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Idschmāʿ ,إجماع ijmaa , DMG iǧmā' , consensus ', the consensus of the Islamic lawyers, the third source of Fiqh , Islamic jurisprudence , in addition to the Koran and the Sunna of the Prophet Mohammed and his companions ( sahaba ).

There are three types of consensus: Consensus based on an explicit statement, through proven practice and through the tacit approval of an act or statement.

Unreserved consensus إجماع مطلق, DMG iǧmāʿ muṭlaq rules among the scholars in fundamental questions of ritual ( ʿibādāt ), such as the duty to prayer , to fast and the like. However, the idea of ​​consensus does not mean that agreement has been reached in all areas of Islamic law. Rather, one speaks of the consensus in Medina , or in Mecca , of the consensus of the rightly guided caliphs , of the consensus of the “two cities”, that is, Kufa and Basra , and of the consensus within a school of law ( madhhab ).

Despite all the differences in the area of ​​the consensus, its legitimacy goes back to the basic idea that the consensus of legal scholars can in no way contradict the Koran and the Sunna .

The Arabic counterparts to Idschmāʿ are Ichtilāf and Chilāf . They describe the dissent between and within the law schools, which is also the subject of the training of legal scholars.

supporting documents

  1. On the antithesis Idschmāʿ-Chilāf cf. George Makdisi: The Rise of Colleges. Institutions of Learning in Islam and the West. Edinburgh 1981. pp. 107-111.


  • Carl-A. Keller: "Reflections on the theory et de la pratique de 'Ijmāʿ" in Simon Jargy (ed.): Islam communautaire (al-Umma). Concept et réalités . Labor et Fides, Geneva, 1984. pp. 19-34.
  • Miklos Muranyi : Fiqh. In: Helmut Gätje (Hrsg.): Outline of Arabic Philology. Vol. II: Literary Studies . Wiesbaden 1987 (Religious Literature in Arabic), pp. 299-325, ISBN 3-88226-145-5 .
  • O. Spies, E. Pritsch: Classical Islamic Law. In: Handbook of Oriental Studies. First Dept. Supplementary Volume III. Leiden / Cologne 1964, pp. 220–343.
  • J. Schacht: An Introduction to Islamic Law. Oxford 1964, ISBN 0-19-825161-0 .
  • The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition. III. Brill, Leiden 1971, pp. 1023-1026.