from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
山东 省
Shāndōng Shěng
Abbreviation : ( Pinyin : Lǔ)
Capital Jinan

 - Total
 - share in the

Rank 20 out of 33

156,700 km²


 - Total 2016
 - density

Rank 2 of 33

99,470,000 inhabitants
649 inhabitants / km²

Management type province
governor Gong Zheng
Bangladesch Bhutan Nepal Myanmar Laos Vietnam Thailand Philippinen Japan Nordkorea Südkorea Kirgisistan Kasachstan Mongolei Afghanistan Usbekistan Tadschikistan Pakistan Indien Russland de-facto Pakistan (von Indien beansprucht) de-facto Indien (von Pakistan beansprucht) de-facto Indien (von China als Teil Tibets beansprucht) Republik China (von China beansprucht) de-facto Provinz Xinjiang, China (von Pakistan beansprucht) de-facto Provinz Tibet, China (von Pakistan beansprucht) Macau Hongkong Hainan Guangdong Guangxi Hunan Yunnan Fujian Shanghai Jiangxi Zhejiang Jiangsu Hubei Anhui Guizhou Chongqing Shaanxi Henan Shanxi Shandong Hebei Peking Tianjin Ningxia Liaoning Jilin Sichuan Autonomes Gebiet Tibet Heilongjiang Gansu Qinghai Xinjiang Innere MongoleiLocation of Shāndōng Shěng in China
About this picture
ISO-3166-2 code CN-SD
District level 16 cities
District level 57 city districts, 53 districts, 27 cities
Community level 1,091 large communities, 500 street quarters, 266 communities, 1 nationality community

Shandong , outdated by rod and Shantung or Lessing-Othmer Saddle Dung called ( Chinese  山東  /  山东 , Pinyin Shandong ), is a province on the Chinese east coast. Shandong lies on the lower reaches of the Yellow River (Huang He). From 1898 to 1914, the Kiautschou area was part of the province's colony of the German Empire. Neighboring provinces are Anhui , Hebei , Henan and Jiangsu .



The Shandong Peninsula between the Gulf of Bohai and the Yellow Sea forms the east of the province . Shandong's coast is 3000 km long. The Huang He flows into the Bohai Gulf in Shandong. Shandong also includes some islands, particularly the Miaodao Islands . To the west of the province is the Taihang Mountains , which gives Shandong its current name, which can be translated as east of the mountains .


The province can be divided into four parts:

  1. The Northwest Shandong Plain was formed by deposits of the Yellow River and is part of the North China Plain . The Yellow River and the Imperial Canal run through the plain . It is an important agricultural area.
  2. The Jiaolai Plain extends to the coast and is located between the hilly areas of south and central Shandong. The Jiaolai He , Wei He and Dage He rivers flow through this plain.
  3. The mountains in central and south Shandong consist of several mountains over 1000 meters high, such as the Tai Shan , Lu Shan , Yi Shan and Meng Shan . Here is also the highest point in the province, the 1545 m high Tai Shan.
  4. The Jiaodong hill country consists of the less than 1000 meters high Daze Shan and Kunzu Shan . It makes up a large part of the Shandong Peninsula .


Shandong has a warm temperate zone monsoon climate with hot, rainy summers and dry, sunny winters. There are clear climatic differences between the coastal regions and the interior. The annual average temperatures are 11 ° C on the northeast coast and 14.5 ° C in the west and south. The annual precipitation is 560 mm in the northwest and 1170 mm in the southeast. With 60 to 70% of precipitation falling in summer, flooding can occur and drought during other seasons.


The Yellow River has a very strong influence on Shandong Province, on the one hand it is responsible for the alluvial plain on which the majority of the province lies, and on the other hand it has changed its course several times, with the population of the province and their dwellings often being affected . A particularly strong flood was recorded in 1876, after enormous rainfall, the banks of lakes and rivers swelled and flooded entire villages. This was followed by a famine in which nearly 10,000 people lost their lives. In total, the total number of victims was almost 100,000 as the entire region was affected. Since then, memorial days have been held on April 30, although these have been officially banned by the government since 1976, 100 years after the accident.

By the 4th century BC The Yellow River ran in several arms through today's province, most of these arms being north of its current course. Already about 2000 years ago, the construction of dykes along the river began. These dykes limited the change in the course of the river, but on the other hand aggravated the flooding when the river crosses the dykes. In China's 3000 years of history, the lower reaches of the Yellow River have been flooded more than 1500 times. A significant change in the course of the river happened in 1128 when, after a major flood, the Yellow River in what is now northern Jiangsu began to flow into the Yellow Sea. In 1855, again after a catastrophic flood, the river bed moved north again, where it was until the 12th century and where it is today. One consequence of this bad flood was that the Kaiserkanal lost its navigability.

Important cities

The capital of Shandong Province is Jinan , other important cities are: Jining , Tai'an , Qingdao , Weifang , Yantai and Zibo .

Administrative structure

Shandong is divided into 16 prefecture cities :

  • Jinan ( 濟南 市  /  济南 市 , Jǐnán Shì )
  • Liaocheng ( 聊城市 , Liáochéng Shì )
  • Dezhou ( 德 州市 , Dézhōu Shì )
  • Dongying ( 東營 市  /  东营 市 , Dōngyíng Shì )
  • Zibo ( 淄博 市 , Zībó Shì )
  • Weifang ( 濰坊 市  /  潍坊 市 , Wéifāng Shì )
  • Yantai ( 煙台 市  /  烟台 市 , Yāntái Shì )
  • Weihai ( 威海 市 , Wēihǎi Shì )
  • Qingdao ( 青島 市  /  青岛 市 , Qīngdǎo Shì )
  • Rizhao ( 日照 市 , Rìzhào Shì )
  • Linyi ( 臨沂 市  /  临沂 市 , Línyí Shì )
  • Zaozhuang ( 棗莊 市  /  枣庄 市 , Zǎozhuāng Shì )
  • Jining ( 濟寧 市  /  济宁 市 , Jǐníng Shì )
  • Tai'an ( 泰安 市 , Tài'ān Shì )
  • Binzhou ( 濱洲 市  /  滨洲 市 , Bīnzhōu Shì )
  • Heze ( 荷澤市  /  荷泽市 , Hézé Shì )

Biggest cities

The population figures are based on the 2010 census and refer to the actual urban settlement.

rank city Residents rank city Residents
1 Qingdao 3,990,942 6th Weifang 1,261,582
2 Jinan 3,527,566 7th Tai'an 1,123,541
3 Zibo 2,261,717 8th Zaozhuang 980.893
4th Yantai 1,797,861 9 Jining 939.034
5 Linyi 1,522,488 10 Rizhao 902.272



Because of its location on the edge of the North Chinese Plain, Shandong was exposed to the influence of Chinese civilization very early on. The earliest dynasties ( Shang Dynasty and Zhou Dynasty ) controlled western and central Handong. The Shandong Peninsula , on the other hand, was initially outside the Chinese sphere of influence. There lived the Laiyi people who were considered barbaric and were quickly Sinized .

At the time of the spring and autumn annals and at the time of the Warring States there were two states in Shandong: Qi in the area of ​​today's Linzi and Lu in the area of ​​today's Qufu . Lu was the home of Confucius . However, it was relatively small and eventually succumbed to the Chu in the south . The Qi state, on the other hand, was a greater power throughout the epoch.

At the time of the Qin Dynasty there was a centralized Chinese state for the first time. During the Han Dynasty that followed, there were two provinces in what is now Shandong: Qingzhou and Yanzhou.

During the Three Kingdoms Period , Shandong was part of the Wei Kingdom .

After a short period of unity, Shandong, along with the rest of northern China, was conquered by nomads from the north. In the next century, Shandong's rulers changed quickly.

middle Ages

At the beginning of the 12th century, at the time of the Song Dynasty , one of the classic novels of Chinese literature is set, the adventure story of the robbers from Liang Shan Bog in Shandong. It gives a detailed insight into life at that time (written down in the 14th century).

After the Song Dynasty China had initially reunited, she was forced to northern China in 1142 to the Jin Dynasty of the Jurchen cede. The name Shandong was first used under the Jin Dynasty.

Under the Ming Dynasty , the province comprised roughly the same area as it is today, plus some areas of Liaoning (in southern Manchuria ).

The Manchus conquered all of China, Shandong in 1644 , and established the Qing Dynasty . Under this dynasty, Shandong more or less assumed its current borders. Shandong was one of the regions in China with the most rebellions against the Qing. Noteworthy are the uprisings of the White Lotus sect , the group of the eight trigrams , which rebelled in 1780, or the Nian rebellion ; the Boxer Rebellion also had its roots in Shandong.

19th to 21st century

During the 19th century , China came under increasing influence and threats from the West. Shandong was particularly hard hit by its coastal location. The Kiautschou area in Shandong Province was a German colony. The Treaty of Versailles gave the area to Japan in 1919 , which sparked the May Fourth Movement .

In recent years, Shandong's economy has developed very rapidly, especially in the east, and Shandong has become one of the richest provinces in China.


Shandong has a population of 95.79 million, making it the second largest in China after Guangdong . 7.06% of the population of the People's Republic lives in this province. The population density is 582 inhabitants per square kilometer, making it the second highest among the Chinese provinces or the fifth highest if the cities directly under the government are included. However, population growth is low by national standards, despite immigration to the affluent cities. There is also a very high balance between the male and female population in Shandong (about 102 men for every 100 women in 2000). The urbanization rate for 2016 was given as 55%. In 2013, the average life expectancy was 76.5 years, which is above the Chinese average.

99.3% of the population are Han . Larger ethnic minorities are the Hui (0.6%) and the Manchu .

Population development

Population growth in the province since 1954.

year population
1954 census 48,876,548
1964 census 55,519,038
1982 census 74,419,054
1990 census 84,392,827
2000 census 89,971,789
2010 census 95,792,719
Guess 2016 99,470,000


In 2015, Shandong's economy was the third largest in China with a GDP of 6.30 trillion yuan ($ 1,011 billion). The GDP per capita was 67,706 yuan (US $ 10,194 / PPP : US $ 19,495) per year (9th place among Chinese provinces). The level of prosperity in the province was roughly on par with Argentina and was 125% of the Chinese average.

A partnership for business and development has existed between the Shandong Province and the Free State of Bavaria for over 30 years.


Agriculture accounts for around 15% of GDP, but employs more than half of Shandong's workforce. The main crops are wheat, corn, sorghum, millet, potatoes and beans. Other important agricultural products are cotton, peanuts, tobacco and flax. Shandong is one of the three most important cotton-growing areas in northern China, and it is also one of the most important growing areas for fruit and vegetables. About 40% of China's peanuts are grown in Shandong. There are usually three harvests in two years. In some areas with good irrigation, you can even get two harvests a year.

Livestock is also important: Shandong is the most important producer of poultry meat in China, and it is also one of the leading provinces in cattle, pig and sheep breeding. The coastal regions are rich in fish, crabs and seaweed; Nevertheless, the majority of the fish caught comes from farms.


The minable resources are gas, oil, coal, iron, bauxite, diamonds, sapphire and gold. Gold mining in Shandong ( Yantai ) is leading in China. In the northwest of Shandong, near Dongying , is the Shengli oil field, which is one of China's largest oil fields.


Industry generates half of GDP and employs around a quarter of the workforce. The center of industry is in Jinan , to a lesser extent in Qingdao and Zibo , and Weifang and the surrounding area are a new center of the petrochemical industry. Important branches of industry are the food industry, paper, household appliances, building materials, textiles, the iron and steel industry, mechanical engineering and the rubber industry. In 2000, a quarter of the companies were state-owned, but they generated 40% of sales. In general, large companies dominate, half of GDP is generated by just 1000 companies.


The service sector generates 35% of GDP and employs 25% of the workforce. Commerce, hospitality and transportation play the most important roles; foreign trade and international tourism play a subordinate role.


The railway lines from Beijing to Shanghai and from Beijing to Hong Kong cross western Shandong. Other railway lines run from Qingdao to Jinan and from Qingdao to Yantai . There are also several smaller railway lines, and in 2000 the railway network covered a total of more than 2,400 km.

Shandong has a dense road network that is evenly distributed across the province. There are more than 71,000 km of roads, of which more than 2,000 km are motorways.

There are important ports in Qingdao , Yantai , Rizhao and Weihai ; In terms of cargo handling, Qingdao is the seventh largest port in China. The main inland waterway route is the Xiaoqing ; a total of more than 2500 km of waterways are navigable.

There are major airports in Jinan and Qingdao . The first commercial seaplane route recently opened from Yantai to Dalian , on the other side of the Bohai Gulf in Liaoning Province .


The illiteracy rate in Shandong is relatively high at 8.5% (2000) and the second highest in eastern China. In 2010 it had dropped to 5.0%.


Of the five sacred mountains of Daoism in China, the Tai Shan is the most famous, although at 1,545 m, it is by no means the highest. In the ancient Chinese worldview, which viewed the Middle Kingdom as a square, the Tai Shan embodies the eastern corner mountain. "Shan-Dong" literally means "mountain of the east" or "east of the mountain".

Qufu , the birthplace of Confucius , is a first-rate national treasure.

Great personalities

In addition to Confucius , Mengzi come from Shandong , who was born in the state of Zhou in what is now southern Shandong, one of his most important students and who received his legacy. Another important philosopher from Shandong was Zou Yan , who lived in the 3rd century BC. Developed the theory of the five elements . Bian Que , who is considered the inventor of traditional Chinese medicine , came from the region around Jinan . Zhou Yongnian , also from Jinan, was the founder of the Chinese library system. Li Qingzhao was one of the most important poets in the country in the 12th century . Sòng Jiāng (宋江), the “rain donor from Shantung”, is the main character in the folk novel “ The Robbers of Liang Shan Moor ”, which also takes place at the beginning of the 12th century.

Other personalities

  • Liu Bolin , modern artist who became famous for his “Invisible Man” paintings.
  • Sui Xinmei (born 1965), shot putter

Web links

Commons : Shandong  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Shandong (China): Prefecture Level, Cities & Counties - Population Statistics, Maps, Graphics, Weather and Web Information. Retrieved January 17, 2018 .
  2. Willy Lam: 2010 Census Exposes Fault Lines in China's Demographic Shifts , May 6, 2011.
  3. 中国 统计 年鉴 -2013. Retrieved May 6, 2018 .
  4. China: Provinces and Major Cities - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather, and Web Information. Retrieved May 6, 2018 .
  5. ^ National Data. Retrieved December 4, 2017 .
  6. ^ Partnership Bavaria - Shandong - CSU. Retrieved May 15, 2017 .

Coordinates: 36 ° 19 ′  N , 117 ° 50 ′  E