Jin Dynasty (1125-1234)

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Jin Dynasty Territory and Neighboring Empires, 1142

The Jin Dynasty ( Chinese  金朝 , Pinyin Jīn Cháo ) of the 12th and 13th centuries was a Tungus dynasty in northeast China that founded its own state in 1125 on the ruins of the Liao Empire of the Kitan . The Jin rulers belonged to the Jurchen people , some of whom later became Manchu ancestors . The Manchu referred to their founding of the dynasty in the early 17th century as the Later Jin Dynasty .


Marble statue of a Buddhist monk , Jin dynasty, 1180 AD

With the help of mercenaries from the Mongolian steppe, the Jurchen ruled the majority of the Han Chinese in northern China. The Jin Empire then had a total of 53 million inhabitants, including 6 million Jurchen, making it the most populous state on earth. At the beginning of 1126, the Jurchen surrounded Kaifeng , the capital of the Song Dynasty , whose emperor Huizong was captured after the city fell in January 1127.

The capital of the Jin Empire was initially Huei-ing ( Huining , 1125-1153) near Harbin in Manchuria, now Acheng . The Sinization of the Jurchen nobility accelerated when the despotic Emperor Tikunai ( Wanyan Liang) moved the capital to Beijing in 1153 and finally even briefly to Kaifeng. But Tikunai failed in his attack on Song China in 1161 on the Yangtze and was killed by his soldiers.

Under his successor Wulu, the capital was temporarily moved back to Manchuria. This was in connection with measures taken by traditional circles against Sinization. In 1173 the Jurchen were forbidden to use Chinese names. At the same time, the Jurchen language was made mandatory for official exams.

Chengling Pagoda , Zhengding , Hebei Province , built 1161–1189 AD.

From 1153 to 1214 Zhōngdū ( 中 都  - "middle capital") was again the capital, today's Beijing. In 1194, the Yellow River shifted its course, causing several floods. Despite this catastrophe, the aforementioned pressure on the government and a new war against the Song 1208, the Jurchen rule was outwardly stable on the eve of the Mongol attack . Only inwardly did one see the unreliability of the army, a quarter of which consisted of mercenaries from the steppe.

The Jin occasionally undertook punitive expeditions to Mongolia , and from 1192 onwards they also reinforced the Great Wall . But the establishment of the Mongol Empire in 1206 was a serious challenge for them. After the conquest of Beijing by the Mongol Khan Genghis , Kaifeng became the last capital in 1214-1234. The empire of the Jin dynasty fell in 1234 with the conquest of Kaifeng and Luoyang by Ögedei Khan .

Jin Dynasty Emperor (1125-1234)

Temple name Posthumous title Birth Name Reign Government currencies
Taizu 太祖 Wanyan Aguda ( 完顏 阿骨打 , Wányán Āgǔdǎ ) 1115-1123 Shōuguó收 國 1115–1116
Tiānfǔ天 輔 1117–1123
Taizong 太宗 Wanyan Wuqimai ( 完顏 吳 乞 買 , Wányán Wúqǐmǎi ) or
Wanyan Sheng ( 完顏 晟 , Wányán Shèng )
1123-1134 Tiānhuì天 會 1123–1134
Xizong 熙宗 Wanyan Hela ( 完顏 合 剌 , Wányán Hélá ) or
Wanyan Dan ( 完顏 亶 , Wányán Dǎn )
1135-1149 Tiānhuì天 會 1135–1138
Tiānjuàn天眷 1138–1141
Huángtǒng皇 統 1141–1149
- Hailing Wang ( 海陵 王 , Hǎilíng Wáng ) Wanyan Liang ( 完顏亮 , Wányán Liàng ) 1149-1161 Tiāndé天 德 1149–1153
Zhènyuán貞元 1153–1156
Zhènglóng正隆 1156–1161
Shizong 世宗 Wanyan Yong ( 完顏 雍 , Wányán Yōng ) 1161-1189 Dàdìng大定 1161–1189
Zhangzong 章 宗 Wanyan Jing ( 完顏 璟 , Wányán Jǐng ) 1190-1208 Míngchāng明昌 1190–1196
Chéng'ān承 安 1196–1200
Tàihé泰和 1200–1208
- Weishao Wang ( 衛 紹 王 , Wèishào Wáng ) or
Weiwang ( 衛 王 , Wèiwáng )
Wanyan Yongji ( 完顏 永濟 , Wányán Yǒngjì ) 1209-1213 Dà'ān大安 1209–1212
Chóngqìng崇慶 1212–1213
Zhìníng至 寧 1213
Xuanzong 宣宗 Wanyan Xun ( 完顏 珣 , Wányán Xún ) 1213-1223 Zhēnyòu貞 祐 1213–1217
Xīngdìng興 定 1217–1222
Yuánguāng元 光 1222–1223
Aizong 哀 宗 Wanyan Shouxu ( 完 顏守緒 , Wányán Shǒuxù ) 1224-1234 Zhèngdà 正大 1224–1232
Kāixīng開 興 1232
Tiānxīng天 興 1232–1234
- Modes 末帝 Wanyan Chenglin ( 完 顏承麟 , Wányán Chénglín ) 1234 -


Jade jewelry, Jin Dynasty
Wooden Bodhisattva statue, Jin Dynasty
  • Frederick W. Mote: Imperial China. 900-1800. Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA et al. 1999, ISBN 0-674-44515-5 .
  • Jing-shen Tao: The Jurchen in Twelfth-Century China. A Study of Sinicization (= Publications on Asia of the Institute for Comparative and Foreign Area Studies. 29). University of Washington Press, Seattle WA u. a. 1976, ISBN 0-295-95514-7 ( Publications on Asia of the Institute for Comparative and Foreign Area Studies , 29).

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Dieter Kuhn : The Age of Confucian Rule. The Song Transformation of China. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA et al. 2009, ISBN 978-0-674-03146-3 , pp. 67-70; Frederick W. Mote: Imperial China. 900-1800. 1999, p. 290 f.
  2. Lt. Xiàndài Hànyǔ cídiǎn现代 汉语 词典 (Beijing, Shāngwù yìnshūguǎn 商务印书馆 1996), ISBN 7-100-01777-7 , p. 1705, the character 晟 is not pronounced chéng , but shèng .