المدينة المنورة al-Madīna al-munawwara
|density||2,207.1 Ew. / km²|
|Telephone code||(+966) 4|
Pilgrims in the Prophet's Mosque
Medina ( Arabic المدينة المنورة al-Madīna al-munawwara 'the enlightened city', possibly from Madīnat an-Nabī = "city of the prophet" or in Arabic madīna as "area in which a single legal system - dīn - applies" and as a word the meaning "city “Obtained. The original name is Yathrib /يثرب / Yaṯrib ) is a city with 1,300,000 inhabitants (2017) in western Saudi Arabia . After Mecca , Medina is the second most important holy city in Islam ; The tomb of the Islamic prophet Mohammed is located in the Prophet's Mosque . According to Islamic law, part of the city, like Mecca, is a haram (holy district) and is therefore generally closed to non-Muslims.
Yathrib is mentioned in the Harran inscriptions . There it is reported that the Babylonian king Nabonidus in 552 BC. Moved his seat of government to Tayma and moved with his army against Yathrib and Dedan , among others . Later the Arab princes submitted to the Babylonian king and made peace with him: Since their weapons had previously been broken by Nergal , they all came and bowed at my feet . Nabonidus interest in this region must have been the desire to control the strategically important route of the frankincense trade.
The Banu Quraiza and the Banū n-Nadīr probably migrated to Yathrib in the year 70. They were probably followed in the fifth century by the Arab tribes Khazradsch and Aus , where they were initially subject to the Jews who were already living there. However, the Arabs were able to make the long-established Jewish population dependent and became masters of the city.
Before Muhammad's arrival in Yathrib, there was a generational feud in the vicinity of Yathrib with these Jewish and Arab tribal groups on both sides, which resulted in general exhaustion. The Jewish Banu Quraiza were there, like the Jewish tribe of the Banu Nadir, who were friends with them, allied with the Arab tribe of the Banu Aus (and their sub-tribes), one of the two most powerful tribes of Yathrib, while the third Jewish tribe, the Banu Qainuqa , was allied with the most powerful tribe, the Khazradsch (and their sub-tribes). Emissaries of the Banu Aus and Banu Khazradsch visited Mohammed in Mecca for the first time in 621 and invited him to their city to serve as a mediator between the two warring tribes.
From the hijra to the caliphate of ʿUthmāns
In 622, 73 men and two women from Yathrib who had converted to Islam made the pilgrimage to Mecca, promising Mohammed and his followers that they would be protected as their own tribesmen would. This oath is also known as “homage to war” ( baiʿat al-ḥarb ). Based on this agreement completed in the subsequent time about 70 Meccan Muslims with their relatives the Hijrah , d. that is, they emigrated to Medina. Lastly, Mohammed and Abū Bakr took this step. They reached the place Qubā ' in the south of the oasis of Medina on the 12th Rabīʿ al-awwal (= September 24, 622).
After his arrival, Mohammed achieved an agreement in the city by agreeing to a pact he had drafted, the so-called community order of Medina , in which the future relations of the Yathrib tribes were regulated. His mosque at that time and his house are now part of the " Mosque of the Messenger " (Prophet's Mosque). He invited the entire city to follow the new religion, Islam, but was unable to convince most of the Jews. Among the new Arab Muslims, the so-called " hypocrites " around Ibn Ubayy († 631) and his co-ruler Abu ʿAmir, who only apparently or without great enthusiasm and partly also rejecting Sharia, opposed the so-called " hypocrites " and made pacts with the Jews of Medina, who were largely hostile to Mohammed. Two of the three largest Jewish tribes in the oasis were driven from the city after incidents and a siege of their respective areas: the Banu Qainuqa (624) and the Banu Nadir (625). After the so-called trench battle in 627, all the men of the Banu Quraiza were killed according to a judgment based on the Old Testament (Deuteronomy) and their wives and children were sold into slavery due to the tribe's accused of betraying the Muslims. After the execution of the Quraiza , only a small Jewish minority remained in Medina until they were expelled from the Arabian Peninsula under bUmar ibn al-Chattāb , the second of the four so-called rightly guided caliphs , who had no open hostility towards the Muslims.
Since the Hijra, the medina has been the center of the Islamic community. Even after the conquest of Mecca in 630, Mohammed did not relocate back to Mecca. Until the caliphate of ʿUthmān ibn ʿAffān , Medina remained the most important city of Islam and de facto the capital of the caliphate . Under the first four caliphs, the Islamic empire expanded rapidly and soon included Jerusalem , Ctesiphon, and Damascus .
During the later Umayyad period, Medina developed into a stronghold of the Qadarite movement. The Qadaritic doctrine was probably introduced here by Maʿbad al-Dschuhanī himself, who is considered the founder and head of this movement. Ibn Hajar al-ʿAsqalānī quotes in his work Tahḏīb at-Tahḏīb a report according to which Maʿbad came from his original place of residence Basra to Medina and there “ corrupted ” some people ( qadima l-Madīnata wa-afsada bi-hā nāsan ). The traditionarian Ibn Hurmuz, who died in 765, is quoted as saying that there was only one man in Medina in his youth who was suspected of the Qadar doctrine, namely Maʿbad al-Dschuhanī. From this it can be concluded that there were considerably more in later times. Altogether there are eleven important representatives of the Qadaritic doctrine in the medina of the 8th century. The prophet biographer Ibn Ishāq was one of them . In the second half of the 8th century, Medina became the center of an important school of law headed by Mālik ibn Anas . In 762 it was the scene of the Alid revolt of Muhammad an-Nafs az-Zakīya .
Modern times / 20th century
Since 1908, Medina was the southern terminus of the Hejaz Railway . In 1908 the Ambariya Mosque was built next to the train station by the Turkish Sultan Abdülhamid II . The operation of the Hejaz Railway lasted - with interruptions in World War I - until 1924, when Medina, which had nominally belonged to the Ottoman Empire for centuries, was captured by Ibn Saud , the founder of today's Saudi Arabia , against the resistance of Ömer Fahrettin Pasha . In 2006, a railway museum was opened in the facilities of the former station .
The higher educational institutions include the Medina Islamic University, founded in 1961, and Taibah University , founded in 2003-2004.
The population of the Medina agglomeration rose from just 51,000 in 1950 to just under 1.4 million today. A further increase to 1.8 million is expected by 2035.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Medina
- Barbara Finster: Mecca and Medina in early Islamic times . In: Roads of Arabia - Archaeological Treasures from Saudi Arabia. [Exhibition catalog]. Ed .: Museum for Islamic Art - State Museums in Berlin. Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-88609-721-0 , pp. 225-235.
- Barbara Keller-Heinkele: The holy places Mecca and Medina in Ottoman times . In: Roads of Arabia - Archaeological Treasures from Saudi Arabia. [Exhibition catalog]. Ed .: Museum for Islamic Art - State Museums in Berlin. Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-88609-721-0 , pp. 239-257.
- FVWinnett and WLReed, "Ancient Records from North Arabia" , University of Toronto Press, 1970, page 91. Among other things, CJGadd is cited there.
- Ernst Klippel : The Mohammedan pilgrimage with seven illustrations based on photographs. In: Reclams Universum: Moderne Illustrierte Wochenschrift 27.2 (1911), pp. 678–682.
- Ekkehart Rotter: Mohammed in the city. Knowledge of the city of Medina and the tomb of the prophets there in medieval Europe . In: Journal for historical research, Vol. 36 (2009) pp. 183-233.
- William Montgomery Watt : Art. "Al-Madīna. 1. History to 1926" in The Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Edition Vol. V, pp. 994a-998a.
- City of Medina Official website of the city (in Arabic)
- Heine, Peter .: Islam Encyclopedia of History - Ideas - Design / 2 G - N . Ed .: Khoury, Adel Theodor., Hagemann, Ludwig., Heine, Peter. tape 2 . Herder, 1991, ISBN 3-451-04036-0 , pp. 506 .
- See also the municipal of Medina .
- Hans Jansen : Mohammed. A biography. (2005/2007) Translated from the Dutch by Marlene Müller-Haas. CH Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-56858-9 , p. 199 f.
- Medina . Encyclopædia Britannica . Retrieved November 18, 2018.
- See Watt: Art. "Al-Madīna" in EI², p. 995b.
- Hans Jansen : Mohammed. A biography. (2005/2007) Translated from the Dutch by Marlene Müller-Haas. CH Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-56858-9 , p. 128 f. and 258 f.
- Robert Mantran: L'expansion musulmane . Ed .: Presses Universitaires de France. 1995, p. 86 .
- Norman A. Stillman: The Jews of Arab Lands. A History and Source Book . Jewish Publication Society of America, 1979. p. 16
- See Josef van Ess : Theology and Society in the 2nd and 3rd Century of the Hijra. A History of Religious Thought in Early Islam . 6 vols. Berlin: De Gruyter 1991-97. Vol. II, p. 668.
- Cf. Ibn Ḥaǧar al-ʿAsqalānī: Tahḏīb at-Tahḏīb Ed. Ibrāhīm az-Zaibaq u. ʿĀdil Muršid. Bairūt: Muʾassasat ar-Risāla, 1996 Vol. IV, p. 116b. Here viewable online.
- La-qad adraktu wa-mā fī l-Madīnati aḥadun yuttahamu bi-l-qadari illā raǧulun min Ǧuhaina yuqālu la-hū Maʿbad , as quoted in Ǧaʿfar ibn Muḥammad al-Firyābī: Kitāb al-Qadar . Ed. ʿAmr ʿAbd al-Munʿim as-Salīm. Dār Ibn Ḥazm, Beirut, 2000. p. 240.
- See Josef van Ess : Theology and Society in the 2nd and 3rd Century of the Hijra. A History of Religious Thought in Early Islam . 6 vols. Berlin: De Gruyter 1991-97. Vol. II, pp. 669-677.
- See Watt 997b.
- Hejaz Railway Museum Opened arabnews.com, January 21 of 2006.
- World Urbanization Prospects - Population Division - United Nations. Retrieved July 23, 2018 .