Genghis Khan

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Genghis Khan (14th century portrait)
Mongolian name
Mongolian script : Cinggis qagan.svg
Transliteration: Činggis Qaɣan
Official transcription of the PRCh: Qinggis Haan
Cyrillic script : Чингис Хаан
ISO transliteration : Čingis Haan
Transcription: Chinggis Chaan
Pronunciation in IPA : [ tʃiŋɡɪs χaːŋ ]
Other spellings: Genghis Khan
Chinese name
Traditional : 成吉思汗
Simplified : 成吉思汗
Pinyin : Chéngjísī Hàn
Wade-Giles : Ch'êng-chi-szŭ Han

Genghis Khan ( Mongol Чингис Хаан , Mongolian ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ , originally Temüdschin , Тэмүжин ,ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠵᠢᠨ or Temüüdschin , Тэмүүжин , Tatar "the blacksmith"; * probably around 1155, 1162 or 1167; † probably on August 18, 1227 ) was a khagan of the Mongols and founder of the Mongol Empire . He united the Mongolian tribes and conquered large parts of Central Asia and northern China. His reign as the first khagan of the Mongols lasted from 1206 to 1227.

He united the Mongolian tribes on the territory of what is now central and northern Mongolia and led them to victory against several neighboring peoples. After being appointed khagan of all Mongols, he began to conquer further areas; in the east to the Sea of ​​Japan and in the west to the Caspian Sea . In order to administer this empire, he had his own script developed and enforced written and binding laws. After his death, the empire was divided up among his sons and enlarged, but fell apart two generations later.


Situation of the Mongols

"Genghis Khan" in classic Mongolian

The Mongols originally settled in the northeast of what is now Mongolia, between the Onon and Kerulen rivers . They were made up of nomadic pastoral tribes from the steppe as well as hunters and fishermen from the forest areas and were split up into numerous smaller groups.

The pasture area was (and still is) common property, property rights to land were unknown. Nevertheless, due to the unequal distribution of cattle ownership, there was an early feudal order within the individual tribes. Across the tribes, leaders for war, robbery and hunting expeditions were still freely chosen by the tribal princes on a Kurultai around 1200 , but a military aristocracy developed in the unification struggles of that time , which in the course of the development of the Mongolian warfare gained and gained a lot of power whose leadership positions eventually became hereditary under Genghis Khan.

Origin and birth

According to Mongolian legend, at the beginning of the genealogical tree of Genghis Khan (and also of all Mongols) there was a wolf and a hind, who settled near the holy mountain Burchan Chaldun on the bank of Onon, which rises there. This mountain is located about 170 km east of today's Ulan Bator and is part of the Chentii Mountains , in which the Kerulen and Tuul rivers arise.

Genghis Khan belonged to the Mongghol tribe , the Borjigin (wild duck people) clan and the Qiyat (Kijat) sub-clan. He was the eldest son of the clan chief Yesügai and his wife Hoe'lun-Ujin (also Üdschin ) and also the great-grandson of the legendary Mongol prince Qabul (also known as Kabul Khan), who had temporarily united the Mongolian tribes around 1130-1150, and received from his father the name Temüdschin (tatar .: "the blacksmith", incorrectly translated as "the iron one"). According to old Mongolian custom, this name came from a captured enemy.

In the epic The Secret History of the Mongols , commissioned by his son and successor Ögedei only after the death of Genghis Khan , it is reported that Temüdschin held a blood clot in his right fist when he was born, a prophetic symbol of strength and willpower for the Mongols at the time. The Burchan Chaldun on the upper reaches of the Onon is considered the place of birth .

Childhood and youth

At that time, the steppe clans were engaged in constant fighting among themselves. Temüdschin's father Yesügai had greatly enlarged the tribal area through raids against the Tatars and Merkites and accumulated wealth and prosperity. In one of these raids, he even robbed Temüdschin's mother directly from her Merkitian groom's wedding car and made her his own wife. In his childhood Temüdschin learned to ride, archery and hunting early, the skills that were crucial for survival in the steppes of Central Asia. As is so often the case with nomadic peoples, the law of the strong applied there too, who takes whatever he needs without consideration. Therefore, after every attack and robbery, there was a threat of revenge from the loser in return, as Temüdschin would later find out himself.

According to reports, as a young boy he was initially rather fearful and shy, but developed a close bond with his oath brother Jamucha , who later became his bitterest enemy out of rivalry.

Temüdschin was nine years old when his father, as was customary with the Mongolian nomads at the time, went to look for a bride with him. In the camp of a friendly clan from the Unggirat tribe , they discovered a pretty little girl named Börte . This was the daughter of the chief, whom they asked for her hand. As the latter agreed, the future groom stayed with his in-laws for some time according to the old custom and made friends there with his fiancée.

His father rode back alone and accepted the hospitality of Tatars on the way. However, they recognized him as the head of the enemy tribe and poisoned him while eating. After being informed of the death of his father by a messenger, Temüdschin returned to his tribe. Because of his youth he was not recognized there as his father's successor. The former followers turned away from his family, the whole clan broke up, and he was left as the eldest son with his mother, his three teenage brothers and a little sister. Without the protection of the tribe, they were gradually robbed of all their belongings and lived in poverty for the next few years. There were frequent arguments between him and his brothers, which eventually culminated in his murdering his half-brother Bektar . According to another source, he killed his brother while fighting over the booty after a raid.

For other Mongol princes, despite his miserable living conditions and his youth, he was a threat because of his aristocratic origins, and the family had to flee again and again. Sometimes Temüdschin is said to have sought refuge on the holy mountain Burchan Chaldun in times of greatest distress. On one of these escapes, he was finally captured by the Taijut , held like a slave and severely humiliated. Through his adventurous escape from this captivity, he gained great respect among his peers. He also found his fiancée Börte, whom he eventually married.

Unification of the Mongols

Temüdschin knew that you can only survive in the steppe if you have powerful allies. With skillful diplomacy he was able to gradually win over or eliminate his opponents.

In 1190 he united the Mongolian clans, which then began under his leadership to subdue the neighboring steppe peoples. As an incentive for the unconditional obedience of his fighters, he promised them rich booty on the campaigns to come.

In 1201 he succeeded in defeating his busiest rival and former oath or blood brother, the Gurkhan Jamucha . He was initially able to flee, but lost a large part of his following. In the desperate fight against Temüdschin, he entered into constantly changing alliances with friends and foes. This hopeless interplay finally became too much for his closest confidants and they handed him over to Temüdschin. However, he set a typical example for him. Since he hated nothing like treachery and betrayal, he had the followers of Jamucha and all their family members killed. However, he again offered his friendship to his former blood brother and asked him to return to his side. This refused the offer and asked for a befitting death, which was also granted to him. Temüdschin later defeated Kushluq , who had fought against him with the Kara-Kitai .

In 1202, after a victory over the Merkites in the north, Temüdschin felt strong enough to retaliate against the Tatars in the east for the death of his father. In bloody battles he defeated the four tribes of the Tatars, and according to the information in the Secret History of the Mongols , he only allowed those who were defeated to live who were not taller than the axel height of an ox cart. In 1203 he defeated the Keraiten under Toghril Khan and Nilkha and in 1204 the Naimanen under Tayang Baybugha in the west. With that, the last hurdles on the way to unrestricted power were overcome.

Appointment as Genghis Khan and changes

The Empire of the Mongols at the death of Genghis Khan (1227)
The Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan and his successors.
  • Expansion under Genghis Khan and successors
  • Successor realms 1294:
  • Golden Horde
  • Chagatai Khanate
  • Ilchanate
  • Yuan Dynasty (Great Khanate)
  • In 1206 Temüdschin convened a diet at the source of the Onon , the so-called Kuriltai . There he was named "Genghis Khan", the great khan of all Mongols, by the shamans and tribal chiefs who were present and awarded the title of "impetuous ruler" (ocean-like ruler). The national emblem he was awarded, the white standard, still stands today in the Mongolian parliament, along with nine other standards for the core tribes of the empire at that time as a symbol of today's Mongolian state. The three points at the top of the standard represent the moon, sun and flame and are supposed to symbolize the strength of the Mongols. The moon symbolizes the past, the sun the present and the flame the future of the Mongol Empire.

    The resolution of the Reichstag created a new state with Genghis Khan as absolute ruler and sole legislator. The government was formed by his mother, brothers and sons. From representatives of other peoples he learned how to administer a great empire. To do this, he ordered his son Ögedei to write down the old and newly enacted laws in the form of a Mongolian basic law, the Jassa . This work formulated a uniform collection of strict commandments and regulations that were supposed to regulate coexistence in the newly founded Mongol Empire. This ended the arbitrary rule of the tribal princes and created an essential basis for an orderly state. According to another source, he had the Jassa recorded by his literate, Tatar adoptive son Shigiqutuquals and made him his chief judge.

    Next he established a general conscription and appointed thousands of leaders from among his previous companions to lead his large army. For these and other appointments, blood kinship or tribal affiliation was no longer decisive, but unconditional obedience to the Khan and special bravery in previous battles. The old tribal nobility was largely disempowered and replaced by reliable people (quiver bearers) from the military . Unreliable tribal groups were disbanded. These measures marked a revolutionary break with the previous social conditions in the steppe. The new order replaced betrayal and deceit with discipline and allegiance.

    Occasionally, Genghis Khan brought with him a young boy from the tribes under control for his wife or mother. These children were adopted by them and subsequently grew up as equal family members with the khan's biological sons. A group of young, often talented men grew up in his yurt .

    In addition to the well-organized and strictly disciplined army , the only reliable means of power against the traditional independence of the tribal nobility, the new Great Khan also set up his own bodyguard of around 10,000 soldiers. This consisted of the sons or brothers of tribal princes and military leaders, who on the one hand fought as warriors for him, but at the same time represented a bargaining chip as hostages to ensure the unconditional obedience of the steppe nobility.

    It was not until 1220 that enough foreign officials came into the Mongolian service, so that one could also think of a kind of civil administration of the subjugated peoples.

    Genghis Khan himself was illiterate , but nevertheless recognized the importance of the writing system and therefore had his own font developed for the administration of his empire. This is how the Mongolian script, derived from Uighur , came about .

    More conquests

    Following the unification of the empire, Genghis Khan turned to conquering China from 1207. As a result, the army of the Mongols conquered the kingdom of Xixia the Tanguts , the realm of Jurchen in today's North and Northeast China and the rich Muslim kingdoms in what is now Kazakhstan , Uzbekistan , Iran , Afghanistan and Turkey ; small empires submitted to him as vassals. It is estimated that around 30% of the population was killed in the violent incursions by the Mongolian army. Genghis Khan made it very important that artists, architects and administrators were spared in the massacres because he needed them to build his own empire. After subjugating the Tanguts in 1209, he created a camp south of the Great Wall for further campaigns of conquest. In 1211 he led his troops with more than 100,000 fighters south and east into the area ruled by the Jin dynasty and advanced as far as the Shandong peninsula . In 1215 he took Shandong after a successful siege of Beijing , and in 1219 Korea also paid tribute to him.

    In 1218 the Khan subjugated the Kara-Khitai empire , the last remaining steppe empire on Lake Balkhash .

    In the west, a friendship treaty was signed with the Islamic Khorezmian Empire in Persia , but the peace was short-lived. Soon after, a Mongolian caravan was ambushed and the travelers murdered.

    Imperial Assembly / question of succession

    As a result, Genghis Khan convened a new imperial assembly in 1218 to resolve a retaliatory strike against this kingdom in the west and other laws and directives. At the same time, he wanted to clarify the question of succession during his lifetime. His eldest son was Dschötschi († 1227), the second Tschagatai († 1242), the third Ögedei († 1241), the fourth Tolui († 1232).

    At first, with this clarification, a violent quarrel arose among the sons, and the eldest was violently abused by everyone else. However, when one of them proposed to arbitrate that Ögedei should be chosen as his successor, Genghis Khan immediately agreed, since his middle-born son was considered prudent and generous. In this sense, his successor was contractually recorded at this meeting and a campaign of revenge against the Khorezmian Empire was also decided.

    Genghis Khan's wife Börte Udschin was before the birth of Jochi from warring tribe of Merkits been kidnapped, there were so certain doubts about the paternity of Genghis Khan to his first-born son. So his name means Dschötschi the stranger , and this resulted in the dispute between the two eldest sons as to which of these was actually the firstborn.

    Retaliatory campaign

    In 1219/20 the Mongols defeated the troops of the Khorezm Shah in Transoxania . Bukhara and Samarkand were conquered, and Sultan Ala ad-Din Muhammad died while fleeing on the Caspian Sea . His son Jalal ad-Din was defeated on the Indus in 1221 and temporarily fled to India.

    Founding of Karakoram

    In 1220 Genghis Khan determined the location of the later city of Karakorum (black mountains / black rock / black scree) , initially only as a special residence on the banks of the Orkhon for his stay in the Helin area, as it was for his stay in other areas of his country there were similar residences.

    However, the Orkhon was and is the lifeline of the entire region, and the centers of great past steppe empires lay on its banks even before Genghis Khan. By fixing his residence at this point, he consciously placed himself in the tradition of his predecessors. In order to consolidate its power, Karakorum later developed into the first capital of the Mongol Empire and, under his successor, was also provided with a fortification. For the Mongols, Karakoram is still the historical center of their nation state .

    Genghis Khan brought foreign craftsmen and artists into the country, especially in the new capital, to carry out activities that were previously unfamiliar to the nomads. The Mongols, however, usually did not acquire the knowledge of the foreigners, but let them work for them. Some of the foreign craftsmen and artists came voluntarily, but others were also deported here.

    Genghis Khan and his successors showed a second, completely different face in Karakoram in addition to their acts of war. Due to their tolerant attitude towards everything new and unknown, their capital became not only the control center of the imperial administration and a center of trade and handicrafts, but also a melting pot of different religions, cultures and peoples.

    Campaigns to Eastern Europe

    Around the same time (1220) the Mongols attacked the Caucasus and southern Russia , and in 1223 the troops under J̌ebe and Sube'etai advanced as far as Ukraine . There they defeated the Rus and Kipchaks in the battle of the Kalka . At that time the Mongols had not come to make conquests and retreated to Mongolia after their victory. It was not until Genghis Khan's successor, Ögedei , that the Mongols returned to Eastern Europe fifteen years later and subjugated the Rus in the so-called Mongol storm and advanced as far as Hungary, Poland and Austria. Sube'etai was also involved as a commander in this campaign.

    Death and succession

    In 1224/25 the Khan returned to Mongolia with the plan of a punitive expedition against the Tanguts . On the way there he died, presumably on August 18, 1227. The cause of death has not been clarified, according to the most widespread representation he succumbed to internal injuries after a riding accident. According to the Galician-Volhyn Chronicle , he was killed by the Tanguts. Popular traditions also tell of a Tangut princess who wanted to avenge her people and prevent her own rape by emasculating him with a hidden knife.

    When Genghis Khan died in 1227, all living things around him, including 2000 people who attended the funeral, were killed. According to Mongolian tradition, the place of the tomb was kept secret and the tomb of Genghis Khan has not been found until today.

    A thousand horsemen are said to have leveled his burial site with the hooves of their horses, and they are said to have been executed immediately after their return so that they could not reveal the exact location to anyone. It is widely believed that Genghis Khan was buried in Chentii-Aimag somewhere on the southern slope of Burchan Chaldun, as this mountain played an important role in his life, but there are so many legends surrounding his burial that other burial sites come into question. The location of the Genghis Khan mausoleum near Ordos in Inner Mongolia can be ruled out with certainty . This is a memorial with an empty coffin and not a real grave, i.e. a cenotaph .

    When Genghis Khan died, his empire had reached a size of 19 million km², twice the size of today's China . It now stretched from the China Sea in the east to the Caspian Sea in the west and is still the only nomadic state in the world that lasted for 200 years. But only under Genghis Khan's successors was it to reach its final expansion and become the greatest empire in the history of mankind.

    Against all tradition, but true to his principle that competence and suitability decide, Genghis Khan appointed the second youngest son Ögedei as his successor at the imperial assembly of 1218 during his lifetime. Usually in the Mongolian line of succession the youngest son succeeded the father and inherited his property - minus the share of the older sons. True to the agreement, the new Great Khan Ögedei was proclaimed ruler of all Mongols at a convened Reichstag in 1229.

    In addition, the subjugated peoples and their territories were divided between Tschagatai , Ögedei and Tolui as well as the descendants of the deceased fourth son Jötschi . Everyone got their own partial kingdom ( khanate ). Together the four families continued to expand the empire until they finally fell out (cf. list of the descendants of Genghis Khan ).

    Effect to this day

    According to some sources, his son Ögedei commissioned the Secret History of the Mongols - a mixture of chronicle and epic - from Genghis Khan's Tatar adoptive son Shigiqutuquals , who wrote it down in Mongolian script. According to other sources, Ögedei wrote it himself. It tells the life story of Genghis Khan and only the Khan's family were allowed to read it. This work was lost for centuries. It was not until 1866 that parts of copies written in Chinese characters were found in a library in China. The original in Mongolian script has not appeared again to this day. The Secret History reveals that, due to his career, Genghis Khan placed the highest value on the personal loyalty and loyalty of people to their masters or friends. The peoples to whom he brought suffering and death characterize him as a cruel butcher, and he is still considered one of the greatest mass murderers in human history. However, his vast empire brought security and peace to its residents for a long period of time.

    In addition, he was very tolerant in religious matters and ready to lend his ear to every religious denomination and every state philosophy. Towards the end of his life, he apparently understood that his governing principles were not the only ones in force and put advisers such as the Kitan Yelu Chucai and the Khorezm Turk Machmud Jalatwatsch in top positions to organize his empire comprehensively. However, this endeavor bore fruit among his sons and grandchildren only after his death. Genghis Khan's empire continued to expand, and by 1260 it was more organized and pacified internally than most of its territories were at any other time - a state also called Pax Mongolica . At that time it covered a little over 33 million km².

    Genghis Khan fathered numerous children with a multitude of women, and several of his sons and grandchildren followed suit. According to some estimates, there are around 16 million men who are descendants of the Mongol ruler today. This estimate is not generally accepted. In the Asian region between the Pacific Ocean and the Caspian Sea , around eight percent of the male population has a common genetic signature in the Y chromosome . Researchers dated the origin of this trait a few generations before Genghis Khan. Indeed, it is believed that he and his close male relatives may have been responsible for its unusually high prevalence. The final confirmation of this assumption could only provide the analysis of his DNA itself from tiny tissue remnants, but for which the lost grave of Genghis Khan would first have to be discovered.

    Military organization

    Mounted archers of the Mongols
    from the universal story of Rashid ad-Din

    The Mongolian army was organized according to the decimal system. The troops were divided into ten and the men controlled each other. If a warrior fled from the enemy, the other nine died too. By handing over horse hair, one hair from each horse of each soldier, the army leaders swore unconditional obedience to the khagan. The black standard , the new standard of the Mongols , emerged from these bundles of horse hair . This standard is still kept today as an important national symbol in the Ministry of Defense in Ulaanbaatar .

    The power of the new army was based on its strict discipline, its agility on the tough and enduring horses, its weapons and its sophisticated combat tactics. Each rider carried two to three horses with them and was able to cover large distances in a very short time thanks to the exchange options that were always available. They only stopped to eat and sleep on the way. As provisions, the fighters u. a. dried meat powder ( borts ) in cow bladders attached to the saddle. Borts is easy to transport and practically non-perishable and is boiled in hot water like today's packet soup. With this energizing and nutritious food, they could take care of themselves for months.

    All Mongols were trained as horsemen and archers from childhood. For them the hunt was the school of war. Their main weapon was a special composite bow . They always carried several bows and many arrows with forged iron tips with them. The composite bows gave the arrows shot a high degree of penetration. By using stirrups , they could also shoot arrows backwards ( Parthian maneuver ).

    A combat tactic often used consisted of a brief attack followed by a feigned retreat to lure the pursuing enemy into an ambush. At a higher level, attempts were made to enclose and destroy the enemy army in whole or in part. This approach and the necessary organization are probably derived from experiences with boiler hunting in the steppe.


    • 1155, 1162 or 1167: Birth of Temüdschin.
    • 1190: Temüdschin unites the Mongolian clans and subjugates other steppe peoples.
    • 1201: Victory over Gurkhan Jamucha .
    • 1202: Victory over the Merkites and the four tribes of the Tatars .
    • 1203: Victory over the Keraiten .
    • 1204: Victory over the Naimans .
    • 1206: Temüdschin appointed Mongolian Khagan Genghis Khan on the Kuriltai at the source of the Onon .
    • 1207/09: Subjugation of the Tanguts and establishment of an army camp on the Chinese side of the Great Wall of China for further campaigns of conquest.
    • 1211: Entry into the area of ​​the Jin Dynasty and advance to the Shandong peninsula .
    • 1215: capture of Beijing .
    • 1218: Submission of the Kara Khitai empire on Lake Balkhash and friendship treaty with the Muslim Khorezmian empire .
    • 1218: Kuriltai to decide on a campaign of revenge against the Khorezmian Empire after a bloody attack on a Mongolian caravan and appointment of the third eldest son Ogedei as successor of Genghis Khan.
    • 1219: Korea began paying tribute .
    • 1219/20: Victory in Transoxania over the troops of the Khorezm Shah and conquest of Bukhara and Samarkand .
    • 1220: Genghis Khan founds the later city of Karakorum , attacks by the Mongols in the Caucasus and southern Russia .
    • 1221: Victory over the troops of Sultan Jalal ad-Din , son of Ala ad-Din Muhammad, who died while fleeing on the Caspian Sea. Destruction of Nishapur .
    • 1223: Advance of the Mongolian troops under J̌ebe and Sube'etai as far as the Ukraine and victory over the Rus in the battle of the Kalka.
    • 1224/25: Genghis Khan's return to Mongolia and start of the punitive expedition against the Tanguts . Serious illness of the khagan as a result of a riding accident.
    • August 18, 1227: Death of the khagan.
    • 1229: Kuriltai for the appointment of Ögedei as the new khagan, true to the agreement of 1218 and for the division of the subjugated peoples and their territories among the still living sons and the descendants of the deceased first son Jötschi.

    Origin and meaning of the title Genghis Khan

    There are a number of theories about the origin and interpretation of the title Genghis Khan, also known as Genghis Khan, Cinggis-Khan, Genghis-Chan and Djingis-Chan . The spelling Genghis Khan , which is widespread in Europe, goes back to D'Herbelot , from whom Gibbon took it over.

    The two most compelling explanations are:

    • Genghis Khan originated from the Chinese-Turkish composition chêng-sze khan (from Chinese chêng-sze: "noble rider / knight" and Old Turkish khan : "ruler") with the meaning: "ruler of the noble riders"
    • Genghis Khan was formed from the purely old Turkish tengis khan ( tengis: "sea") and would then have the meaning of: "ruler of the seas", "ocean-like ruler" or "ruler between the seas" (world ruler).


    The history of Genghis Khan and his Mongolian empire has been passed down in many ways. Many details from his life and the nomadic culture of his time can be found alongside legendary entanglements in the Secret History of the Mongols , which was recorded about ten years after his death by one or more authors from his closest circle.

    There are also numerous records by chroniclers and historians from China, the Persian region and of course from Western and Eastern Europe at the time of the Mongol storm. Historiography in the Persian language is one of the main sources for this epoch of Mongolian history.

    From Western Europe, for example, the English Benedictine monk , heraldist and chronicler Matthew Paris , also Matthäus Parisiensis or Matthaei Parisiensis (* around 1200; † 1259), the great Abbey of St Albans in Hertfordshire, England with his " Chronica maiora " is mentioned.

    In addition, the findings of the numerous archaeological excavations in many places of the former Mongolian Empire provide more and more details about the events of this time. The excavation results so far on the site of the former Mongolian capital Karakorum are of particular importance . After earlier explorations by Sergej Kiselev in 1948/1949, archaeologists from the German Archaeological Institute in Bonn under the direction of Hans Georg Hüttel and Ernst Pohl from the Institute for Prehistoric and Protohistoric Archeology at the University of Bonn have been digging there with Mongolian scientists since 2000 Area of ​​the presumed Khagan Palace and the craftsmen's quarter in the former city center.

    Reception in film and literature

    The person of Genghis Khan and his life have been processed several times in films, including:

    • The Conqueror . (Feature film, USA 1956; Original title: The Conqueror .)
    • Genghis Khan . (Monumental film, Great Britain, Yugoslavia, Germany 1965; Original title: Genghis Khan .)
    • Tschingis-Chaan . (Biography / period film, PR China 1987; Original title: Chengji Sihan .)
    • The Mongol . (Feature film, Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Germany 2007; Original title: Монгол .)
    • Genghis Khan - The Blue Wolf . (Monumental film; Japan 2007; Original title: Aoki Ôkami: chi hate umi tsukiru made .)
    • Genghis Khan - Storm over Asia . (Period film, USA / Russia / Mongolia 2009; Original title: By the Will of Chingis Khan . / Tayna Chingis Khaana .)

    There is also a web series called Marco Polo , which gives an insight into life after Genghis Khan in a Mongolia ruled by Kublai Khan .

    It can also be found as a template in historical novels:

    • Pamela Sargent: Genghis Khan, ruler of heaven .
    • Wassili G. Jan: Genghis Khan . (first volume of the Mongolian trilogy)
    • Conn Iggulden: Genghis Khan . Vol. 1: Son of Wolves.
    • Erich Schönbeck: And on earth Tschingis Chan.
    • Kurt David: The black wolf and continuation Tenggeri .
    • Galsan Tschinag : The nine dreams of Genghis Khan .
    • Malcolm Bosse: The Khan .

    See also


    • Dominique Farale: De Gengis Khan à Qoubilaï Khan. Economica, Paris 2003, ISBN 2-7178-4537-2 .
    • Louis Hambis: Gengis Khan (= Que sais-je? Volume 1524). Presses universitaires de France, Paris 1973.
    • Alex Janzen: Causes of the success of the Mongolian expansion in the 13th century: An attempt at an analysis. Ars et Unitas, Neuried 2003, ISBN 3-936117-21-7 (= dissertation, University of Münster 2003).
    • Christian Koller : A general as a creator of identity? On the cult of the past in post-communist Mongolia. In: Military History Working Group. Newsletter. Volume 31, No. 2, Military History Working Group V. 2008, pp. 8-10 ( full text as PDF ).
    • Hans Leicht: Genghis Khan. Special edition .: Conqueror. Tribal chief. Thought leader. Patmos, Düsseldorf 2002, ISBN 3-491-96050-9 .
    • Franklin Mackenzie: Genghis Khan. Scherz, Bern / Munich 1977; Habel, Darmstadt 1993, ISBN 3-502-16441-X , ISBN 3-87179-179-2 .
    • Reinhold Neumann-Hoditz: Genghis Khan. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1985, ISBN 3-499-50345-X .
    • Michael Prawdin : Tschingis-Chan and his heirs . DVA, Stuttgart / Berlin 1938 (Despite its age, the biography of the Ukrainian-British author is still worth reading).
    • Paul Ratchnevsky: Činggis-Khan - His life and work . Steiner, Wiesbaden, 1983. English-language edition abridged in the notes: Genghis Khan - His Life and Legacy. Blackwell Publishers, Oxford 1993, ISBN 0-631-18949-1 .
    • Jean-Paul Roux: Gengis Khan et l'Empire Mongol (= Découvertes Gallimard. Vol. 422). Gallimard, Paris 2002, ISBN 2-07-076556-3 .
    • Jean-Paul Roux: Histoire de l'Empire Mongol. Fayard, Paris 1993, ISBN 978-2-213-03164-4 .
    • Boris Yakovlevich Vladimirtsov : The life of Chingis-Khan. Reissued 1930, Blom, New York 1969.
    • Jack Weatherford: Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World. Three Rivers Press, New York 2004, ISBN 0-609-80964-4 .
    • Gudrun Ziegler, Alexander Hogh: The Mongols, in the empire of Genghis Khan. Theiss, Stuttgart 2005, ISBN 3-8062-1940-0 .

    Web links

    Commons : Genghis Khan  - collection of images, videos and audio files

    Individual evidence

    1. ^ Office of Resources for International and Area Studies (ORIAS) at the University of California, Berkeley: including dates of birth and death. On: from 2002 ( Memento from February 23, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
    2. ^ David Morgan: The Mongols (= People of Europe ). Blackwell, Oxford UK / New York 1986, ISBN 0-631-13556-1 , p. 55.
    3. ^ Hans Rainer fights: Tschinggis Khan. In: Veronika Veit, Walther Heissig, Michael Weiers (eds.): The Mongols. Contributions to their history and culture. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 1986, ISBN 978-3-534-03579-3 , pp. 183f.
    4. Phoenix TV station: Mongols - In the Empire of Genghis Khan from August 11, 2007 (4:15 pm-5:00pm).
    5. Paul D. Buell: Sübȫtei ba'atur . In: Igor de Rachewiltz et al. (Ed.): In the Service of the Khan: Eminent Personalities of the Early Mongol-Yuan Period 1200-1300 . Otto Harrossowitz, Wiesbaden 1993, pp. 19-20 (English); Peter Jackson: The Mongols and the West 1221-1410 . Routledge, New York, 2014, pp. 39-40, 63-65 (English); Carl Fredrik Sverdrup: The Mongol Conquests: The Military Operations of Genghis Khan and Sube'etei . Helion, Solihull, 2017, pp. 191-208, 305-319 (English).
    6. Jennifer L. Hanson: Mongolia (= Nations in transition. ). Facts On File, New York 2004, ISBN 0-8160-5221-2 , p. 10.
    7. Hildegard Kaulen: Not only Genghis Khan - men with many offspring . On. / aktuell from February 21, 2015; last accessed on June 20, 2016.
    8. T. Zerjal et al. a .: The Genetic Legacy of the Mongols. In: American Journal of Human Genetics . (AJHG) Volume 72, Number 3, March 2003, pp. 717-721, doi : 10.1086 / 367774 , PMID 12592608 , PMC 1180246 (free full text).
    9. father of eight million . On: of September 3, 2009, last accessed on June 14, 2014.
    10. ^ Ruy González de Clavijo, Clements Markham : Narrative of the embassy of Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo to the court of Timour at Samarcand, AD 1403-6 (= Works issued by the Hakluyt Society . No. 26). Printed for the Hakluyt Society, London 1859, foreword p. Xi.
    11. Pamela Sargent: Genghis Khan, ruler of the sky. (From the American by Birgit Oberg) Bastei Lübbe, Bergisch Gladbach 1998, ISBN 3-404-12879-6 .
    12. Wassili G. Jan : Genghis Khan (= Insel-Taschenbuch. No. 461). (From the Russian by Horst Wolf) Kiepenheuer, Weimar 1953, editions until 1989, ISBN 3-378-00041-4 ; Insel-Verlag 1990, ISBN 3-458-32161-6 .
    13. Conn Iggulden: Genghis Khan. Vol. 1: Son of Wolves. (Translated from the English by Andreas Helweg) German first edition, Blanvalet, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-442-37001-6 . (Original English title: Conqueror. Vol. 1: Wolf of the Plains. )
    14. Erich Schönbeck: And on earth Tschingis Chan. 2nd edition, Prisma-Verlag; Zenner & Gürchott, Leipzig 1967.
    15. Kurt David: The Black Wolf. and Tenggeri. New Life Publishing House, Berlin 1966 and 1968.
    16. Galsan Tschinag : The nine dreams of Genghis Khan. 1st edition, Insel-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig 2007, ISBN 978-3-458-17336-6 .
    17. Malcolm Bosse: Der Khan: (Translated from the English by Elfie Deffner) 1st edition, Scherz Verlag, Bern / Munich / Vienna 1995, ISBN 978-3-502-10057-7 .
    predecessor Office successor
    (None) First khagan of the Mongols
    Ögedei Khan
    This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on January 5, 2006 .