沟区, Méntóugōu Qū ),
- Fangshan (房山區 / 房山区, Fángshān Qū ) - Fangshan district until 1986,
- Tongzhou (通州 區 / 通州 区, Tōngzhōu Qū ) - Tongxian district until 1997,
- Shunyi (順義 區 / 顺义 区, Shùnyì Qū ) - Shunyi district until 1998,
- Changping (昌平 區 / 昌平 区, Chāngpíng Qū ) - Changping County until 1999,
- Daxing (大興 區 / 大兴 区, Dàxīng Qū ) - Daxing district until 2001.
Further away from the inner city area there are four further city districts (marked in yellow). These were formed from former circles in 2001 and 2015.
- Pinggu Municipality (平谷 區 / 平谷 区, Pínggǔ Qū ) - Pinggu County until 2001.
- Huairou District (懷柔 區 / 怀柔 区, Huáiróu Qū ) - Huairou District until 2001.
- Miyun District (密雲 區 / 密云 区, Mìyún Qū ), - Miyun District until 2015.
- District Yanqing (延慶區 / 延庆区, YanQing Qū ) .- circuit to Yanqing, 2015.
Although Beijing is only about 150 kilometers from the coast, its location in the west wind belt means it has a temperate, continental climate , i.e. warm, humid summers and cold, dry winters. The annual precipitation averages 578 mm, of which about 62% falls in the months of July and August.
The annual average temperature is 11.8 ° C. The warmest month is July with a maximum of 30.8 ° C and a minimum of 21.6 ° C mean daytime temperature. The coldest month in the Beijing area is January with a maximum of 1.6 ° C and a minimum of -9.6 ° C daily mean temperature.
In winter, temperatures down to −20 ° C and an icy wind blowing from the plains of Inner Mongolia . The summer (June to August) is humid and hot with temperatures of up to 40 ° C, the short spring (April and May) is dry but windy. In autumn (September and October) the weather is dry and mild.
When the wind comes from the south or southeast, visibility is zero, especially in June to August. On the other hand, when the wind comes from the north, it gets very cold in winter, and then in spring there are sandstorms. The highest temperature was officially measured on June 15, 1942 at 42.6 ° C, the lowest on February 22, 1966 at −27.4 ° C.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Beijing
The Chinese capital has to contend with numerous environmental problems . These include excessive pollution of rivers, problems with drinking water supplies, air pollution , deficits in local public transport and excessive traffic congestion. Since the early 1990s, the government has made greater efforts to promote environmental protection. Laws on recycling , environmental impact assessment, increasing energy efficiency and air pollution control have been passed.
Stricter emissions regulations have been issued to improve air quality. Since January 1, 2003, only passenger cars that meet Euronorm 2 have been registered. Since March 1, 2008, all new cars must meet the Euro IV standard . Numerous diesel-powered buses have been replaced by natural gas buses . In addition, the proportion of electrically operated trolleybuses in the total of 18,000 buses in Beijing rose to around five percent. Local rail transport, especially the subway network, is also being greatly expanded. However, air pollution in the metropolis remains a matter of concern. The high levels of fine dust and other air pollutants pose a major problem.
As part of the clean air plan, all coal-fired power plants in the city were shut down from 2013 to 2017 and replaced by low-emission gas - fired power plants . A program has also been launched with the aim of converting coal-fired residential buildings to electrical heat pump heating .
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the air quality in the capital is one of the worst in the world. The causes lie in the numerous factories and power stations as well as in the traffic and in private households. Due to rapid urbanization, the sharp rise in traffic and the concentration of industry in the metropolitan area , excessive emissions and smog pose a serious threat to public health. During inversion weather conditions , respiratory diseases in particular increase among the population of the capital.
Representatives of Homo erectus lived in the area of today's Beijing city as early as 770,000 ± 80,000 years ago ; they came to be known as the Peking People's Denomination of Origin after their remains were discovered in Zhoukoudian , 50 km southwest of downtown, in the 1920s and 1930s .
The time before the Yuan Dynasty came to power
Ji (reeds) - 1000 BC Chr.
The history of the city of Beijing goes back to the time of the western Zhou dynasty (1121 to 770 BC) when it was named Ji (reed). The city was named under this name in 1000 BC. First mentioned in a document. Ji was a center for trade with the Mongols and Koreans as well as various tribes from Shandong and central China at the time.
Yanjing (capital of the Yan) - 475 to 221 BC Chr.
During the Warring States' era , Beijing was the capital of Yan , which is why the city was named Yanjing (Capital of the Yan) . 221 BC The later first emperor Qin Shihuangdi (259–210 BC) occupied the city during his war of unification. During his reign the northern walls were fortified.
Renamed in Ji (reed) - after 221 BC Chr.
In the centuries that followed, Ji developed from an insignificant provincial town into a trading hub and important military base for the defense of China's northern borders and, because of its strategic importance, was occupied several times by steppe and nomadic peoples from the north.
Youzhou - AD 618 to 907
During the Tang Dynasty (618–907 AD), the city, now called Youzhou, was ruled by a military governor. It was always overshadowed by the then Chinese capital Chang'an . It was not until the foreign rule of the Liao dynasty that Beijing regained some of its former importance.
In 937 the Kitan under Te-kuang (926-947) conquered part of northern China and established their seat of power in Beijing. In 960 the Kitan in the Song dynasty became an equal opponent. The Song Dynasty tried to recapture northern China in 979, but could not defeat the Kitan general Yelü Hsiu-ko outside Beijing. Also in 986 Yelü Hsiu-ko remained victorious.
Zhongdu (Middle Capital) - 1153 to 1215
After the conquest by the Jurchen in 1153, Beijing became the capital of the Jin dynasty and was magnificently expanded under the name Zhongdu ("Middle Capital"). Over 100,000 workers were hired to expand the city.
Cambaluc / Dadu (City of Khan / Great Capital) - after 1215
In 1215 the armies of Genghis Khan (1162-1227) took Beijing. They ransacked the city and set it on fire. Kublai Khan later had Dadu (the great capital) built on the old ruins, also known under the name Khanbaliq ( City of Khan , by Marco Polo Kambaluk ). With the creation of the Mongol Empire, the city gained a dominant position in the course of the 13th century.
The rule of the Yuan Dynasty
During the rule of Kublai Khan (1215-1294), the founder of the Yuan Dynasty, Beijing was planned and expanded as the capital of the Yuan under the name Dadu . The city was the main residence of the Mongols from 1264 to 1368. At that time, the grandson of Genghis Khan was under almost all of East Asia and the first Europeans - including Marco Polo (1254–1324) according to his own account - came to Beijing via the famous Silk Road .
Marco Polo, who was Kublai's guest and worked in the city for a while, was extremely impressed by the great sophistication: “There are so many houses and people that nobody could tell their number… I think there is no place in the world that sees so many traders, so many precious and peculiar goods and treasures, how they can get there from all directions ... "
The wealth was due to the location of the city at the starting point of the Silk Road, and according to Polo's descriptions it was "almost a day more than a thousand carts laden with silk" that arrived in the city to begin their onward journey to lands west of China.
In a development of style and splendor that was unprecedented for the great khans, who were later called emperors, Kublai built a palace of enormous dimensions, protected on all sides by walls and accessible via marble stairs .
Development of power under the Ming and Qing dynasties
In 1368 the Yuan was replaced by the Ming Dynasty . Hongwu (1328–1398), the first emperor of the Ming dynasty, had his capital built in Nanjing (southern capital) on the Yangzi River and changed the name Dadus to Beiping (北平, Běipíng , Pei-p'ing - "Northern Peace") ).
In 1408, Emperor Yongle began to completely rebuild the city under its new name Beijing (Northern Capital) . Among other things, he created the Forbidden City and the Temple of Heaven , with which Yongle outlined important elements of urban development. In 1421, Yongle named Beijing the new capital of the Ming Dynasty . During the subsequent Qing dynasty (1644–1911), the city was expanded to include more temples and palaces. This period was marked by the rise and fall of the Manchu and Qing dynasties, respectively.
The capital experienced its greatest heyday during the first half of the 18th century under the emperors Kangxi , Yongzheng and Qianlong . At that time, the Qing also built the legendary Summer Palace north of the city , a unique garden for the nobility with 200 pavilions, temples and palace buildings against the backdrop of a vast landscape of man-made lakes and hills. Together with the imperial palace, it formed the focus and symbol of Chinese glory and development of power.
However, in the Second Opium War , British and French troops penetrated the walls of the capital in 1860, and the Summer Palace was first looted and then set on fire by the British, practically burning to the ground. While the imperial court lived in a separate, walled city in a spacious area, the civilian population had to live in inhumane conditions.
Money which actually for the modernization of the Chinese Navy had thought that began Empress Dowager Cixi one (1835-1908) from 1884 new summer palace to build for themselves. As the last major symbol, your project marked the end of imperial architectural splendor and patronage - and like its predecessor, it was ravaged by fire by foreign soldiers during the Boxer Rebellion in 1900. At that time, the empire and the imperial capital were on the verge of collapse as a result of successive waves of foreign occupation.
Beijing after the Manchu abdication
After the abdication of the Manchus and the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912, Beijing remained the political center of China until 1928. Then Chiang Kai-shek (1887-1975) established the capital in Nanjing . Beijing was under the control of rival warlords and was renamed Beiping (Northern Peace) again by the Kuomintang in 1928 to make it clear that it was not a capital city.
During the turbulent 1920s, Beijing rallied masses of residents, first in 1925 to protest the massacre of Chinese protesters in Shanghai by British soldiers, and in 1926 to express their displeasure with the government's shameful surrender to Japan in Manchuria. To announce the crisis . As the protesters marched on government agencies, soldiers opened fire on them.
The city was occupied by the Japanese army during the Marco Polo Bridge (Lugouqiao) incident at the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War on July 19, 1937 . Only after the end of the Pacific War was the city liberated by the Kuomintang and US marines in 1945.
The time since the communists came to power
The Communists took Beijing in January 1949 - nine months before Chiang Kai-shek's escape to Taiwan made final victory a certainty. Following the establishment of the People's Republic of China by Mao Zedong on October 1, 1949, the communist government declared Beijing its capital again.
The reconstruction of the capital and the eradication of the symbols of earlier regimes were the highest priority for the new rulers. In order to free itself from the past and to build a modern capital of the people, a large part of the valuable old building fabric was destroyed or used for purposes other than intended. For example, the temple of the cultivated wisdom was converted into a wire factory and light bulbs were made in the temple of the fire god. In the 1940s the city still had 8,000 temples and monuments, in the 1960s that number had shrunk to 150.
Beijing became the scene of a massive popular uprising in 1989, when almost a million demonstrators on Tian'anmen Square in the center of the city between April and June of that year expressed their displeasure with the slow pace of reforms, the lack of freedom and the long haul manifested widespread corruption . A giant statue of the goddess of freedom, which was made to carry a torch in both hands, was made by art students and contrasted with the portrait of Mao Zedong in Tiananmen Square.
As a result, the Chinese government declared martial law on May 20 that year. On June 4, 1989, the peacefully demonstrating democracy movement was bloodily suppressed by the army; thousands of civilians were killed.
On October 20, 1998, the country's first human rights conference opened in Beijing. More than 100 representatives from 27 countries took part in the conference. - In July 2001, the International Olympic Committee declared Beijing to be the venue for the 2008 Summer Olympics .
The biggest problems the city faces today because of a failed (modern) urban planning policy are increasing immigration, air pollution caused by outdated factories and the excessive traffic that brings the city to the brink of traffic collapse and its part to poor air quality contributes.
As early as 1450, 600,000 people lived in Beijing. By 1800, the city's population had risen to 1.1 million. After a temporary decrease by 1900 to 693,000 people, the population grew to 1.6 million by 1930 and to 2.8 million by 1953. In 2007, 7.7 million people lived in the core city (high density of buildings and closed local form), two and a half times as many as in 1953. The population density is 5639 inhabitants per square kilometer. In comparison, there are 3800 in Berlin . In 2007, 11.8 million people lived in the Beijing metropolitan region , which also includes the suburbs surrounding the city proper. The population density in 2007 was 1337 inhabitants per square kilometer.
The entire administrative area of the government-direct city of Beijing, which also includes extensive rural areas, has a population of 21.7 million (2015). Of these, 13.5 million are registered residents with permanent residence (戶口 / 户口, hùkǒu ) and 8.2 million temporary residents (流動 人口 / 流动 人口, liúdòng rénkǒu ) with temporary residence permits (暫住 證 / 暂住 证, zànzhùzhèng ).
If you want to stay in the city for more than three days, you have to report to the Office for Public Security and be registered there. The applicant then receives a temporary residence permit for three months, which must be extended after the deadline. A certificate from the home town must be presented to the office confirming that the person is registered there. There are also around a million guest workers in the city , mostly unskilled migrant workers and illegal immigrants, who are not recorded by official statistics. Since the birth rate is low, the population growth is mainly due to immigration. The natural growth of the permanent resident population in Beijing is currently 0.9 per 1000 people, the birth rate: 6.0 per 1000 people, and the death rate: 5.1 per 1000 people.
About 95.7% of the population are Han . The Manchu are the largest ethnic minority with over 1.8% of the population ; The Muslim Hui Chinese are in second place with 1.74% . There are also significant groups of Mongols (0.3% of the Beijing population) and Koreans (0.15%). All of China's ethnic groups are also represented in small numbers among the residents of Beijing; Quantitatively in last place are the De'ang, a Mon-Khmer people, with four inhabitants. The Chinese spoken in Beijing largely corresponds to Standard Chinese (Putonghua), the official language of the People's Republic of China, with some slurping of the slang.
The following overview shows the population of the core city (excluding the suburbs). Registered residents with main residence in Beijing are listed.
Development of the living situation
According to the Forbes list of the World's Most Expensive Cities To Live 2009 Beijing is considered a city with a very high cost of living and one of the most expensive cities in the world. In a ranking of cities according to their quality of life, Beijing ranked 119th out of 231 cities worldwide in 2018.
Many elements of modern urban planning policy had devastating consequences for the population and created more problems than they solved. A large part of the traditional courtyard houses ( Siheyuan ) in the narrow streets ( Hutongs ), which were considered a breeding ground for individualists, had been demolished since 1949. Their place was taken by anonymous new buildings made of concrete, often with inadequate sanitary facilities and hardly any running water.
When extensive renovation work on the buildings seemed urgently required at the end of the 1960s, an underground network of tunnels was created instead, which was intended to provide protection in the event of war. Millions of man-hours were invested in the project, which could not offer any protection against modern bombs and ultimately only led to the lowering of the water table.
In 1950 the government ordered the killing of all dogs in the Chinese capital. The killing of numerous sparrows in 1956 - the measure was originally intended to protect the grain supplies - only meant that the insects were able to multiply more strongly. To counteract this, the city administration ordered the removal of all green areas in the capital, which in turn caused dust storms in the windy winter months.
At the beginning of the new millennium, major urban redevelopment projects were under way to prepare Beijing for the 2008 Summer Olympics . Various efforts to contain air pollution have already been made; Factories that could not be further modernized had to close. Open spaces have been brought back to life through extensive greening. The polluted canals were dredged.
As the guiding star on China's path to the modern age, Beijing is playing a pioneering role in reshaping the country. Buildings are being torn down and new ones erected at a rapid pace, as evidenced by the white characters拆( chāi for demolition ) on old houses and the many construction cranes. Mostly modern concrete and glass buildings are being built in the city center, and numerous office complexes are being built along the wide main roads. The apartments there are not affordable for the poorer sections of the population. They are being pushed to the outskirts of the city.
Most of Beijing's residents live in high-rise buildings. Two residential areas are particularly important: the Wangjing area in the northeast and the Huilongguan residential area in the northwest. In order to address the problem of overpopulation, a number of satellite cities, each for more than 500,000 inhabitants, are under construction and planning as part of large-scale construction measures .
Chen Jining (* 1964) has been the mayor of Beijing since May 2017 . His predecessor was Guo Jinlong from November 2007 until his resignation in July 2012 . Guo was born in Nanjing in July 1947 and was most recently party secretary of Anhui and is a member of the CPC Central Committee . His predecessor was Wang Qishan, who was born in July 1948 in Shanxitian Township near Qingdao City . He took over the post on April 22, 2003 from Meng Xuenong, who was dismissed by the Chinese Communist Party for misconduct during the SARS outbreak in the capital .
Meng Xuenong was held responsible for a policy of cover-up and secrecy that sought to hide the SARS outbreak for a long time. Several thousand people were infected with SARS in Beijing and hundreds died. Meng Xuenong took office as mayor on January 19, 2003 from Liu Qi .
Other members of the Beijing municipal government include Party Committee Secretary Liu Qi, Chairperson of the Standing Committee of the People's Congress Yu Junbo and Chairperson of the CPPCC Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Cheng Shi'e. The CPPCC is made up of the National Committee and the local committees at various levels.
The city government is subordinate to the governments of 16 city districts and two districts. The city districts are in turn divided into street quarters , partly also into municipalities , large municipalities and "sub-districts" (at the municipality level). The districts, on the other hand, are made up of municipalities and large communities, only in Miyun District , which has developed a small urban center, there are two street districts. At the lower end of Beijing's administrative pyramid are the so-called communities of residents (社區 / 社区, shèqū ) in the urban areas , which are administered by the residents' committees (居民委員會 / 居民委员会, jūmín wěiyuánhùi ) and the villages (村, cūn ) administered by village committees (村民 委員會 / 村民 委员会, cūnmín wěiyuánhùi ).
Beijing has partnerships with the following cities:
Beijing has partnerships with the following regions:
- since March 14, 1979: Tokyo Prefecture , Japan
- since July 2, 1987: Île-de-France , France
- since December 6, 1998: Gauteng Province , South Africa
- since January 17, 2005: Autonomous Community of Madrid , Spain
Culture and sights
Music and theater
There are numerous theaters (for example the People's Theater ), as well as the Beijing Concert Hall for music events. The famous Peking Opera , which is a special mixture of different art forms, such as singing, dance, acrobatics and miming , is named after Beijing . The plot is mostly based on historical or mythological material.
In contrast, contemporary theater is changing rapidly and has recently shown Chinese translations of western plays and productions by local dramaturges that are keen to experiment .
The spoken theater first found its way onto Chinese stages in the 20th century. His home became the Folk Art Theater in Beijing, where European plays with a clear social message were shown before the Cultural Revolution . In 1968, however, this art form was banned by Jiang Qing , Mao Zedong's third wife, except for a few pieces - which were considered edifying for society. The theater and most of the cinemas were closed for around ten years.
The radio station China National Radio (CNR) has its own concert hall with excellent acoustics. This concert hall is also the broadcasting hall in which many concerts are recorded or broadcast directly across the country. One of the largest organs in China is located in this concert hall, it comes from Germany and was built in 1999 by Gebr. Oberlinger Orgelbau , based in Windesheim , Rhineland-Palatinate.
Beijing's museums contain some of the most important collections of Chinese traditional art and archaeological finds, including the National Art Museum and the Capital Museum . Beijing also has a natural history museum and a large museum for technology and science.
The result of a Qing emperor's passion for collecting shows an unusual clock museum in the Imperial Palace in the Forbidden City . Most of the exhibits are exuberant examples of Baroque ornamentation from Great Britain and France , but perhaps the most impressive is the giant Chinese water clock.
Beijing has become a center of contemporary, especially Chinese, art in recent years. Much of the more sophisticated exhibitions take place in private galleries. Many are concentrated in so-called art districts, mostly in former factory buildings such as 798 , Caochangdi or Jiuchang. In the city center, the Courtyard Gallery in Donghuamen Dajie and the Red Gate Gallery are the most famous.
The Aviation Museum is located 60 kilometers north of the city . More than 300 aircraft are on display in a huge hangar and exhibition hall, from replicas of the Wright brothers' aircraft that Feng Ru (1883–1912), the first Chinese aircraft engineer and pilot, piloted in 1909, to attack helicopters that piloted were used in the First Gulf War . The collection also includes war jets from the Korean War that dropped the bomber that dropped China's first atomic bomb in 1964 , Mao Zedong's personal machine and the plane from which Zhou Enlai's ashes were scattered.
Old town and imperial palace
The old town of Beijing, originally surrounded by a large wall, was planned as an image of the cosmos - from Greek kósmos = the world [order] - and consisted of three rectangular districts (Imperial, Inner and Outer City). On the main axis of the old town, in a north-south direction, there were gateways, palace and ceremonial buildings. The Forbidden City - it was originally not accessible to the common people - home to the surrounded by a wall and in 1987 by the UNESCO for World Heritage declared the former Imperial Palace. The place served as a residence for 24 Chinese emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties and their families. Today the Forbidden City is home to the Beijing Palace Museum .
The old town consisted of the outer city and the square inner city in the northern part, which was built between 1409 and 1420 and was surrounded by a wide, 15-meter-high wall with nine gates. The boundaries of the Inner City largely corresponded to those of the capital Dadu in the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368). In the inner city was the imperial city, in which government buildings, palaces, temples, gardens and parks as well as the Forbidden City were. Outside the imperial city there were quarters with markets and temples as well as residential areas. The wall was about 25 kilometers long.
The Outer City, located in the southern part, was built during the Ming Dynasty between 1521 and 1566. It was rectangular and had a wall 23.5 kilometers long. There were both important temple districts and residential districts for the common people in this area. After the Communists came to power in China on October 1, 1949, the old city walls of Beijing were torn down and replaced by main thoroughfares; however, several of the old city gates have been preserved.
The Palace Museum (Gugong) in the Forbidden City is the former residence of the imperial family and court. This complex - built in the 15th century - includes a series of huge halls and palaces. To the west of this complex is the Zhongnanhai area , a large park with lakes surrounded by a wall.
Immediately south of the Forbidden City and the Palace Museum is Tian'anmen Square (Gate of Heavenly Peace) , the center of the city. Up to a million people can gather in the square. With an area of 40 hectares, it is the largest public square in the world. It was created in its current size following the Communist takeover. Big celebrations and rallies take place here every year.
On the west side of the square is the Great Hall of the People (seat of the Chinese National Assembly), on the east side there is a museum on Chinese history and revolution. A monument to the heroes of the people and the grave of the former chairman Mao Zedong (1893–1976) dominate the square in its center.
In its recent history, the square has served as the setting for numerous historically significant mass rallies: on May 4, 1919, the first demands for democracy and liberalism by students who demonstrated against the Treaty of Versailles ; on December 9, 1935, the anti-Japanese protests calling for a war of national resistance; In 1966 the eight mass marches, staged ready for the stage, which marked the beginning of the Cultural Revolution and for which around a million Red Guards were transported to Beijing each time to be sworn to the revolutionary ideals and then summoned to the provinces. In April 1976, were the Tiananmen Incident , just before the Chinese All Souls' Day to commemorate the former Prime Minister, Zhou Enlai (1898-1976) hinge placed wreaths and flowers removed due to intra-party clashes by security forces.
Today, however, the square is best known for the Tiananmen massacre in 1989, when students and workers demonstrated for democracy and thousands were killed by the Chinese military on June 4th of that year.
Of the many temples, the Temple of Heaven (Tiantan) in the southern part of the Outer City is particularly noteworthy (including the Hall of Annual Prayers). There the emperor prayed for a rich harvest every year.
The facility is located in the Xuanwu district in the south of the city in the middle of a large park. The main building of the temple is the Hall of the Harvest Sacrifice, a building with a circular floor plan on a three-tier marble terrace. It was built in 1420, burned down in 1889 and was rebuilt in 1890.
In the north-western suburbs (Shisan ling) are the Ming tombs of the emperors from the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). This can be reached via an avenue lined with marble lions, elephants, camels and horses. To the northwest of the graves (near Badaling) is part of the Great Wall of China .
The old observatory is interesting as a relic of bygone times. The first observatory at this point was built by order of Kublai Khan (1215–1294) in order to have astronomers correct the then incorrect calendar. Later, when the Islamic sciences flourished, it came under Muslim control, and in the 17th century finally passed into the hands of Christian Jesuit missionaries , who remained the owners until the 1830s.
In the complex there is an idyllic garden and eight astronomical instruments from the Ming period - wonderfully crafted armillary spheres , theodolites and the like - on the roof. Affiliated is a small museum with an exhibition of early astronomy-inspired pottery and navigational instruments.
Other important sights are the television tower built in 1992 and 400 meters high , the spectacular Central Chinese Television Headquarters , the tallest skyscraper in the city with 330 meters within the China World Trade Center , the Chinese National Opera and the numerous Christian churches. The largest and most famous among them are the Eastern Church (Wangfujing), the Western Church (Xizhimen), the Southern Church (Xuanwumen) and the Northern Church (Xishiku). The Imperial Summer Palace (Yihe Yuan) and the ruins of the Old Summer Palace (Yuanming Yuan) should also be mentioned.
Great Wall of China
The Great Wall of China stretches over a length of 8850 kilometers , a monumental structure that was built in the 5th century BC. BC and continued into the 16th century. The sections that still exist today would stretch from New York to Los Angeles , and if one were to build a single wall five meters high and one meter deep from their stones, the result would be a stretch that would be longer than the circumference of the earth.
The best-known section of the wall extends near Badaling , 70 km northwest of Beijing. It was the first section to be restored in 1957. The wall there is six meters wide and is equipped with watchtowers from the Ming period (1368–1644) at regular intervals . Its course follows the ridge of a chain of hills and could hardly have been better designed in terms of defense strategy, which is why this section was never attacked directly, but was taken over from the sides.
The Great Wall of China at Mutianyu , 90 km northeast of Beijing , is less well known . The section there, built in 1368 and restored in 1983, with its numerous watchtowers is two kilometers long and extends along a ridge in a green, gently undulating landscape. Another section of the Great Wall of China is located in Simatai , 110 km northeast of Beijing. The majority of this wall segment, which dates from the Ming Dynasty, has been left in its original state and has only a few innovations from later times, such as gun positions for cannons and inner wall barriers drawn across the outer wall to stop enemies who have already entered.
Parks and green spaces
In Chinese culture, the connection between home and nature or recreated nature is traditionally close. In the urban settlements, however, this idea has repeatedly been suppressed in favor of the maximum possible exploitation of the scarce land, especially in recent years with the advent of high-rise residential buildings in serial construction. Only remaining space remained for green spaces close to the house. The structural density is so great that a compensatory need for public parks, sports facilities, leisure and play areas arose.
Lately, the thought has gained ground that a city with a smog bell hanging over it most of the time has little future. There are two notable countermeasures: emission control and reduction and ventilation through green corridors. It is now standard practice to create accompanying green strips on expressways, which are 100 to 400 meters wide and even form smaller wooded areas. The program to expand the riverbeds and canals with wide banks is a particular step forward. For example, smaller parks, cycle paths and leisure facilities have been interspersed with the banks of the dammed rivers around Beijing, so that the residents of the new suburbs have recreational opportunities close to their homes. Even the numerous new golf courses should be mentioned here, although they are less frequented as non-public areas.
The Yiheyuan, commonly known as the Summer Palace , is one of the most attractive parks in Beijing. The huge area, two thirds of which is a lake, served the last emperors as a place for summer retreat, to which they and their court retreated during the hottest months of the year.
And the location, surrounded by hills, cooled by the lake and protected by gardens, is ideal. Imperial pavilions have existed there since the 11th century, but the current complex dates largely from the 18th century and was built under the Manchu Emperor Qianlong .
The North Sea Park (北海 公園 / 北海 公园, Běihǎi Gōngyuán ) northwest of the Imperial Palace is one of the typical Chinese gardens . The Jin Emperor Shizong began the construction of a summer palace and the construction of this park in 1179.
Emperor Kublai Khan made it his residence in 1260 when he moved into the “Hall of Wide Cooling”. In its place, the Qing emperors built the Lamaistic “White Pagoda” from 1651, which still dominates the park today. Emperor Qianlong had extensive expansion work carried out between 1735 and 1796. Almost all of today's buildings in this park date from this construction period.
Other parks are Jingshan and Ditan parks . There are several parks in the mountains west of the city, such as Badachu and Fragrant Hill Park . There is also the new and old Beijing Botanical Gardens with the Valley of the Cherries. The Beijing Zoo is also worth seeing , not only for the giant panda, but also for the aquarium.
To the southwest lies Beijing World Park, which is about 40 hectares in size . Here, scaled-down replicas of many world-famous old and newer buildings and architectural ensembles from all continents, for example from the Egyptian pyramids to the Eiffel Tower to the lost New York World Trade Center , can be viewed.
A park and leisure landscape that has blown all previous projects has been emerging in the west since 2001: starting south of the Marco Polo Bridge , a drained river bed was initially created over a length of 20 km and a width between 0.8 and two kilometers with public green spaces and smaller lakes and several golf courses. In the south, further areas are already being prepared as an extension of this green lung. 14 km to the northwest, the river bed, which is becoming narrower here, is transformed into a park landscape with a particularly large amount of water. At the end of 2010, around 60% of the work had already been completed. Once all the facilities have been completed beyond the southwestern city limits (around 2020), around 80 square kilometers of a 55-kilometer landscape park near the city will be available. The art landscape, which is probably unique in the world, is 18 to 42 kilometers from the city center of Beijing.
Nowhere on the Chinese mainland is the culinary diversity greater than in Beijing. In addition to all Chinese kitchens, almost all Asian and most of the world kitchens are represented here. Given this abundance is not often noted that Beijing itself has its own culinary tradition and specialties such as Peking Duck (北京烤鴨 / 北京烤鸭, Běijīng kǎoyā ) and Mongolian hot pot (火鍋 / 火锅, huǒguō ) makes a tasty contribution.
Peking duck is served in Chinese restaurants around the world and consists of small pieces of meat that are dipped in sweet black bean sauce (甜麵醬 / 甜面酱, tián miànjiàng ) and then rolled into a kind of flour dough pocket with chopped spring onions.
Another well-known dish is the Mongolian hot pot, in which mutton, shrimp, cabbage (and other vegetables) and noodles are dipped into thin strips in a pot with boiling, usually mild to strong broth, usually kept at boiling temperature from below. The rest is sometimes drunk as soup at the end.
For the 2008 Summer Olympics, massive investments were made in the city's sporting infrastructure. Among the numerous new buildings is the Olympic Stadium , which, due to its sensational architecture, developed into a new attraction in Beijing during the construction phase. The workers' stadium is one of the monumental structures erected to mark the tenth anniversary of the People's Republic of China in 1959 . The Beijing Guoan football club plays in the Chinese Super League .
The Nanshan Ski Village is located approx. 65 km northeast of Beijing and is a popular winter sports destination.
Economy and Infrastructure
According to a study from 2014, Beijing has a gross domestic product of 506.1 billion US dollars (KKB). In the ranking of the economically strongest metropolitan regions worldwide, it took 11th place. The GDP per capita was $ 23,390, making Beijing one of the richest cities in China. Beijing is the city with the highest number of Fortune Global 500 companies.
Beijing is now the country's second largest industrial center. Important industries have been established in the satellite cities: the manufacture of petrochemical products in Fangshan, machine manufacture in Fentai, iron and steel manufacture in Shijingshan, and motor vehicle manufacture in Tongxian.
Over two million workers in the province are employed in industry . It produces clothing, canned goods, cottons and synthetics, paints, paper, lubricants and electronic products. Since the beginning of economic reforms in 1978, the construction industry has become increasingly important. Around 700,000 construction workers are employed in it.
In the agriculture of the centrally-administered city of about 900,000 people work. Agricultural products include poultry and pork, cereals, vegetables (cabbage, tomatoes, eggplants, carrots and onions), milk and eggs.
Numerous commercial and service companies have settled in Beijing in recent years (over one million employees). The city is a shopping and fashion center. There are several modern shopping areas (for example, on Wangfujing Street). Gold enamel work (cloisonné), jade carving and carpet weaving have a long tradition.
Since the economic reforms of the 1980s and 1990s, there have also been businesses that are supported by foreign investors. Many private companies emerged. In Beijing there are around 100,000 privately employed workers (Getihu) in commercial establishments. The service industry has over 30,000 companies with around 200,000 employees.
In a ranking of the most important financial centers worldwide, Beijing took 11th place (as of 2018).
As a transport hub, Beijing has airports and rail connections to all parts of the country as well as an intercontinental route via the Trans-Mongolian Railway ( Ulan Bator ) and the Trans-Siberian Railway to Europe. Beijing plays a key role in the expansion and construction plans of the high-speed traffic of the State Railways .
The airport Beijing Capital is located in the area Shunyi about 20 kilometers northeast from the city center.
In 2011 it was announced that another airport, Beijing-Daxing Airport with a capacity of 120 million passengers and up to seven runways, was being planned and opened on September 25, 2019, according to plan. Beijing-Daxing is one of the largest airports in the world.
Until the opening of the new major airport in 2019, Beijing-Nanyuan was another, smaller airport in the south of the city with around one million passengers per year.
Beijing is connected to other cities in China by nine highways. The Beijing highway network is constantly expanding. There are five ring roads and some thoroughfares available for inner-city traffic. The city center is classified as the part of Beijing that lies within the 2nd ring road and the greater Beijing area as the part that lies within the 5th ring road .
Similar to Moscow , Beijing develops in the form of rings. This has created problems for road traffic. Traffic jams are frequent and the construction and expansion of ring roads does not seem to solve the traffic problem.
Bus and trams
There are inner-city public transport in the form of almost a thousand bus and trolleybus routes . The first trolleybus drove into the city on February 26, 1957. The first electric trams ran in Beijing on June 24, 1899, but operations were stopped again during the Boxer Rebellion on June 13, 1900. The system was reintroduced on December 17, 1924. This time the trams ran until May 6, 1966.
The first section of the Beijing Subway opened on October 1, 1969. After that, the system was expanded very slowly. The network only grew to eight lines with the opening of several underground lines in 2008 for the Olympic Games. This marked the start of a rapid expansion, so that by 2010 there were already 14 lines. Further major expansions are planned for the years 2014 to 2020. Currently (as of December 2014) the route network measures 527 km.
A single ticket costs the equivalent of around 90 cents. (As of January 2018)
The bike was in Beijing for a long time a prominent role as inner-city transport , with its own wheel tracks for about ten million private bicycles. In recent times it has been increasingly displaced by private cars . In order to reduce air pollution , traffic congestion and bicycle theft , the city administration is now building a network of bicycle rental stations that made 50,000 bicycles available by the 2008 Summer Olympics . Thanks to the emergence of a number of dockless app-based bike rental systems such as Mobike, Bluegogo and Ofo , cycling has grown in popularity again.
Of the city's many colleges, the best known are Peking University (北京大學 / 北京大学, Běijīng Dàxué , founded in 1898) and Tsinghua University (清華大學 / 清华大学, Qīnghuá dàxué , founded 1911). The Chinese People's University (人民 大學 / 人民 大学, Rénmín dàxué ), the University of Foreign Economics and Trade (對外 經濟 貿易 大學 / 对外 经济 贸易 大学, Duìwaì Jīngjì Màoyì Dàxúe ) and the Beijing Pedagogical University (北京 師範大學 / 北京 师范大学, Běijīng Shīfàn Dàxué ). At the BLCU (北京 語言 文化 大學 / 北京 语言 文化 大学, Běijīng yǔyán wénhuà dàxué , formerly language institute; founded 1962), around three quarters of the students are foreigners studying Chinese.
Equally interesting is the Beijing Sports University (北京 體育 大學 / 北京 体育 大学, Běijīng tǐyù dà xué ), the most important sports university in China, particularly popular with foreigners for studying Wushu , often in combination with a language course. There is also the Chinese Academy of Sciences and a number of research institutes subordinate to it. The Beijing Foreign Language University (北京 外國語 大學 / 北京 外国语 大学, Běijīng wàiguóyǔ dàxué ) is one of the best foreign language universities in the country.
China Central Academy of Fine Arts is the name of the art academy in Beijing, it is the oldest art academy in China. The Music Research Institute of the Academy of Arts of China is also located in Beijing.
Over 250,000 people are employed in the scientific and technical fields. Around 500,000 people work in education and communication. The Beijing Library is the most important in the People's Republic of China (around ten million volumes; with holdings from the libraries of the Sung, Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties).
Most of the universities are located in the Haidian District (海澱 區 / 海淀 区, Hǎidiàn qū ) in the northwest of the city. There are more than twenty universities there alone.
The China Rehabilitation Research Center is a state rehabilitation clinic in Beijing and at the same time a center for training and research in the field of rehabilitation in China.
Beijing was the birthplace of numerous prominent personalities. The most famous are the Emperors of China, Qianlong and Puyi , the Dowager Empress Cixi , the world chess champion Xie Jun , the actors Ivan Desny , Jet Li and Zhang Ziyi , the writers Shan Sa and Lao She and the singer and actress Faye Wong .
To date, around twenty people have been made honorary citizens of Beijing City. These are predominantly people residing in Hong Kong , including numerous owners of large corporations ( tycoons ). Some honorary citizens come from abroad, including two Germans , the film producer Manfred Durniok (1934–2003) and the piano designer Lothar Schell .
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