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Húběi Shěng
Abbreviation : ( Pinyin : È)
Capital Wuhan

 - Total
 - share in the

Rank 14 out of 33

187,500 km²


 - Total 2010
 - density

Rank 9 out of 33

57,200,000 inhabitants
321 inhabitants / km²

Management type province
governor Wang Xiaodong
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About this picture
ISO-3166-2 code CN-HB
District level 12 cities, 1 autonomous district
District level 39 city districts, 36 districts, 25 cities, 2 autonomous districts, 1 forest area
Community level 733 large communities, 277 street districts, 201 communities, 9 nationality communities
Landscape in Hubei

Hubei ( Chinese  湖北省 , Pinyin Húběi Shěng "north of the lake"; outdated spelling : Hupeh ) is a province of the People's Republic of China .


The greater part of Hubei consists of an extensive plain, in the center of which the Han River coming from the north joins the Yangtze River coming from the west ("Jiang Han Plain", 江汉平 原 ). The terrain is more mountainous in the west and along the provincial borders. The highest point is the Shennong Deng , located in the west of the province in the Daba Mountains ( Dabashan ), at 3105 m . The west-east extent of the province is about 740 km and north-south extent 470 km. The province takes its name from its location north of Dongting Lake ( ,  - "lake", , běi  - "north"). The province has numerous rivers and lakes, which has earned it the nickname 千 湖 之 省 , Qiān hú zhī shěng  - "Province of 1000 lakes". The longest and largest river is the Yangtze River, which flows through the province from west to east in a winding course of 1061 km in length. In the west, in Yichang , the Yangtze is dammed up by the Three Gorges Dam to form a reservoir hundreds of kilometers long. The world's most powerful hydropower plant is located at the dam. The provincial capital is Wuhan , located at the confluence of the Yangtze and Han rivers . Besides Wuhan, the political center is also Jingzhou , while the economic centers in Hubei are Wuhan, Shiyan and Xiangyang .

In a subtropical climate with clearly distinguishable seasons, the average annual temperature is 15 to 17 ° C. Winter is dry with January temperatures of 3 to 4 ° C. Summers are hot and humid with July temperatures of 27 to 29 ° C. The annual rainfall is 600 to 1,600 mm, of which up to 50 percent falls in the months of June to August. The riverside regions are often affected by flooding.

The development of the province was shaped by the fact that Hubei - although an inland province - is connected to the coastal regions and abroad by good river connections. Wuhan has the second largest port on the Yangtze after Shanghai . The important north-south railway line from Beijing to Guangzhou crosses the Yangtze in Wuhan.


The oldest archaeological traces of human settlement are more than 10,000 years old. Historically and culturally, Hubei is part of central China and one of the core provinces of “ real China ”, which have been part of Chinese history practically without interruption. According to tradition, Shennong , one of the mythical ancestors of the Chinese nation and founder of Chinese culture, was born in Suizhou , Hubei. The archaeological site of Panlongcheng from the time of the Shang dynasty (approx. 1800 - 1100 BC) is one of the oldest sites of Chinese civilization. During the spring and autumn annals (722 - 481 BC) the state of Chu emerged with Hubei as its core area, which during the Three Kingdoms period (208 - 280 AD) became one of the three rival Chinese empires was. The most famous battle in these armed conflicts, the Battle of the Red Cliff (208 AD) probably took place on the soil of what would later become Hubei. During the time of the Southern and Northern Dynasties (420 - 581 AD), the north of China came under the rule of nomadic horsemen, while the south, and with it Hubei, remained under Han Chinese suzerainty. Today's Hubei and Hunan Provinces , north and south of Dongting Lake, came into being when the former Huguang Province was divided up during the early Qing Dynasty (from 1644). In the late phase of the Qing rule in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the province under its governor-general Zhang Zhidong developed into a center of Western-inspired reforms and an early center of industrialization in China, especially iron and steel processing. The Wuchang uprising broke out here on October 10, 1911 , which led to the end of the Chinese Empire and the proclamation of the Republic of China .

On December 1, 2019, the first case of the viral disease COVID-19 was detected in Wuhan. The spread of COVID-19 in China could not be prevented despite drastic measures in Hubei, such as the lockdown of Wuhan . A global pandemic developed within a few months .

Administrative structure

Hubei Province is made up of twelve prefecture-level cities and one autonomous district. In addition, there are four administrative units at the district level, which - as usual - are not subordinate to the district level, but directly to the provincial government. These are three cities and a forest area.

# Surname Chin. Hanyu Pinyin administrative
- Immediate provincial administrative zones -
1 Wuhan 武汉 市 Wǔhàn Shì Jiang'an 8494 9,785,392
- District-free cities -
2 Ezhou 鄂州 市 Èzhōu Shì Echeng 1505 1,048,672
3 Huanggang 黄冈 市 Huánggāng Shì Huangzhou 17,453 6,162,072
4th Huangshi 黄石 市 Huángshí Shì Xialu 4576 2,429,318
5 Jingmen 荆门 市 Jīngmén Shì Dongbao 12,100 2,873,687
6th Jingzhou 荆州 市 Jīngzhōu Shì Shashi 14,104 5,691,707
7th Shiyan 十堰 市 Shíyàn Shì Maojian 23,698 3,340,843
8th Suizhou 随州市 Suízhōu Shì Zengdu 9636 2,162,222
9 Xiangyang 襄阳 市 Xiāngyáng Shì Xiangcheng 19,626 5,500,307
10 Xianning 咸宁 市 Xiánníng Shì Xian'an 10,019 2,462,583
11 Xiaogan 孝感 市 Xiàogǎn Shì Xiaonan 8941 4,814,542
12 Yichang 宜昌 市 Yíchāng Shì Xiling 21,081 4,059,686
- Autonomous Districts -
13 Autonomous Prefecture of Enshi
of Tujia and Miao
恩施 土家族 苗族 自治州 Ēnshī Tǔjiāzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu Enshi (city) 24,111 3,290,294
- Administrative units at the district level that are directly subordinate to the provincial government -
14th Tianmen City 天门市 Tiānmén Shì Jingling Street 2622 1,418,913
15th Qianjiang City 潜江 市 Qiánjiāng Shì Yuanlin Street 2004 946.277
16 Xiantao City 仙桃 市 Xiāntáo Shì Shazui Street 2538 1,175,085
17th Shennongjia forest area 神农架 林区 Shénnóngjià Línqū Songbai 3253 76.140

Biggest cities

The ten largest cities in the province with the actual urban settlement population as of the 2010 census are as follows:

rank city population rank city population
1 Wuhan 7,541,527 6th Huangshi 691.963
2 Xiangyang 1,433,057 7th Tianmen 612,515
3 Yichang 1,049,363 8th Ezhou 607.739
4th Jingzhou 904.157 9 Xiaogan 582,403
5 Shiyan 724.016 10 Xiantao 553.029


In 2015, the province had a GDP of 2.96 trillion yuan ($ 474 billion), ranking eighth among the provinces of China. The GDP per capita was 54,882 yuan (8,263 US dollars / PPP : 15,802 US dollars) per year, ranking 11th among the Chinese provinces. The level of prosperity in the province was thus roughly on par with Mexico and was 102% of the Chinese average.

In addition to many natural resources, Hubei also has important industries . Traditionally, these were the steel and iron industries as well as the metal and textile industries . In the future, the focus will also be on mechanical engineering , electronics , automotive and chemical industries . Hubei is already one of the three most important locations in the Chinese automotive industry.

It is hoped that the construction of the Three Gorges Dam , which is located in Hubei Province, will generate additional economic impetus, above all through the electrical energy generated with the help of the dam. On the other hand, the construction of the dam is intended to protect the regions near the river from floods , which were previously often affected.

In Wuhan, Werner Gerich was honored , a pensioner who, as director, restructured the local diesel engine factory . With the support of the top politicians in Beijing , he acted so successfully and with integrity that he was showered with awards: not only China's man of the year 1985 in the mechanical engineering industry, but also an honorary citizen of Wuhan.

At the end of May 2004, the then Saxon Science and Art Minister Matthias Rößler and the Communist Party Secretary of Hubei, Yu Zhengsheng , discussed the partnership between the Free State of Saxony and the Province of Hubei. The partnership is intended to bring the two countries common advantages through cooperation in the fields of universities, science and technology, as well as trade and economy.

Wu Yi , the only woman in the Chinese government, was born in Wuhan . She was a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of China from 2002 to 2007 and held the 15th position in the hierarchy of the Communist Party of China .


The provincial capital Wuhan is a central railway junction . The city is located on the Guangzhou - Beijing express train route and on the east-west connection from Shanghai to Kunming and Xi'an . The Yangzi river ferries run regularly to Nanjing and Shanghai in the east and to Chongqing in the west.

Bridge over the Yangzi in Wuhan

The Changjiang Bridge, Changjiang Daqiao, one of the first technical achievements of the new China, is a 1,156-meter-long, double-decker bridge that spans the river at a height of 80 meters. It was completed in 1957 as the first bridge over the Yangzi and connects the northern and southern parts of China. The bridge made the ferry connections, which were often dangerous during floods and fog, superfluous.


  • The “ pagoda of the yellow crane ”, from which one has a wonderful view of all three parts of the city, of the first bridge over the Yangtze, the Han and the many lakes in the Wuhan area.
  • The Hubei Provincial Museum, which houses the 2,500-year-old tomb of Marquis Yi with the orchestra of 64 bronze bells
  • Underground project 131 , a bunker system
  • the colonial district in Hankou
  • Dong Hu Park on the East Lake
  • the river promenade on the Yangtze River
  • the Wuhan University campus
  • Xian Tomb of Prince Xingxian

Web links

Commons : Hubei  - album with pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Shennong Deng, China., accessed on February 6, 2020 .
  2. ^ A b Judith van de Bovenkamp, ​​Yuan Fei: Economic overview of Hubei province. (pdf) Netherlands business Agency, August 2016, accessed February 6, 2020 .
  3. Wu Xianzhu, Liu Wu, Gao Xing, Yin Gongming: Huanglong Cave, a new late Pleistocene hominid site in Yunxi of Hubei Province, China . In: Chinese Science Bulletin . tape 51 , no. 20 , 2006, pp. 2493-2499 , doi : 10.1007 / s11434-006-2125-x (English).
  4. Hainan (China): Province, Cities & Counties - Population Statistics, Maps, Graphics, Weather and Web Information. Retrieved May 10, 2018 .
  5. ^ National Data. Retrieved December 4, 2017 .

Coordinates: 30 ° 58 '  N , 112 ° 14'  E