# Periphery

The term periphery (from ancient Greek περιφέρω periphéro “to carry around”, “to turn around”) means in general usage “surroundings” or “surroundings”, for example the surroundings of a city or a region in contrast to the core area.

It denotes a circumference (especially of the circle) or an edge (especially of a city). Often the term "peripheral" is simply used to portray something as marginal, for example "... it only affects you peripherally ...".

## Use in geography

In geography the term periphery is used to describe a contrast to a center. It can be used locally, i.e. within a city , regionally , within a country , a continent or globally for the entire earth. It is often used to show or explain spatial disparities .

## Use in math

The vocabulary lexicon of the University of Leipzig describes “periphery” as a mathematical term for the circumference of the circle , the digital dictionary of the German language as the “outermost edge of a curvilinear area, especially a circle”.

## Use in medicine

In humans and mammals, what is meant is the extremities and not the trunk as the center of the body . And for the extremities, the forearms and lower legs rather than the upper arms and thighs. Often the head is also counted as part of the human periphery. Peripheral means outside or on the edge .

## Use in political science

In the Marxist currents of political science , periphery is a term for the societies surrounding a center of power that are dependent on it and are increasingly exploited (see imperialism ). With the help of the model of periphery and center, the theories of dependence analyze the underdevelopment of the global south , which is seen as the product of a capitalist economic order emanating from the centers. In the world system theory , this idea was developed into a world explanation approach . In addition, a further differentiation is made by expanding the model to include the semi-peripherals. Example: Latin America as the “periphery” of the “ metropolisUnited States .

## Use in sociology

In the historical-sociological studies of Immanuel Wallerstein , the periphery appears as a counterpart to hegemony . Building on this, Christian Giordano uses the term in connection with the six historical regions of Europe . On the one hand, it describes a greater area in Northern Europe, which stretches from Iceland via western Ireland, Scotland and the middle of the Scandinavian peninsula to northwestern Finland. On the other hand, however, he also mentions enclaves such as the Pyrenees, impoverished regions in the Alps or in the French massif central peripheral. These cultural areas are all remote, marginal and sparsely populated large areas, in which subsistence farming was often carried out and any cultural developments were greatly delayed.

In Niklas Luhmann's sociological systems theory , the distinction between center and periphery is fundamental for understanding some subsystems of society. In the legal system, the binding decision-making courts form the center, while all other participants in the legal discourse can only make non-binding decisions and are therefore peripheral.

Greece is divided into 13 peripheries. See Political Organization of Greece .

## Use in computer technology

In computer science, the term periphery is used when talking about peripheral devices . B. all devices that are connected to the central unit. These devices require control by the central unit and, if necessary, prior initialization. These are, for example, printers, scanners, keyboards and mice, but also internal devices such as connections, drives and expansion cards.

In addition, be with peripheral and peripheral modules or peripheral functions called - parts of a computer, provides the functionality that is not provided by the processor core itself available, but additional hardware (on other integrated circuits or with the processor on the same chip). Examples are interface modules, timers or watchdogs .

## Use in physiology

Periphery can be freely described as "adjacent" or "immediately following". In cell biology z. B. peripheral membrane proteins lie directly on or below the plasma membrane . The reference system can, however, also be made wider. In anatomy, for example, those parts that are further away from the center of the body or the center of an organ system are called peripheral, for example the limbs or blood vessels distant from the heart . The peripheral nervous system comprises (as the opposite of the central nervous system ) all parts of the nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord .

## Use in philosophy

The centrality of the action experience: A distinction is made between two action perspectives, on the one hand there is the reporting perspective (refers to he / she / it or 3rd person or observer), on the other hand there is the enforcement perspective (I or 1st person or Attendees). A person in the enforcement perspective is always “in the center of his own periphery” and cannot leave this center. However, not every statement that is about an “I” has to be enforcement perspective.

For example: a promises b that q. a = i. So you can also report about yourself.

## Use in event technology

In the event technology is referred to as peripheral devices, which at the mixer (as the central control unit) around are arranged. These peripherals are e.g. B. Equalizer , Compressor Limiter, Reverb Effects, Scratching Tables.