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States with an Islamic population of more than 5%
Green : Sunni , red : Shiite , blue : Ibadi (Oman)
Pilgrims praying in Mecca , the Kaaba in the middle distance
Entrance of the Mosque of the Prophet Mohammed in Medina
Star and crescent moon: The Hilal , a symbol of Islam
Two women and a man in the Selangor Mosque in Shah Alam, Malaysia

The Islam is a monotheistic religion, the 7th in the early century n. Chr. In Arabia by the Meccans Mohammed donated was. With over 1.8 billion members, Islam is the world's second largest religion after Christianity (approx. 2.2 billion members) .

Islam is also generally referred to as the Abrahamic , the prophetic religion of revelation and the religion of books or scriptures .

The Arabic word Islām ( Islām  /إسلام) is a verbal noun to the Arabic verb aslama ("surrender, surrender"). It literally means "surrender" (to the will of God), "submission" (to God), " surrender " (to God), often simply rendered with surrender, surrender and submission .

The term for one who belongs to Islam is Muslim . The plural form in German is Muslims or Muslims.

The ten countries with the largest share of the Muslim world population are Indonesia (12.9%), Pakistan (11.1%), India (10.3%), Bangladesh (9.3%), Egypt and Nigeria (each 5 %), Iran and Turkey (4.7% each) as well as Algeria (2.2%) and Morocco (approx. 2%). Taken together, more than two thirds of all Muslims live in them. The most important supranational Islamic organization is the Organization for Islamic Cooperation (OIC), based in Jeddah. It consists of 56 states in which Islam is the state religion, the religion of the majority of the population or the religion of a large minority. Partly Muslim European countries are Albania , Bosnia and Herzegovina , Kosovo , North Macedonia and Turkey (geographically only partially located in Europe ). Many other countries have Muslim minorities .

The most important textual basis of Islam is the Koran ( Arabic القرآن al-qurʾān  'reading, recitation, lecture'), which is considered to be the speech of God revealed to the Prophet Mohammed.

The second basis is the hadiths ( Arabic حديث, DMG ḥadīṯ  , narration, report, communication, tradition ') on the Sunna of Muhammad (Sunna, Arabic سنة 'Custom, habitual behavior, traditional norm'), who is called the “Messenger of God” ( Rasūl , Arabic رسول ' Messenger , Messenger , Apostle ' ') is a role model for all Muslims.

The norms resulting from these texts are collectively referred to as Sharia (شريعة / šarīʿa in the sense of "way to the watering place, way to the water source, clear, paved way"; also: "religious law", "rite").


Koranic statements

The term Islam occurs eight times in the Quran. In several places it is pointed out that the acceptance of Islam is a sign of divine election. This election becomes clear in the fact that God guides the person concerned , i.e. gives him the orientation towards the truth of faith and thus expands his chest ( Arabic saraha as-sadr) , i.e. expands his heart and mind, his knowledge and his awareness of values and thereby gives him rest (cf. Sura 6 : 125 and Sura 39 : 22). People who consider it to themselves as a merit that they have accepted Islam are countered that this is a grace of God that they owe only to him (cf. sura 49: 17). God can also constrict people's chests so that they cannot attain true faith (cf. Sura 2 : 7). Whoever is called to Islam may not concoct a lie against God (cf. Sura 61 : 7).

In three other places a relationship is established between Islam and the Arabic term Dīn , which has the meaning of “religion”, but also has the connotation of “guilt”. In sura 5 : 3 it says: “I have chosen Islam as a religion for you” and in sura 3 : 19. "Islam is regarded by God as religion". This shows that the Koran already defines Islam as a religion. According to the Koran, the history of this religion did not begin with Mohammed, but with Abraham . He is described in sura 3:67 as a devoted Hanīf .

An important distinction is already made in the Koran itself, namely between the acceptance of Islam ( islām ) and the acceptance of faith ( īmān ). Thus in Sura 49:14 the Arab Bedouins are asked not to say, “We have accepted the faith”, but “We have accepted Islam” because the faith has not yet entered their hearts. Such statements are linked to the idea that whoever has accepted Islam, i.e. is a Muslim, is not necessarily a mu'min, so must be a "believer". What "Islam" originally meant when it is not about belief is judged differently. Meïr Bravmann, who has studied the use of the word in ancient Arabic literature, believes that in the early Islamic community, which was strongly oriented towards jihad , he referred to the readiness for self-sacrifice in battle.

The distinction made in the Koran between Islam and faith has given rise to numerous debates in Islamic theology. The relationship between the two principles has never been fully clarified. Most theologians of the premodern era, however, insisted on a distinction between Islam and faith.

Five pillars

A proper definition of Islam is not found in the Koran, but only in the reports about the Prophet, namely in the so-called Gabriel Hadith , which is traced back to the Prophet via ʿUmar ibn al-Chattāb . Here, too, a distinction is made between Islam and faith . The third category introduced is “good deeds ” ( ihsān ). According to this hadith, Islam consists of “that you confess that there is no God but God and that Muhammad is the Messenger of God; that you perform the obligatory prayer and the gift of the poor, that you fast in Ramadan and pilgrimage to the house of (God) if you are able to do this. "

Representation of the five pillars in the Karlsruhe Garden of Religions

The doctrine is based on this that Islam consists of five main duties , which its five "pillars" ( arkān  /أركان) form. These are commonly referred to by the following Arabic names:

  1. Shahāda (Islamic creed)
  2. Salāt (compulsory prayer)
  3. Zakāt (almsgiving)
  4. Hem (fasting in ramadan)
  5. Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca)

A detailed description of the five pillars can be found in the relevant articles. Only the most important points are summarized here.


A calligraphy of the šahāda

The first pillar is the Islamic creed, the Shahāda ( Arabic الشهادة aš-šahāda ), which reads as follows:

« أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وأشهد أنّ محمدا رسول الله »

"Ašhadu an lā ilāha illā 'llāh, wa-ašhadu anna muḥammadan rasūlu' llāh"

"I testify that there is no deity but God and that Mohammed is the Messenger of God."

With this two-part formula, the Muslim is clearly committed to strict monotheism, to Muhammad's prophetic mission and its revelation, the Koran, and thus to Islam itself. Whoever speaks the creed in full consciousness in front of two witnesses is irreversibly considered a Muslim.

Ritual prayer

Muslims at salāt
Muslim woman at salāt
“Prayer in Cairo” by Jean-Léon Gérôme , 1865

The ritual prayer ( salāt  /صلاة) should be performed five times a day, before sunrise, at noon, in the afternoon, at sunset and at nightfall. Before each of these prayers, an announcement through the call to prayer and a ritual ablution are mandatory. This formula is also given five times a day by the muezzin ( Arabic مؤذّن mu'adhdhin ) at Adhān ( Arabic أذان adhān ) from the minaret ( Arabic مناره manāra ) called to the Muslims to compulsory ritual prayer ( Arabic صلاة salāt ), in which the formula also appears.

Likewise, before prayer, the Muslim should make himself aware that he is not performing the prayer out of routine, but out of the intention to serve God. The ritual washing before prayer also serves this purpose. To get into the state of consecration necessary for prayer (إحرام Ihrām ) follows the formula "God is greater (than everything else)" (الله أكبر Allāhu akbar ). It is considered necessary for the validity of the prayer that the person praying shouldfacetheKaabainMecca. In Islam it is considered the most sacred and the house of God. A number of other formulas and the first sura of the Quran (الفاتحة al-Fātiha 'the opening one') is recited. This is followed by thebowing ofprayer accompanied by formulas (cf.Rukūʿ) and several prostrations accompanied by various formulas (cf.Sudschūd). The prayer ends with a few more formulas. Assuch,prayer can be performed in anyritually cleanplace, possibly on a prayer rug, but ideally in themosque(مسجد masjid 'place of prostration').

On Friday the prayer at noon is followed by a community prayer, which is mandatory for men and recommended for women (صلاة الجمعة salāt al-dschumʿa ' Friday prayer ') in the mosque, which is replaced by a sermon (خطبة chutba ) is accompanied.

Alms tax

The alms tax ( Zakāt ,زكاة) is the mandatory levy to be paid by every mentally healthy, free, adult and financially capable Muslim for financial aid to the poor, slaves, debtors and travelers as well as for jihad . The amount varies depending on the type of income (trade, livestock, cultivation) between 2.5 and 10 percent, as does the tax base (income or total assets). As a process of redistribution of wealth, the collection and distribution of zakāt is seen as an important means of alleviating poverty.


Fasting ( hem ) takes place every year in the Islamic month of Ramadan . The Islamic calendar shifts eleven days forward each year compared to the Gregorian calendar . Fasting is from the beginning of dawn - when one can "distinguish a white thread from a black thread" (Sura 2, verse 187) - until the end of the sunset; Nothing is eaten, nothing is drunk, nothing is smoked, no conjugal intercourse and abstinence from behavior are practiced.

Muslims like to break the fast with a date and a glass of milk, as the prophet is said to have done. The month of fasting ends with the festival of breaking the fast ( 'Īd al-fitr ).


The seven times walking around the Kaaba , which is holy for Muslims, is the most important part of Hajj , the pilgrimage of Muslims to Mecca

The pilgrimage to Mecca, the so-called Hajj , which takes place in the last lunar month of Dhū l-Hiddscha , should be carried out at least once in their life by every Muslim who is able to do so. Decisive for whether the pilgrimage becomes an obligation, among other things, his financial and health circumstances. The restriction of the ritual legal duty of the pilgrimage is justified in the Koran: "... and people are obliged to God to make the pilgrimage to the house - as far as they can find a way ..." (Sura 3, verse 97).

Hajj includes taking part in the pilgrimage meeting on the ʿArafāt level on the 9th Dhū l-Hiddscha, the rites of Muzdalifa and Minā and walking around the Kaaba seven times . Often Muslims join their pilgrimage with a visit to the Prophet's Mosque in Medina , where the Prophet is also buried. But this is not an integral part of Hajj.

Other definitions

Although, according to the definition of the Gabriel Hadith, Islam only extends to the five named duties, there is a tendency to regard all duties named in the Koran as part of Islam. This view can be seen, for example, in the late medieval scholar Ibn Taimīya (died 1328), who explains in his "Introduction to the Basics of Koranic Exegesis": "The religion of Islam consists of following the Koran".

Since the beginning of the 20th century, there has been a tendency among various Muslim thinkers and activists who regard Islam as a means for the resurgence of the Muslim peoples after the age of colonialism to view Islam as a universal system that is no longer limited to religion alone present. These movements are now grouped under the heading " Political Islam ". So said Hassan al-Banna , the founder of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood , at the fifth conference of his organization in January 1939:

“We believe that the principles and teachings of Islam are comprehensive and regulate the affairs of people in this world and the hereafter. Those who assume that these teachings only deal with the worship or spiritual side are wrong, for Islam is confession ( ʿaqīda ) and worship ( ʿibāda ), fatherland ( waṭan ) and nationality ( ǧinsīya ), religion ( dīn ) and state ( daula ), spirituality ( rūḥānīya ) and work ( ʿamal ), Koran ( muṣḥaf ) and sword ( saif ). "

In the European languages, too, the term “Islam” has been given a considerably wider meaning since the 19th century, as it denotes the entirety of the Muslim peoples, countries and states with their own culture. This also explains why the Encyclopaedia of Islam , the most important reference work for Western Islamic studies , does not only deal with the Islamic religion, but rather the entire civilization of the Islamic countries, including things and people who have no direct reference to Islam. In this way, Islam has become the name for a cultural area beyond religion .

Islamic beliefs

What exactly belongs to the Islamic faith is disputed between the various theological schools of Islam (see below). According to the Gabriel hadith in the version traced back to ʿUmar ibn al-Chattāb , belief comprises a total of six points, namely belief in 1. God , 2. His angels , 3. His books, 4. His messengers , 5. Judgment day and 6. to predestination , both good and bad.

With the exception of the predestination, all these points are also mentioned in the Quranic word in Sura 4: 136:

“You believers! Believe in God and his messenger and in the scriptures that he sent down on his messenger, and in the scriptures that he (earlier) sent down! Whoever does not believe in God, his angels, his writings, his messengers and Judgment Day, has strayed far (from the right path). "

In a parallel version of the Gabriel Hadith, which is traced back to Abū Huraira , belief consists of only five points, namely belief 1. in God, 2. his angels, 3. in the encounter with God, 4. in his messengers and 5. to the resurrection.

More precise descriptions of the doctrines of the different Islamic schools are recorded in various creeds , which summarize the most important articles of faith in the form of lists like catechism .

Spread history

Beginnings in Mecca

According to Arabic tradition, the history of Islam begins with a calling experience of Muhammad on Mount Hira near Mecca, during which he received an order to preach through the angel Gabriel . The new religion first spread in the family environment of Mohammed. His first followers included his wife Khadidja bint Chuwailid , his young cousin ʿAlī ibn Abī Tālib , his slave Zaid ibn Hāritha , his paternal uncle Hamza ibn ʿAbd al-Muttalib, and Jafar, an older brother of ʿAlī. Traditional accounts say that for about three years Mohammed shared the revelations he received only with his family and a select few friends. Only after that, around the year 613, did he begin to preach publicly. This event is referred to in the Arabic sources as the entry into the house of al-Arqam ibn Abī ʾl-Arqam . Al-Arqam was a young man who belonged to the influential Quraishite clan of the Machzūm. He made his house, which was in the middle of Mecca, available to Mohammed. The message of uncompromising monotheism proclaimed by Mohammed found in the henotheisticMecca was orientated by few followers at the time, and some Muslims, under pressure from their opponents, were forced to leave Mecca and emigrate to the Aksumite Empire . Thus a first Muslim community outside of Arabia came into being.

Enforcement in Arabia

Representation from the Dschami 'at-tawarich (14th century): The riding prophet Mohammed subjugates the Banu Nadir.

When Mohammed lost the protection of his clan after the death of his uncle Abū Tālib ibn ʿAbd al-Muttalib , his position in Mecca deteriorated so much that he was forced to look for external allies. In 620 he made contact with a number of men from northern Yathrib (now the Medina). Negotiations ensued, which resulted in 73 men from Yathrib professing Islam two years later and inviting him to resettle in their city. The emigration of Mohammed and his followers, which took place shortly afterwards (in the summer of 622), went down in history as the hijra and later became the first year of the Islamic calendarset. The Prophet's political and military career began in Yathrib. Soon after his arrival at the oasis, Mohammed concluded an alliance with the local residents, the so-called municipal code of Medina .

At that time, numerous Jews still lived in the oasis of Yathrib, especially the three tribes Banu Qainuqa , Banū n-Nadīr and Banū Quraiza . They were expelled or killed from Yathrib over the next few years as a result of various conflicts. This made Yathrib, or Medina, as the city was soon called, a city inhabited almost exclusively by Muslims. In addition, Mohammed succeeded in winning some Arab tribes in the vicinity of Medina for Islam. After the initial success of the Battle of Badr , the military confrontation with the pagan Meccans was initially due to setbacks such as the Battle of Uhudbut after further interim successes (e.g. the peace treaty of Hudaibiya 628) it finally led to the capture of Mecca by the Muslims in January 630.

Muhammad's victory over the mighty Quraish earned him so much prestige that in the years leading up to his death in June 632, almost all the tribes of the Arabian Peninsula submitted to his authority. In many cases, political submission was accompanied by an acceptance of Islam. After the Prophet's death, however, a broad disengagement movement began among the Arab tribes , which also called the hegemony of Islam into question in the religious field. In some areas of Arabia, counter-prophets who mobilized against the state of Medina appeared, including Musailima . Only through the military action of the Quraishite general Chālid ibn al-Walīd could this withdrawal movement be suppressed.

Early Islamic Expansion

The Islamic expansion under the caliphs ʿUmar ibn al-Chattāb and ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān led to the fact that the Muslims dominated Iraq , Syria , Palestine (until 636/38), Egypt (640/42 ) and also large parts of Iran (642/51). With this, late antiquity , in the historical context of which Islam arose, came to an end in the eastern Mediterranean. Most of the inhabitants of the territories conquered by the Muslims did not convert directly to Islam, but instead stuck to their earlier religions ( Christianity , Judaismand Zoroastrianism ) initially faithful. This was possible because, as members of a book religion, they were granted protection of their life and property as well as permission to practice their religion. Conversely, this protective relationship obliged them to pay a special tax, the jizya. Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians were also not allowed to practice their faith in public, were not allowed to erect any new cult buildings or to carry weapons, later other restrictions were added (such as special clothing regulations in some cases). As a result, the “wards” recognized by Islam (especially Jews and Christians) of different faiths were not legally equal to Muslims and were restricted in the practice of their religion. But they could not be converted by force.

Since the late 7th century, however, the social pressure on the Christian population in the conquered former Roman provinces increased (see Islamic expansion # Position of other religions under Muslim rule ). There was discrimination, the exclusion of non-Muslims from the administration, interference in internal Christian affairs and the confiscation of church property and individual attacks on churches. The overall increasing pressure (also again since the Abbasid period) should apparently also force the conversion of the previous majority population to Islam. The conversion of the local population to Islam was a process that dragged on for centuries. This also applies to the other areas that came under Islamic rule up to the beginning of the 8th century, such as North Africa , Andalusia and Transoxania .

Dissemination through trade

After the Abbasids came to power around the middle of the 8th century, Islam's military expansion movement came to a standstill. The territorial gains achieved in this way remained rather small compared to the previous period: between 827 and 878 the conquest of Sicily by the Aghlabids , in 870 the capture of the Kabul region in what is now Afghanistan by the Saffarids , in 902 the conquest of the Balearic Islands through the Emirate of Cordoba. On the other hand, during this time the spread of Islam progressed increasingly through trade. On the shores of the Indian Ocean, Arab traders married into local families who even then converted to Islam over time. In this way, large Muslim communities emerged in South India and Sri Lanka . Today's Muslim communities of the Malayalam -speaking Mappila in Kerala and the Tamil -speaking Muslims in Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka (cf. Moors ) go back to this time. At the end of the 9th century, traders from the Makkan clan of the Machzūm founded their own Muslim state in central Ethiopia ( Shewa). During this time, Islam also spread through traders on the Eastern European level . When Ibn Fadlān visited the state of the Volga Bulgarians at the confluence of the Kama and the Volga in the 920s, as envoy of the Abbasid caliph, the ruler there had already converted to Islam and had several mosques built. However, until well into the 18th century, Islam remained an urban phenomenon in West Africa, tied to long-distance trade and a courtly minority in the cities.

Around 960 Persian traders from Shiraz founded a trading colony on the island of Kilwa off the coast of what is now Tanzania . From there, in the 11th and 12th centuries, the islands off the East African coast were gradually Islamized ( Mafia , Comoros , etc.). During this time, Islam also spread to West Africa through Muslim merchants from the Maghreb who were active in the Trans-Saharan trade . Some of these merchants settled in sub-Saharan places that developed into Muslim cities such as Walata and Timbuktu. Others worked at the courts of pagan African rulers and introduced them to Islam. The Arab geographer Abū ʿUbaid al-Bakrī , who wrote around 1067, reports that the rulers of Kanem east of Lake Chad , Gao on the Niger Arch and Takrūr in the lower Senegal region had already converted to Islam at that time.

New expansion through Turkish Ghazi fighters

Turkish ethnic groups were of great importance for the further spread of Islam. Around 950 there was a mass conversion of Turkish tribes in what is now the Uyghur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang in China and in what is now northern Kyrgyzstan. Contemporary sources name 200,000 tents that were affected. The trigger was the passage of the ruling family of these tribes, the so-called Qarakhanid (also Ilek Khans) to Islam. This tribal confederation, led by the Qarakhanids, soon spread to the west. In 999 they succeeded in conquering Bukhara .

Mahmud of Ghazni (ruled 997-1030), the son of a Turkish military slave who was originally in the service of the Samanids , was able to establish his own dynasty on the territory of Afghanistan . In the time up to his death he carried out numerous campaigns with his fighters to northwest India, which initiated the Islamic conquest of India. Qutb-ud-Din Aibak , a Turkish general of the Ghurid Empire, founded the first Islamic state with the Sultanate of Delhi in 1209on Indian soil. Between the late 13th and early 14th centuries, the rulers of this state brought most of north and central India under Islamic rule: in 1298 the area of Gujarat was annexed, in 1318 the Deccan , the southern part of the Indian subcontinent.

Further west, the Seljuks , who were also Turkish, distinguished themselves as Ghāzī fighters. Sultan Alp-Arslan (1063–72) destroyed the Byzantine army in 1071 near Manzikert . This initiated the Islamization of Asia Minor . The Byzantine attempt to regain this region failed; from 1143 the Byzantines finally withdrew from it. Around the middle of the 12th century, Konya , the ancient Iconium, now the capital of the Rum Seljuks , became the center of Islamic Anatolia .

Islamization in the Mongolian partial empires

In the years 1251 to 1259, Hülegü , a grandson of Genghis Khan , carried out a Mongol invasion of Western Asia on behalf of the Great Khan of Karakorum. Between 1256 and 1259, Iran and Iraq were completely conquered. As a result of this invasion, Islam lost its status as the religion of the rulers for several generations in Iran. In the long run, however, the Mongols tended to contribute to the Islamization of Asia. The descendants of Hülegü, the Ilkhan who ruled from Tabriz , returned to Islam at the end of the 13th century.

In another Mongolian sub-empire, the empire of the Golden Horde , which stretched over the areas of southern Russia, Ukraine and Kazakhstan to western Siberia, Uzbek Khan (r. 1312–41) promoted Islamization in the early 14th century : He brought many Muslim scholars into the country, drove out the shamanic priests valued by his predecessor Tohtu and urged the upper class of the empire to convert to Islam. Although many non-Muslims continued to live in the area of ​​the Golden Horde, the state took on a clearly Islamic character, and in the long term Islam also became the dominant religion in the population.

Also in the Mongolian Yuan Empire (1260-1368), which extended over large parts of China, there was an Islamization process. The troops with which Kublai Khan , the founder of this empire, overran north and south China consisted largely of Muslim fighters whom Genghis Khan had brought with him from his campaigns in Central and West Asia. Since many soldiers were Muslim, the Khan determined that they should take second place in China after the Mongols and before the local people. One of Qubilai's Muslim generals, the Bucharian descendant of the Prophet Shams ad-Dīn ʿUmar with the surname Sayyid-i Adschall , founded Yunnan Province in southwest Chinaits own dynasty of Muslim governors who greatly contributed to the spread of Islam in China . In 1335, a grandson of Sayyid-i Ajall obtained the imperial recognition of Islam as Qing Zhenjiao , "pure and true religion", a name that is still used in China today for Islam.

Development in Europe

The conquest of Sicily by the Normans (1061-1091) and the Reconquista that began around the same time meant that Islam was pushed back from southern Europe. After the uprisings (1219–1222), the Muslims of Sicily were resettled by Frederick II in the Apulian city of Lucera , where a kind of Muslim ghetto was created. Around 1300 this Muslim colony of Lucera was destroyed by the Anjou , which ended the presence of Muslims in medieval Italy.

In the Iberian Peninsula , the Reconquista brought most of the Muslims under the rule of the Christian kingdoms. Here they were initially tolerated as Mudejares and were allowed to practice their religion, but after the conquest of the last Islamic empire, the Nasrid emirate of Granada, the Muslims lost their Mudejar status and were given the choice of leaving the country or baptized allow. Between 1609 and 1614 the last Muslims were expelled from the Iberian Peninsula.

While Islam was ousted from the Iberian Peninsula in the course of the late Middle Ages and the early modern period, another Islamic state experienced its military and political rise in Southeastern Europe, the Ottoman Empire, which by the middle of the 15th century already included large areas of the Balkans (Bulgaria, Macedonia, Thrace, Dobruja and Bosnia), but also included large parts of Asia Minor. The expansion of this state into Europe continued almost unchecked until the middle of the 16th century. Starting from the Ottoman administrative centers in the Balkans, there was also an Islamization of the population here. Statistics for the decade 1520–1530 show that at that time several cities that functioned as such centers had Muslim majorities. Larger waves of conversion did not take place until the late 16th century.

Spread in Southeast Asia

Parallel to these developments, the spread of Islam continued through trade in the Indian Ocean. By the middle of the 12th century, the rulers and the population of the Maldives had already converted to Islam. Islam also spread through sea trade in Southeast Asia and initially gained a foothold there in some ports on the coasts. With Perlak and Pasai on the northern tip of Sumatra , the first Islamic states in Southeast Asia appeared in the 1290s. Further Islamic principalities emerged when the rulers converted to Islam in Malacca on the Malay Peninsula (1413) and in Patani in the south of today's state of Thailand (from 1457).

A few years later, around 1475, Demak, the first Islamic principality, was founded on Java . In 1527 the Sultan of Demak destroyed the last major Hindu-Buddhist kingdom of Java with Majapahit , thus paving the way for the Islamization of the island, a process that lasted for several centuries and played an important role within pesantren schools. These are boarding schools set up in villages by Islamic religious scholars, in which the students live with their teachers for longer periods in order to receive a religious education, and in return they help their teacher earn his living.

At the beginning of the 17th century, the Gowa Empire on the island of Sulawesi also went over to Islam. From Sumatra and Java, Lombok as well as East and Southeast Borneo also came under Islamic influence by peaceful and military routes. Only Bali remained Hindu Buddhist.

Islamization in the wake of European colonialism

The withdrawal of the Ottoman Empire from south-eastern Europe, beginning at the end of the 17th century, led to Islam losing its position as the religion of the rulers. After the Crimean War in 1856 and the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878 , there was mass emigration of Muslims from Eastern and Southeastern Europe.

Broken Hill Mosque, Australia, built in 1892

If the nineteenth century nevertheless contributed to the further expansion of Islam on a global level, this is to a considerable extent also due to the effects of European colonialism. As early as the middle of the 19th year, through the slave trade of the sultans of Oman and Zanzibar, Islam had penetrated the East African interior more strongly. The city of Nkhotakota on Lake Malawi , where the governor of the sultan resided, became the most important center of the spread of Islam. The new religion found supporters especially among the Nyamwezi and Yao tribes in southern Tanzania and inMalawi . When the British and Germans established colonies in East Africa, railroad construction made access to the inland easier. So now Muslim traders from the coast and the Indian subcontinent as well as Muslim employees of the colonial authorities came to Lake Victoria and Lake Tanganyika and carried Islam into these areas. Islam was particularly popular in the Kingdom of Buganda (in today's Uganda ), where Kalema, a Muslim kabaka, came to power for the first time in 1888 .

From 1860 onwards, numerous Muslims from the Indian suburbs immigrated to the British colony of Natal as contract workers to work on the sugar cane plantations. This led to the spread of Islam in what is now South Africa . The second half of the 19th century also saw the emergence of the first Muslim communities in Western and Central Europe. The largest of these communities grew up in the British port cities of Cardiff and South Shields , where after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, Yemeni and Somali seamen working on British ships settled. Between 1860 and 1900, Afghan cameleers were brought to Australia by the Britishbrought to handle the overland transport there. Some of them married local women and settled in Australia; the first Muslim communities in Australia go back to them. The first Australian mosque was built in Broken Hill in 1892.

The European colonial powers were by no means always positive towards Islam in their colonies. In French West Africa , in the 1920s, colonial officials Maurice Delafosse and Jules Brévié proposed the theory that Islam was an unnatural religion for most black Africans and that its further spread would inevitably lead to the collapse of African societies.


Islamic denominations and schools of law

In the course of history, numerous groups have emerged within Islam that differ in terms of their religious and political teachings.


The Kharijites, the “exodus”, are the oldest religious movement in Islam. Characteristic of their position was the rejection of the third caliph ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān and the fourth caliph ʿAlī ibn Abī Tālib . The Kharijites also rejected the predominance of the Quraish and took the view that the "best Muslim" should receive the office of caliph, regardless of his family or ethnic affiliation.

As early as 685 their movement splintered into several sub-groups, of which that of the Azraqites was the most radical and violent. She was in permanent war with the counter-caliph ʿAbdallāh ibn az-Zubair and the Umayyads . Gradually, however, the individual groups were crushed by the ruling caliphs or driven into exile on the periphery of the Arab Empire. The majority of the Kharijites under the first Abbasid caliphs had already been destroyed.

Only the moderate current of the Ibadis has survived to the present day, but has fewer than two million followers in total, mainly in Oman , in the Algerian Sahara ( M'zab ), on the Tunisian island of Djerba , in the Libyan Jabal Nafusa and in Zanzibar live.


The Shia is the second religious and political current that formed in Islam. It is named after the Arabic term shīʿa (شیعه / šīʿa  / 'supporters, party'), which is shortened for 'Ali's party'. The Shiites are of the opinion that after the death of the Prophet it was not Abū Bakr but Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law ʿAlī ibn Abī Tālib who should have become the caliph.

There are numerous subgroups within the Schia. The largest group in terms of numbers are the Shiites twelve , who are particularly widespread in Iran , Iraq , Azerbaijan , Bahrain , India, Pakistan and Lebanon . They believe that the imamate , i.e. H. the claim to the Islamic ummah , inherited from twelve descendants of Muhammad. The twelfth Imam Muhammad al-Mahdī disappeared at the end of the 9th centuryand will only return at the end of time. The twelve Imams are considered sacred to the Twelve Shiites, and the places where they are buried (including Najaf , Karbala , Mashhad , Samarra ) are important Twelve Shiite pilgrimage sites.

The second largest Shiite group are the Ismailis , who predominantly live on the Indian subcontinent ( Mumbai , Karachi and northern Pakistan ) as well as in Afghanistan , Tajikistan , Yemen and East Africa. An elimination of the Ismailis is created in the early 11th century Drusentum .

Other Shiite groups are the Zaidites , the Nusairians and the Alevis . Like the other Shiites, the Zaidites are of the opinion that Ali was better than the first two caliphs, Abu Bakr and Umar ibn al-Khattab, but they recognize their caliphate as legitimate. The relationship of the Alevis and Druze to Islam is ambivalent. While some followers of these communities still see themselves as Muslims, others see themselves as standing outside of Islam.

On the basis of the twelve Shia, Babism and Bahaitum developed in the 19th century . While Babism disappeared again in the 19th century, Bahaitum developed into an independent religion.

Theological schools

Various theological schools have also emerged in Islam over the centuries. One of the earliest of these schools was the Qadarīya , which emerged in the early 8th century and is named after the Arabic term Qadar , which generally denotes an act of definition; it is usually translated as fate or destiny ( providence ). The Qadarites were of the opinion that not only God, but also humans have their own Qadar and wanted to restrict God's omnipotence. They appear as representatives of a doctrine of human free will. With this doctrine they faced another group at that time, the Murdschi'a , which stood out among other political views through a predestinian doctrine .

After the Abbasids began promoting theological debate ( Kalām ) as a means of combating non-Islamic teachings in the late 8th century, the Muʿtazila , which cultivated this form of debate, became the most important theological school. The Muʿtazilite dogmatics was strictly rationalistic and measured the principle of “justice” ( ʿadl ) and the doctrine of the oneness of God ( tauhīd) of fundamental importance. By “justice”, the Muʿtazilites did not mean social justice, but the justice of God in his actions. According to the Muʿtazilite doctrine, God himself is bound to the ethical standards that man develops with the help of the intellect. This includes that God rewards the good and punishes the bad, because in this way people have the opportunity with their free will to acquire merit. The main consequences of the second principle, the doctrine of the oneness of God, have been the denial of the hypostatic character of the essential attributes of God, e.g. B. Knowledge, power and speech, the denial of the eternity or imperfection of God's speech, as well as the denial of any resemblance between God and his creation.

The Muʿtazila received ruling support under the three Abbasid caliphs al-Ma'mūn (813-833), al-Muʿtasim (833-842) and al-Wāthiq (842-847) and later under the Buyid dynasty . To this day, the Muittazilite theology in the area of ​​the Twelve Shia and the Zaidite Shia is maintained.

Sunniism as majority Islam

Sunniism emerged between the late 9th and early 10th centuries as a counter-movement to the Shia and the Muʿtazila. The underlying Arabic expression ahl as-sunna (أهل السنة / 'People of the Sunna') emphasizes the alignment with the Sunnat an-nabī , the conduct of the Prophet. The also common extended form ahl as-sunna wa-l-dschamāʿa (أهل السنة والجماعة / 'People of Sunnah and Community') emphasizes the vast community of Muslims.

The groups that used expressions such as ahl as-sunna or ahl as-sunna wa-l-jamāʿa for themselves the earliest were the Hanbalites , the followers of the traditional scholar Ahmad ibn Hanbal . In contrast to the Muʿtazilites, they taught the inhumanity of the Koran, rejected the controversial theology of the Kalām and saw only the statements in the Koran and hadith as well as the traditions about the "ancestors" ( ahl as-salaf ) as authoritative. They rejected all further theological statements as inadmissible innovations . At the turn of the 10th century, various theologians such as al-Qalānisī and triedAbū l-Hasan al-Ashʿarī to justify this teaching with rational arguments. The doctrine developed by al-Ashʿari was further developed by later scholars such as al-Bāqillānī and al-Ghazālī and has become the most important Sunni theological school. The second Sunni theological school next to this Ashʿarīyya is Maturidiyya , which refers back to the Transoxan scholar Abū Mansūr al-Māturīdī .

Today the Sunnis form the numerically largest group within Islam with around 85 percent. It is characteristic of the Sunnis as a whole that they venerate the four first successors of the Prophet as " rightly guided caliphs" ( chulafāʾ rāschidūn ), in contrast to the view shared by most Shiites, according to which ʿUnmān has become an unbeliever through his actions of the Kharijites and Ibadites, according to which both ʿUṯmān and ʿAlī were unbelievers and therefore their killing was legitimate. In addition, Sunniism is linked to a certain number of hadith collections that are considered canonical, the so-called Six Books . The most important of these is the Saheeh al-Bukhari. Finally, it is characteristic of Sunniism that recitation of the Koran is restricted to a certain number of recognized versions of the Koran .

Directions of Islamic norms

Just a few decades after the Prophet's death, the need arose among Muslims to receive information on certain questions of conduct. These concerned the area of ​​worship as well as coexistence and legal relationships with other people. Recognized authorities like the Prophet's cousin ʿAbdallāh ibn ʿAbbās met this need by issuing fatwas on the points in question . Initially, these reports were largely based on our own subjective opinion ( Raʾy ). In the course of the 8th century, in various places - besides Mecca, especially Medina, Kufaand Syria - local schools of scholars who gathered views of previous authorities on certain issues and at the same time laid down principles for norm- setting ( Fiqh ). While the school of Medina with Maalik ibn Anas consensus ( ijma ) has a very important significance meted worked Abu Hanifa in Kufa stronger with the methods of analogy ( qiyas ) and the own Urteilsbemühung ( ijtihad ). The school of Mālik spread mainly in Egypt, the school of Abū Ḥanīfa in Khorasan and Transoxania.

In the early 9th century the scholar asch-Shāfiʿī endeavored to produce a synthesis between the Maliki and the Hanafi tendencies and in this context developed a comprehensive theory of norm-finding, which also included certain principles of textual hermeneutics that were used in the interpretation of the Koran and Hadiths should be used. Since ash-Shāfidī had spoken out strongly against the principle of Taqlid , the unreflective adoption of the judgments of other scholars, in his works , it was not until the early 10th century that a school of its own developed around his teachings. The first center of the Shafiʿites was Egypt. From there the Shafiite teaching direction ( Madhhab) later also to Iraq and to Khorasan as well as to Yemen.

After Hanbalism had developed its own doctrine of norms in the 11th century under the influence of the Baghdad Kadi Ibn al-Farrā ' (d. 1066), four branches of norms were recognized as orthodox in the area of ​​Sunni Islam: the Hanafites, the Malikites, the Shafiites and the Hanbalites. Today there is a tendency to recognize a total of eight courses as legal. The Ibadiyya and the Shiite Zaidiyya are counted as separate teaching directions . The Salafis , on the other hand, reject the adherence to a madhhab as an unlawful innovation . Today, Islamic norms are trained in international bodies, of which theInternational Fiqh Academy in Jeddah, which is part of the Organization for Islamic Cooperation, is the most important.

Sufi currents

Sufism (تصوف / taṣawwuf ) is a religious movement that arose among the Muslims of Iraq in the 9th century. The Sufis cultivated various ascetic ideals such as renunciation of the world (zuhd) and poverty (faqr) and fought against the instinctual soul. According to the Qur'anic demands (cf. Sura 2: 152; 33: 41f) they paid the greatest attention to the remembrance ( Dhikr ) and praise ( Tasbih ) of God. Further important Sufi principles are the unconditional trust in God (tawakkul) and the striving for becoming (fanāʾ) in God. The Sharia as the external system of norms of Islam becomes the Tarīqa in the Sufikjuxtaposed as a mystical path. In the 10th and 11th centuries, scholars from eastern Iran such as al-Quschairī worked the Sufik into a comprehensive spiritual teaching system in handbooks. This teaching system with its specific terminology for mental states and mystical experiences spread in the course of the 12th century in the other areas of the Islamic world, found increasing support among legal scholars, theologians and writers, and became one of the most important points of reference for religious thought among Muslims.

Within Sufik there is a separate authority model with the sheikh or pir . He guides those who want to walk the spiritual path. The one who joins such a sheikh and submits to his authority is conversely referred to as Murīd (Arabic: "the willer"). People who have reached perfection on the spiritual path are considered "friends of God" Auliyāʾ Allah . In North and West Africa they are also called marabouts . The veneration for such persons has led to a strong veneration of saints in the Sufik environmenthas developed. Tombs of friends of God and marabouts are important destinations for local pilgrimages .

From the late Middle Ages onwards, numerous Sufi orders have emerged. Some of them like the Naqshbandīya , the Qadiriyya, and the Tijaniyya now have a worldwide following.

Puritan groups like the Wahhabis reject the Sufis as heretics . On the one hand, they criticize practices such as the Dhikr , which goes hand in hand with music and body movements in the tradition of Kunta Haji Kishiyev and others, but on the other hand they also criticize the Sufi veneration of saints, because, in their opinion, there should be no mediator between man and God. Such conflicts can be found up to the present, for example in the Chechen independence movement. The Sufi Kunta Hajji is also considered to be one of the role models and examples of non-violent traditions and currents in Islam.


As an Islamic movement with a messianic character, the Ahmadiyya emerged in British India at the end of the 19th century . Its founder, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad , claimed to be the " Mujaddid (innovator) of the 14th Islamic century", the "Promised Messiah ", the Mahdi of the end times awaited by Muslims and a "(subordinate to Muhammad) prophet". The latter point in particular led to the fact that other Muslims regard the Ahmadiyya as heretical , because based on Sura 33:40 , Muhammad is considered the “seal of the prophets”. Since 1976 the Islamic World League who excluded Ahmadiyya from Islam as an “unbelieving group”, attacks on members of this special community have occurred in several Islamic countries.


Koranism is an Islamic movement whose followers see the Koran alone as a source of faith and reject hadiths as a legal and theological source alongside the Koran. This special interpretation of the faith leads to the fact that certain Koranic understandings differ considerably from the orthodox doctrines.

In 1906, Muhammad Tawfīq Sidqī published a critical article in the journal al-Manār by Rashīd Ridā entitled "Islam is only the Quran alone" ( al-Islām huwa al-Qurʾān waḥda-hū ). In it he criticized the Sunnahand took the view that Muslims should rely solely on the Koran, since the actions of the Prophet were only intended as a model for the first generations of Muslims. The article, which was the result of discussions with Rashīd Ridā in which Sidqī had put forward his ideas about the temporal limitation of the Sunnah, met with strong opposition from contemporary Muslim scholars, and there were several of them who refuted it.

Relationship to other religions


God's uniqueness is emphasized in verse 2: 163, among other places.

The attestation of the unity of God and the associated rejection of idol worship is the most important belief in the Islamic religion. Polytheism stands in absolute contradiction to the strictly monotheistic teaching of Islam, according to which polytheism is the greatest possible sin . According to the Koran, worshiping other deities besides Allah is the only sin that is not forgiven under any circumstances.

“God does not forgive that one associates (other gods) with him. What lies below (i.e. the less grave sins) he forgives whom he will forgive. And if one (one) associates (other gods) with God, he has strayed far (from the right path). "

- Sura 4 : 116 after Paret; see also 4:48 and Surah 31 : 13

In numerous other passages the Koran vehemently criticizes the worship of other beings in God's place. In the hereafter, idolaters are punished with entry into hell .

Abrahamic Religions

As a result of Islam, the Arabian peninsula, in a departure from the previous stone cult in Mecca, found connection to Jewish and Christian beliefs. Islam is based on Abraham in its origins , so belongs to the Abrahamic religions with Judaism and Christianity . All three are monotheistic religions. Since they are based on the revelations of prophets ( Moses and Mohammed ), whereby in Islamic interpretation Jesus Christ is also seen as a prophet, they are revelatory religions and, because these revelationswere fixed in writing, including book religions .

Like Judaism, Islam is a religion in which religious law (e.g. religious dietary regulations ) plays a comparatively large role in contrast to Christianity and, like Christianity, it has missionary traits in contrast to Judaism .

The common reference to Abraham was emphasized at the beginning of his prophecy by Mohammed. In the course of his life, the Prophet changed his attitude towards them as a result of his experiences with the Jewish and Christian religious communities. The changing attitude of Muhammad to the owners of scriptures has been dealt with several times in Islamic studies. Originally, he expected the Scriptures to recognize his prophecy and join his religion; when this did not happen, Muhammad's attitude towards the followers of the book religions gradually began to turn negative. This change of attitude also left its mark on the Koran, where originally its religious and moral virtuesrespected and encouraged Mohammed to be on good terms with them. After breaking with these religious groups, Mohammed charged them with hypocrisy and emphasized their refusal to accept Islam; therefore they should not be seen as allies, but should be combated. In the eyes of Muhammad, Judaism and Christianity were flawed further developments of the common original religion.

While Islam basically shares with Judaism and Christianity the belief in a single God as well as the reference to Abraham and numerous other biblical prophets, it differs in its fundamentals from Christianity through its strict rejection of the doctrine of the Trinity ( sura 112 ) and the Christian conception of original sin , from Judaism mainly through his acknowledgment of Jesus as a prophet, of the other Abrahamic religions generally by recognizing Muhammad as God's messenger and seal of the prophets and the teachings of the Koran as a man above attached word of God .

Historical-political interaction with other religious communities

Classical Islamic international law , elaborated within the centuries following the death of the founder of the Arab religion, distinguished between monotheistic writers (“ people of the book ”) and adherents of a polytheistic religion, who had to be fought de jure until Islam was accepted. The former had a special position in the Islamic community as protectors . This status came with the payment of a special tax, the jizyaalong; In return, they received protection of their lives and property, as well as permission to practice their religion freely - under certain restrictions. This protective alliance was originally only valid for Jews and Christians, but was expanded to include all non-Muslims when the Muslim conquerors encountered other religious communities such as the Hindus . People of different faiths in non-Islamic areas, in the so-called House of War , could temporarily stay as musta'min on Islamic territory . As residents of Dar al-Harb , they were otherwise considered enemies ( Ḥarbī ) who were involved in conquering their territory in the course of Islamic expansionFirst called for the acceptance of Islam, in the case of a refusal the Dhimmi status - provided that a person belongs to a book religion - should be offered and in the event of refusal it should be fought. In this context, for example, the regularly updated World Persecution Index provides critical documentation of religiously motivated discrimination and acts of violence .

Current situation of the Baha'i

The Baha'i religion fulfills the conditions of a book religion (written revelation) and even recognizes Muhammad's claim to revelation. Nevertheless, this monotheistic religious community is not recognized as an ahl al-kitab (“people of the book”) in the Islamic world . The teaching of the Baha'i, which relates the eschatological descriptions of the Koran not to a material fall of the world, but to the post-Islamic revelations of the Bab and Baha'ullah , is viewed by many Muslim scholars as an apostasy from Islam (Arabic: حروب الردة, ridda) designated. In addition to various other allegations, Sunni denoteFatwas the Baha'i religion as a movement of unbelievers ( kuffār ) founded by non-Muslims to decompose Islam.

The persecution is particularly severe in Shiite Iran. Grand Ayatollah Naser Makarem Shirazi stigmatized the Baha'i as "warlike infidels" (Kofare Harbi) who are allowed to be killed. Iranian MP Mehdi Kuchaksadeh claims that Baha'i "may look like people, but are not people". Accordingly, the Baha'i are persecuted in Iran and Shiites are also trying to marginalize Baha'i in Germany.

See also

Articles on Islam in certain regions (selection)



reference books

  • Ira Marvin Lapidus: A history of Islamic Societies . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2002, ISBN 0-521-77056-4 .
  • Albrecht Noth : The Islamic Orient. Outlines of its history . Ed .: Jürgen Paul. Ergon-Verlag, Würzburg 1998, ISBN 3-932004-56-6 .
  • William Montgomery Watt: Islamic Political Thought . Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh 1998, ISBN 0-7486-1098-7 .

Trade journals (selection)


  • Arab-Islamic Biographical Archive (AIBA). Microform. Saur, Munich 1995 ff.
  • Oliver Leaman (Ed.): The biographical encyclopaedia of Islamic philosophy. Thoemmes Continuum, London a. a. 2006.

Islam term

  • Jane I. Smith: An Historical and Semantic Study of the Term Islam as seen in a Sequence of Quran Commentaries. Missoula, Montana 1975.
  • Louis Gardet: Art. “Islām. I. Definition and Theories of Meaning "in The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition . Volume IV, pp. 171b-174a.
  • Wilfred Cantwell Smith: The Meaning and End of Religion . Minneapolis 1991. Chap. 4: "The Special Case of Islam".

Distribution history

  • TW Arnold: The Preaching of Islam. A History of the Propagation of the Muslim Faith. Westminster 1896. (Classical representation for the earlier period)
  • J. Jomier: Art. “Islām. II. Diffusion ”in The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition . Volume IV, pp. 174a-177b.

Directions of Islam

  • Andreas Gorzewski: Alevism in its diverging relationship to Islam . EB-Verlag, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-86893-009-2 .
  • Heinz Halm: The Schia . Darmstadt 1988.
  • Tilman Nagel : History of Islamic Theology from Mohammed to the Present . Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-37981-9 .
  • Bernadette Schenk: Trends and Developments in the Modern Druze Community of Lebanon. Attempts at a historical, political and religious assessment. Berlin 2002
  • Julius Wellhausen: The religious-political opposition parties in ancient Islam. Berlin 1901.
  • Frankfurter Zeitung and Handelsblatt: Sunnis and Shiites (historical e-paper), Frankfurter Zeitung , Frankfurt November 16, 1914 ( archive PDF )

Relationship to the West and current problems

Web links

Commons : Islam  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Islam  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikibooks: Islam  - learning and teaching materials
 Wikinews: Islam  - on the news
Portal: Islam  - Overview of Wikipedia content on Islam
Wikiversity: Category: Islam  - Course Materials

Individual evidence

  1. Why Muslims are the world's fastest-growing religious group . In: Pew Research Center . April 6, 2017 ( [accessed June 21, 2017]).
  2. See the current report of the Pew Forum under: Christians. Retrieved June 18, 2014 .
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  4. Ulrike Peters: Large Dictionary Religion. Compact Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3-8174-7751-7 , p. 202 ( limited preview in the Google book search).
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  8. See the report of the Pew Forum from 2009: “Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population.” P. 5. Available online at: Mapping the Global Muslim Population ( Memento vom August 2, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
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  25. See Ali Hillal Dessouki: Islamic Resurgence in the Arab World. Princeton 1982, p. 18. The Arabic original can be found here: رسالة المؤتمر الخامس - Ikhwan Wiki | Author = الموسوعة التاريخية الرسمية لجماعة الإخوان المسلمين]
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  27. Ṣaḥīḥ al-Buḫārī, Kitāb al-Īmān No. 37. Digitized . German translation by Dieter Ferchl: News of actions and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad . Stuttgart 1991, p. 43.
  28. Albrecht Noth: Early Islam. In: Ulrich Haarmann (Hrsg.): History of the Arab world. CH Beck, 1991, p. 11.
  29. See W. Montgomery Watt: Muhammad at Medina . Oxford 1956, pp. 82-87.
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  33. ^ A b Francis E. Peters: Islam, a Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press, 2003, p. 195.
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  35. See Wolfgang Kallfelz: Non-Muslim Subjects in Islam. Wiesbaden 1995, p. 49 ff.
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  37. ^ Bergstresser: Nigeria . Munich 1991, ISBN 3-406-33185-8 , p. 25.
  38. Cf. CE Bosworth: Art. "Ilek-Khans of Karachanids" in The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition . Volume III, p. 1113.
  39. On this process, see Speros Vryonis: The Decline of Medieval Hellenism in Asia Minor and the Process of Islamization from the Eleventh through the Fifteenth Century. Berkeley 1971.
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  41. Cf. Alex Metcalfe: Muslims and Christians in Norman Sicily: Arabic Speakers and the end of Islam. London 2003.
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  48. On the Alevis, see the study by Gorzewski and on the Druze Schenk 171-184.
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  52. Cf. W. Montgomery Watt, Michael Marmura: Der Islam II. Political developments and theological concepts. Stuttgart 1985, pp. 290-294.
  53. Cf. W. Montgomery Watt, Michael Marmura: Der Islam II. Political developments and theological concepts. Stuttgart 1985, pp. 393-426.
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  56. ^ Joseph Lowry: Early Islamic Legal Theory. The Risāla of Muḥammad ibn Idrīs al-Shāfiʿī. Leiden 2007.
  57. Cf. Heinz Halm: The expansion of the šāfiʿite school of law from its beginnings to the 8th and 14th centuries. Century . Wiesbaden 1974.
  58. Cf. Henri Laoust: Art. "Ibn al-Farrāʾ" in The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition Volume III, pp. 765f.
  59. See Vakhit Akaev: Religio-politicial conflict in the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria. In: Central Asia & Central Caucasus Press. (no date, online ).
  60. Michael Shank: Islam's Nonviolent Tradition . In: The Nation . April 27th 2011, ISSN  0027 to 8378 ( [accessed on 24 June 2015]).
  61. Reinhard Schulze: Islamic Internationalism in the 20th Century. Research on the history of the Islamic World League. Leiden 1990, p. 366.
  62. GHA Juynboll: The authenticity of the tradition literature: Discussions in modern Egypt. Brill, Leiden 1969, p. 23-30 .
  63. ^ The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition. Brill, suffering. Volume 9, p. 484, p. v. "Shirk".
  64. See Ignaz Goldziher: Muhammedanische Studien. Georg Olms Verlag, 2004, Volume 2, p. 287 and the verses of the Koran mentioned there, including Sura 16 : 20-22.
  65. Since the Koran was only laid down in the form of a book after Muhammad's death, Islam was not considered a book religion in Muhammad's time.
  66. Hans Jansen : Mohammed. A biography. (2005/2007) Translated from the Dutch by Marlene Müller-Haas. CH Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-56858-9 , pp. 75-78.
  67. See for example: W. Montgomery Watt: Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press, 1962, pp. 192 ff .; Rudi Paret: Tolerance and Intolerance in Islam. In: Saeculum. 21, 1970, p. 349 ff .; Albrecht Noth: Early Islam. In: Ulrich Haarmann (Hrsg.): History of the Arab world. CH Beck, 1991, p. 41 ff.
  68. See The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition. Brill, Leiden, Volume 1, p. 264, p. v. "Ahl al-Kitab" as well as the verses of the Koran mentioned there, including sura 29, verse 45-47 as an example for the initial attitude of Muhammad and sura 4, verse 153 as well as sura 9, verse 29 for his later attitude in this regard
  69. ^ Tilman Nagel: The Koran. CH Beck, 2002, p. 142. A clear example is the Christian doctrine of the Trinity of God, in which Islam sees a deviation from the pure one-God faith.
  70. Albrecht Noth: The jihad: strive for God. In: Gernot Rotter (Ed.): The worlds of Islam. Twenty-nine suggestions for understanding the unfamiliar. Fischer, 1993, p. 30.
  71. ^ Robert G. Hoyland (Ed.): Muslims and Others in Early Islamic Society. Ashgate, 2004, p. Xiv.
  72. ^ AJ Wensinck and JH Kramers (eds.): Short dictionary of Islam. Brill, 1941, p. 112, p. v. "Jihad".
  73. Welt Online Debatte (Ed.), Wahied Wahdat-Hagh : Iran: Worrying Judgment ( Memento from January 19, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Iran. Worrying judgment January 18, 2008.
  74. Alexander Schwabe: Hamburg Shiites exclude Baha'i. In: Spiegel Online. May 18, 2007.
  75. Free digital copies of the ZDMG editions exclusively from the last five years can be found on the website of the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg .