Province (from Latin provincia ) is a term that goes back to the administrative terminology of ancient Rome , which today designates various administrative-territorial units, both in the state and in the ecclesiastical area.
Provincia in the ancient Roman Empire
The word provincia (from pro , for, and the stem of vincere , to win) primarily denoted the area of responsibility of a magistrate in ancient Latin , and thus corresponds to today's words competence, area of responsibility , portfolio . In this sense, the case law in Rome is just as much a province as the construction of a fleet or the alignment of a road.
In a narrower sense, the expression in the context of the administrative organization of the Roman Empire denotes a conquered area outside Italy under Roman rule and administration .
Under Emperor Diocletian , the previous division of the Roman Empire into provinces was replaced by a new two-tier division into dioceses and provinces , which now also includes the Italian peninsula.
Concept development in the Middle Ages
In late Latin, provincia also generally refers to a region or area.
North of the Alps, the word provincia has been attested since the 14th century. First the term appears on the Lower Rhine as provincie with the meaning 'district of the archbishopric ', later the term is used to describe a larger state or church administrative area or part of the country.
Provinces of historical states
In the state-political area, denotes or designated province (or the corresponding form of the respective national language, which goes back to Latin provincia ) administrative or self-governing units or member states of numerous states .
In the past, the word u. a. Used in such functions in the following modern states:
- Province in Prussia : There the province was the highest territorial administrative division above the administrative districts and the counties . The provincial administrations were headed by high presidents and, in the form of the provincial parliaments , had at first a class, later a parliamentary-democratic self-government; see administrative structure of Prussia , list of the provinces of Prussia
In addition, the native names of historical administrative or self-government units of the following states are often translated as 'province':
- the structure in the Empire of Abyssinia 1941–1963, see administrative structure of Ethiopia
- Province in France until 1789, see Historical Provinces of France
- Επαρχία Eparchía in Greece until the Greek municipal reform of 1997, see list of former provinces of Greece
- 国 kuni (dt. Proper 'country') in Japan (empire, since 1871 replaced by the prefectural system , but not explicitly abolished), see provinces of Japan
- سنجاق Sanjak (actually 'banner') in the Ottoman Empire
Provinces of Modern States
There are administrative or self-government units with the official German name 'Provinz' in the following countries:
- French Province / Dutch Provincie in Belgium, see Political System of Belgium: Provinces , Flags and Coats of Arms of the Belgian Provinces
- Provincia in Chile, see administrative structure of Chile
- Provincia in Costa Rica, see Administrative Division of Costa Rica
- Provincia in the Dominican Republic, see Administrative Divisions of the Dominican Republic and Provinces of the Dominican Republic
- Provincia in Ecuador, see the administrative structure of Ecuador
- Provinsi or Propinsi in Indonesia, see the administrative structure of Indonesia
- Provincia in Italy, see Italian Provinces
- Provincia in Cuba, see Provinces of Cuba
- Província in Mozambique, see Provinces of Mozambique
- Provincie in the Netherlands, see Provinces of the Netherlands
- Provincia in Panama, see the administrative structure of Panama
- Provincia in the Philippines, see Administrative Division of the Philippines and Districts of the Philippines
- Provincia in Spain, see Political Organization of Spain and List of Provinces of Spain
Member states with a designation that is translated into German as 'province' exist today in the following states:
- Provincia in Argentina, see Political Organization of Argentina and List of Provinces of Argentina .
- English / French Province in Canada, see Provinces and Territories of Canada .
- Urdu صوبہ DMG Ṣūbâ , English Province in Pakistan, see administrative structure of Pakistan .
- English Province , Dutch Provincie in South Africa, see administrative structure of South Africa and provinces of South Africa .
In addition, the names of administrative or self-government units of the following states are usually translated as 'province':
- Wilaya in Algeria, see the administrative structure of Algeria
- Chinese 省 , Pinyin Shěng of the People's Republic of China, see Administrative Division of the People's Republic of China
- Ostān in Iran, see administrative structure of Iran
- Laotian ແຂວງ Khwaeng , French Khoueng in Laos, see administrative division of Laos .
- Country in Sweden
- Thai จังหวัด , RTGS Changwat in Thailand, see list of provinces in Thailand
- İl (until 1960 Vilayet ) in Turkey, seelist of Turkish provinces
Provinces in the ecclesiastical area
In some Christian churches, province also designates a level of spatial organization of the church itself ( ecclesiastical province , Latin provincia ecclesiastica ) or of a religious order ( religious province ). Is a church province
- in the Catholic Church the administrative area under the jurisdiction of a metropolitan ;
- in various Anglican churches an administrative unit under an archbishop or bishop or a member church under a primate;
- a structure of the highest level within the former Evangelical Church of the Old Prussian Union (received until 2008 in the name of the Evangelical Church of the Church Province of Saxony ).
More modern meanings of the word
In colloquial language, 'province' or provincial, with a tendentially derogatory connotation, also denotes an area that is poor in outstanding cultural offerings or in which there is generally no significant social life. These are often areas far away from the capital , on the periphery of a country or in a predominantly rural area. Since current fashions or customs often first appear in the cities and these are still little known in rural areas, this is considered a backward, 'provincial' area.
In Germany, for example, all places except the four megacities of Berlin , Hamburg , Munich , Cologne , perhaps the metropolitan region of Rhine-Ruhr and Frankfurt am Main with the Rhine-Main area are sometimes referred to as provinces, often including large state capitals such as Stuttgart or Hanover (Hanover was actually provincial capital of the province Hanover in the state of Prussia , the kingdom of Hanover annexed in 1866 ). The former federal capital Bonn was and is considered provincial because of its small size. Corresponding larger areas are also called Wallachia , Pampa or jwd (janz far out). Numerous technical terms, such as provincialism or provincialization, are derived from the term province .
- Province ( Memento from January 13, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) In: Meyers Online-Lexikon (discontinued).