Political science

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Political science - also political science , science of politics , scientific politics or political science  - is an integration science part of modern social sciences and deals with the scientific teaching and research of political processes, structures and contents as well as the political phenomena and actions of human coexistence. Political science, from its development as a scientific discipline in the broader sense, also belongs to the political sciences . With neighboring disciplines such as sociology , law , history , economics and psychology, it has now developed an interdisciplinary research subject that extends beyond the state and its institutions as a research subject.

The subject is divided into various sub-areas. A fundamental distinction is made between the areas of political theory (including political philosophy and the history of ideas ), comparative political science (formerly comparative governance or comparative analysis of political systems ) and international relations (including international politics ). In the case of a broader range of courses, as is the case at some universities , a distinction is also made between, for example, the sub-disciplines systems or government theory , political sociology , political economy , political methodology , administrative science , public law and policy field analysis or, more recently, gender research .

Subject of research

The plenary hall of the German Bundestag

Political science deals with the social coexistence of people and examines how this coexistence is regulated and can be regulated. Their subject area therefore basically extends beyond dealing with daily politics . Your research interest requires the analysis of fundamental principles, relationships and cause and effect mechanisms of human coexistence in its various forms. It takes into account u. a. institutional, procedural, factual-material and political-cultural aspects. Modern political science pays special attention to the question of how state and civil society actors act, how political decision-making processes take place, how power relationships arise and how they affect social structures.

Even in antiquity , political philosophy and state philosophy (see also Chanakya ) dealt almost normatively-ontologically with the question of how best to shape human coexistence . This can be traced back to the ancient Greek philosophers - especially to Plato ( Politeia - The State) and Aristotle - and is still the subject of philosophical and historical political theory . Political science was understood and conceived as a normative science even after its founding as an academic discipline in the history of the Federal Republic of Germany after 1945 ("democracy science"). The German tradition of police science and camera science research was broken off from the 19th to the 20th century. In connection with law, political science initially emerged as part of the political sciences, to which it can still be counted today, although the state and its functions are no longer their exclusive object of investigation.

Starting from the development of the subject in the United States, political science has been methodologically more strongly influenced by the emergence of behavioralism and social science-oriented empirical-analytical methods. This was accompanied by an increasing orientation of the subject towards positivistic questions.

The aim of modern empirical political science is to determine relationships from the occupation of society and its structures that explain and describe how people live together. This branch of the subject is strongly methodical and works both quantitatively and qualitatively . A final evaluation of the test results must be omitted. This prominent branch of the subject is analytically and methodologically based on the natural sciences and is generally still largely shaped by US developments and innovations. This applies above all to analytical stringency (use of mathematical models, the so-called theory of rational decision ) and methodological rigor (use of statistical procedures).

The subject is somewhat different in the field of modern theoretical or normative political science, which largely coincides with the more humanities-oriented sub-subject of political theory : In connection with the long normative tradition of political science, social values ​​are here based on their normative content analyzed and discussed and evaluated against the background of the context of the history of ideas and philosophy . For example, the method of analytical- hermeneutic text interpretation or other qualitative methods are used. The preoccupation with value judgments is accordingly at the center of political theory as a sub-subject of political science. In particular, this applies to political philosophy as an emphatically normative political theory.


The academic subject of politics has been taught in German-speaking countries since the post-war decades under the name of political science . This definition has largely replaced the earlier technical terms political science , based on the Anglo-Saxon term political science and science of politics or scientific politics , as it was called with the establishment of chairs at universities since the early 1950s. In the case of institute or seminar names of some traditional universities, including those that were the first to introduce the subject 'Politics' in the post-war years, the classic subject names Political Science, Science of Politics or Scientific Politics still exist . The term political science, which was coined by university professors at the Otto Suhr Institute in Berlin in the 1950s, is also in use, especially for university graduates. The terms mentioned are to be understood largely synonymously.

Representatives of the discipline prefer the term political science today because it makes the subject of scientific endeavor, the research of politics and its processes, more understandable. This scientific concept of the subject has meanwhile been generally introduced at universities.

To address the problem of inconsistent terminology , politics as a university subject was interrupted for more than 100 years from the 19th to 20th centuries. The term political science distinguishes itself conceptually better than the term political science from the possible suspicion that it is a pseudoscience that is primarily pursued for political motives and for political purposes. Politics as the purpose of science is, however, considered incompatible with the generally accepted understanding of science . Rather, political science lays claim to value neutrality and to a strict distinction between political science and real politics . A politician makes politics, a political scientist deals scientifically with political questions.

The term political science translates very closely the technical term in the Anglo-Saxon language area, political science . If in the Federal Republic of Germany and in the wider German-speaking area there are still different names for the same scientific subject, this is primarily due to cultural and scientific history reasons.

The term political science is derived from ancient Greek ( epistéme politiké ), based on modern sociology . However, this term arose without regard to the Greek; actually it should be political science.

The political science as an academic discipline in this country until after the Second World War emerged and established. At the same time, there were already attempts to establish such a discipline in the German Reich: for example, the German University of Politics was founded in Berlin in 1920 . Mainly scientists from other disciplines taught at it, since at that time there was no political science in the narrower sense in Germany - unlike in the USA. In the interwar period and initially also after the Second World War, political science was understood as a democracy and integration science that incorporated the content and methods of other, neighboring sciences. The successor institution of the German School of Politics was the Otto Suhr Institute of the Free University of Berlin .

History of Political Science

As early as the 18th century, Joseph von Sonnenfels taught political science at the University of Vienna . In the 19th century, subjects such as camera science and police science established themselves . The political science of the time continued approaches that had been founded by legal scholars, political philosophers, theologians and historians since the early modern era.

A separate discipline only developed in Germany after the Second World War under US influence. The activities of the German University of Politics, which had been founded in Berlin in the early phase of the Weimar Republic in 1920 and existed until its incorporation into the Berlin University in 1940 , could be tied in with . At that time, political science was essentially understood as democracy science.

After the Second World War, its self-image as a science of democracy and thus as a science of how democracy works was again the focus. With their help, intermediaries such as teachers and journalists in particular should be enabled to convey democratic ideas and to anchor democratic thinking in the population. Therefore, early post-war German political science was mainly concerned with the analysis, functioning and formal interaction of institutions such as the parties, the trade unions, the parliament and the federal government. Today this subject area is called polity .

With the political and economic success of the Federal Republic of Germany, research into the actual political processes came to the fore: the attempt was made to understand what happened within the institutions themselves and what functions they each fulfilled in the overall system, instead of describing what formal tasks they had. The associations, which - although not enshrined in law - nevertheless play an important role in the political process, came into the fore.

So one tried to analyze and understand the actual decision-making and decision-making processes ( politics ).

In the German development of political science, so-called schools of political science emerged in the decades after the Second World War with the Cologne School , the Freiburg School and the Marburg School , each of which had and represented a specific understanding of the university subject.


Just like its field of research, politics, political science also endeavors to specialize its considerations, for example on individual political sectors such as B. health policy. This requires expertise to analyze the actual problems. This newer sub-discipline of political science, which deals with technical problems in individual policy areas, is called policy research or policy field research .

This is playing an increasingly important role in political advice , with the help of which political decision-makers orientate themselves to scientifically sound advice or want to make and secure a political decision. The limits of the scientific nature of such consultations are, however, often unclear - in many cases they are “courtesy reports”, that is, interest-based reports that come to a result desired by the client.

The paradigms of integration science and democracy science are therefore increasingly being replaced today by the diversification of the discipline of political science into the sub-disciplines of polity , politics and policy .

Another division of political science into sub-disciplines, which is also used for the chair titles, is the division into political system (based on individual states, for example Germany ; previously: government theory), political theory , political history , international politics or international relations, European studies or European politics, Comparative Political Science or Comparative Studies (formerly: Comparative Governance, also Comparative Analysis of Political Systems).

The most important subjects of political science include the structural problems of democracy , political parties and social movements , international relations , conflict research , state interventions and economics, political attitudes and forms of consciousness , public opinion , mass media and voting behavior .


Political science graduates can be found in many professional fields beyond the academic work of political scientists. Classical education is above all political education , as a subject in teaching, in journalism and in the media , in parties and parliaments, in associations as well as in public administration and international organizations and also in business . In addition to completing a political science degree, the individual career paths are also based on additional qualifications such as language skills or subsequent further professional qualifications.


Political science can be studied either as a major or as a minor at almost every major German university . In some cases, smaller universities only offer political science as a minor due to a lack of resources. While in the past there were often diploma and a few master’s courses with a political science focus, nowadays , as a result of the Bologna process, bachelor and master’s courses are almost exclusively offered to new students. Many courses are interdisciplinary and combine the content of various social sciences with core political science topics, which is similar to the previous master’s degree. The state examination for teachers prepared to exercise the teaching profession - the corresponding school subject Civic Education operates in most states under various names: civics , social studies, social studies , political science and social science, politics and business , etc.

In the post-war period, numerous institutes for political science were founded in Germany. Individual chairs and professorships can also exist at some universities.

In the GDR , political science was officially rejected as bourgeois ideology and revisionism. In particular, the head of the SED party college, Hanna Wolf , rejected Marxist political science, as did the "Scientific Socialism" discipline that was established in the GDR (Leipzig University) in the early 1960s. The “devastating” argument was: “There was no such thing at the Lenin School in Moscow .” Indeed, at the beginning of the 1970s, under the heading Scientific Socialism and inspired by Leipzig Professor Günther Großer, tentative attempts to establish a Marxist political science began. The so-called Leipzig School was created , to which, in addition to Günter Großer, the Leipzig scientists Rolf Reissig , Frank Berg and Robert Weiß belonged. Particularly since their work at the Academy for Social Sciences , the discipline began to become more profiled as political science in the form of classic political field research (human rights Frank Berg) and application of system theories in the form of a comparative research on socialism (Robert Weiß). As a result, the employees of the “Scientific Socialism” Institute (headed by Rolf Reissig) of the Academy for Social Sciences were most actively involved in an internal party opposition in autumn 1989. At the beginning of 1990, the “Scientific Socialism” institute was renamed the Institute for Political Science . In addition to the Leipzig School there was a so-called "National Committee for Political Sciences of the GDR" at the Academy of Sciences of the GDR based on a resolution of the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the SED on December 18, 1974. The committee, controlled centrally by the party apparatus of the SED, became a collective member of the International Political Science Association (IPSA) in 1975. The chairman of the committee, the East Berlin lawyer Karl-Heinz Röder, was elected a member of the IPSA Executive Committee in Paris in 1985; he was re-elected in 1988 in Washington, DC


The Austrian-American historian Ernst Florian Winter is considered to be the intellectual father of political science in Austria . In 1938 he and his father Ernst Karl Winter had to emigrate to the United States for political reasons. At the invitation of Ministers Drimmel and Klaus , he returned to Austria in 1960 after studying at the University of Michigan and Columbia University and visiting professorships at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy , Princeton University , Georgetown University and Indiana University to study the To establish political science. In 1964 he was appointed founding director of the Diplomatic Academy Vienna by Bruno Kreisky . From 1967 he worked at the Institute for Advanced Studies in Vienna.

As part of the Bologna system, studying political science in Austria is divided into a bachelor's and master's degree. Thereafter, the doctorate is possible. In addition to the academic completion of a diploma course, a teaching degree is also possible, in which political science is studied within the subject of history-social studies-political education. Political science is offered in Austria at the universities of Innsbruck , Salzburg and Vienna . In Innsbruck even has its own Faculty of Political Science and Sociology was established by 1 January 2005. Since the 2007/08 winter semester there has also been a bachelor's degree in political science and sociology. (Degree in each case with a Bachelor of Arts). In the 2008/09 winter semester, the two master’s courses “European Politics and Society” and “Social and Political Theory” were established. Since the 2018/19 winter semester, political science can be studied in the doctoral program in social and economic sciences at the University of Linz .


Political science can also be studied at almost all major universities in Switzerland , namely in Zurich , Basel , Bern , Geneva , Lausanne , Lucerne and St. Gallen .

  • St. Gallen offers an interdisciplinary course that combines political science with economics, public business administration and law. In Geneva, you can choose between an interdisciplinary course in international relations, consisting of political science, law, history and economics, and the classic course in political science.
  • In Bern, political science can be studied with sociology and communication and media studies. The newly created course is called "Social Sciences".
  • Since 2006, the University of Zurich, together with the ETH Zurich, has been offering a specialized, strongly scientifically-oriented master’s program, the MA CIS, in addition to the classic political science program .

The CIS ( Center for Comparative and International Studies ) is a political science research institute. It was formed in 1997 from the Institute for Political Science at the University of Zurich and the political science chairs at ETH Zurich .

Special forms of study

The University of Konstanz offers interdisciplinary political science courses with administrative content and a special focus on social science methodology . The University of Erfurt and the University of Passau offer under the name of political science a course, interdisciplinary in political science with links to neighboring disciplines such as law and economics can be studied. Similar political science programs also exist at the Leuphana University of Lüneburg and with a strong focus on administrative practice at the NRW School of Governance .

The Zeppelin University Friedrichshafen offers the interdisciplinary 4-year bachelor's and 2-year master's courses “Politics, Administration & International Relations”, the specializations in “Managing Global Challenges & International Relations”, “Political Behavior & Decision Making” and “Public” Management & Policy, Regulation & E-Government ”. In addition, the course includes a high proportion of business, law and communication science content as well as project seminars based on research-based learning . There is also the option of a 4-year bachelor's degree SPE | Sociology, Politics & Economy to focus on the following political fields: Political Economy, Political Philosophy, Democracy & State Theories or European Integration.

At the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg , political science can be studied in a bachelor's and master's degree with different focuses, sometimes with the integration of related subjects. The Erlangen University u. a. the focus areas “ Human Rights and Human Rights Policy ” (represented as a sub-subject by its own chair), Public Law (in cooperation with the Faculty of Law) or “Non-European Regions” (e.g. concerning Latin America). A master’s degree with a focus on political theory is in preparation. Conversely, political science can also be selected as a focus in the regional science master’s course in Middle East Studies . Inclusion of public law is also possible at the Julius Maximilians University of Würzburg .

The FernUniversität in Hagen offers distance learning in political science, which includes the bachelor's degree in political science, public administration, sociology (until 2008: politics and organization, then: political and administrative science) and the master's degree in governance .

It is also possible to study Political Science at the Helmut Schmidt University / University of the Federal Armed Forces . The prerequisite for this is an obligation in the officer's career as a temporary soldier for at least 13 years. Under certain circumstances, it is also possible to study as a civilian without being obliged to join the Bundeswehr . A special feature is the organization of the course in trimesters instead of semesters. So you study three trimesters a year instead of two semesters. The work and study effort for a trimester corresponds to that of a semester. This means that fewer years of study are required to graduate and the diploma course can be completed after just three years.

Recently, universities have also been offering bachelor's or master's degrees in cooperation. For example, the TU Darmstadt cooperates with the Universities of Mainz and Frankfurt am Main and thus offers political science students, in addition to the master’s course in Darmstadt (governance and public policy), two further courses in political science in cooperation.

Job situation in Germany

At the universities , colleges , and later colleges emerged after the Second World War a great need for teachers, political science and therefore an attractive career opportunity for many political science interested scientists from neighboring disciplines represented.

Today, only around one in five political science students strive for a scientific career at universities or at research institutions. Successful integration into the scientific job market depends on various factors such as age at the time of the doctorate , the commitment of the supervisor, the broad technical and thematic orientation of the training and social framework conditions such as a generation change at professorship level or social discourses about the The importance of political science and the associated state funding for political science teaching and research depends. In this sense, the political science labor market is also subject to certain economic cycles and is therefore currently under high competitive pressure. Women are affected by these issues in a very specific way. The number of political scientists actually employed in the political sector by parties , parliaments , associations or non-governmental organizations is around 15%, only slightly below the number for science.

A large proportion of political science graduates are employed in various areas of the media. Around a fifth work in the private sector (especially in the areas of consulting and public relations), only a tenth in public administration . In this area, political scientists in Germany as well as representatives of other political science disciplines such as administrative scientists, sociologists and economists see their career opportunities limited by the de facto " legal monopoly " in the higher service of public administration .

Professional associations and societies

Several professional associations and scientific societies are dedicated to promoting the subject and representing its concerns in public or to intensifying inter-university cooperation:

The International Political Science Association (IPSA) is also an international professional association for political scientists.

See also

Portal: Political Science  - Overview of Wikipedia content on political science
Portal: Politics  - Overview of Wikipedia content on politics


Bibliographies, databases and specialist portals

Several subject-specific bibliographies and bibliographic databases list political science publications and help with the systematic indexing of relevant literature:



Monographs and articles on the subject

  • M. Rainer Lepsius : Memorandum on the situation of sociology and political science. On behalf of the German Research Foundation. Steiner, Wiesbaden 1961, DNB 453003710 .
  • Hans Kastendiek : The Development of West German Political Science. Campus, Frankfurt am Main 1977, ISBN 3-593-32212-9 .
  • Hans-Joachim Arndt : The defeated of 1945. Attempt at a political science for Germans including an appreciation of political science in the Federal Republic of Germany. Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1978, ISBN 3-428-04238-7 .
  • Hans Maier : Political Science in Germany. Teaching and Effect. 2nd Edition. Piper, Munich 1985, ISBN 3-492-02620-6 .
  • Arno Mohr : Political Science as an Alternative. Stations of a scientific discipline on the way to independence in the Federal Republic of Germany 1945–1965. Brockmeyer, Bochum 1988, ISBN 3-88339-651-6 .
  • Alfons Söllner : German political scientists in emigration. Studies on their acculturation and history of effects. Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen 1996, ISBN 3-531-12935-X .
  • Wilhelm Bleek: History of Political Science in Germany. Beck, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-406-49602-4 .
  • Wilhelm Bleek: German political science in the 19th century. Disciplinary differentiation and reflection of modern statehood. In: Arthur Benz, Everhard Holtmann (Ed.): Policy research in the process of state development. Opladen 2003.
  • Jürgen Hartmann : History of Political Science. Fundamentals of professional development in the USA and Europe. VS, Wiesbaden 2006, ISBN 3-8100-3717-6 .

Monographs on individual directions in political science

  • Horst Schmitt: Political Science and Liberal Democracy. A study on the “political research program” of the “Freiburg School” 1954–1970. Nomos, Baden-Baden 1995, ISBN 3-7890-3785-0 .

Monographs on individual representatives

  • Hans J. Lietzmann: Political Science in the "Age of Dictatorships". The development of the totalitarianism theory Carl Joachim Friedrichs. Opladen 1999.
  • Ulrike Quadbeck: Karl Dietrich Bracher and the beginnings of Bonn political science. Nomos, Baden-Baden 2008, ISBN 978-3-8329-3740-9 .
  • Stephan Schlak: Wilhelm Hennis . Scenes from a history of ideas in the Federal Republic. CH Beck, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-56936-4 .


Reference works, aids

  • Manfred G. Schmidt : Dictionary of Politics (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 404). 2nd, completely revised and expanded edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-520-40402-8 .
  • Dieter Nohlen , Rainer-Olaf Schultze (ed.): Lexicon of political science. Theories, methods, terms. 2 volumes. 4th edition. Beck, Munich 2010.
  • Dieter Nohlen , Florian Grotz (ed.): Small lexicon of politics . 4th edition. Beck, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-406-51062-5 .
  • Theo Stammen , Gisela Riescher , Wilhelm Hofmann (ed.): Major works of political theory (= Kröner's pocket edition. Volume 379). 2nd, updated and expanded edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-520-37902-3 .
  • Steffen Kailitz (Ed.): Key works of political science. VS, Wiesbaden 2007, ISBN 978-3-531-14005-6 .
  • Wichard Woyke , Uwe Anderson (Hrsg.): Concise dictionary of the political system of the Federal Republic of Germany. 6th edition. Wiesbaden 2009, ISBN 978-3-531-15727-6 .
  • Wichard Woyke (Ed.): Short dictionary of international politics. 12th edition. Budrich, Opladen 2011, ISBN 978-3-8252-0702-1 .
  • Eckhard Jesse , Sebastian Liebold (Hrsg.): German political scientists - work and effect. From Abendroth to Zellentin . Nomos, Baden-Baden 2014, ISBN 978-3-8329-7647-7 .
  • Lothar Mertens : Red think tank? The Academy for Social Sciences at the Central Committee of the SED, Lit Verlag Münster; 1st edition (September 2004), ISBN 3-8258-8034-6
  • Rolf Reissig : Dialogue through the Wall: The controversial rapprochement between the SPD and SED. Publisher: Campus Verlag; Edition: 1 (August 19, 2002), ISBN 3-593-37066-2 .
  • Frank Berg, Bärbel Möller, Rolf Reissig: Pros and Cons of Political Science Research in the GDR. In: Politische Vierteljahresschrift , Wiesbaden 33 (1992) 2, pp. 256–277.
  • Theoretical and methodological requirements for studying politics in scientific communism: e. Contribution to methodological Problems d. scientific Communism / Diss. B (1983) submitted by Robert Weiß
  • Röder, Karl-Heinz / Jörg Franke, German Democratic Republic, in: William G. Andrews (eds.), International Handbook of Political Science, Westport / Connecticut 1982
  • Röder, Karl-Heinz, Political Science in the German Democratic Republic, in: Political Science and Politics 22 (1989), Washington DC

Political philosophy, history of ideas, theory

  • Klaus von Beyme : The political theories of the present. An introduction. Munich 1980, ISBN 3-492-00511-X .
  • Karl-Heinz Röder (Ed.): Karl Marx and the political theory of the present. Berlin 1983
  • Hans Joachim Lieber (ed.): Political theories from antiquity to the present. (= Special edition by the Federal Agency for Political Education. Volume 299). Bonn 1993.
  • Will Kymlicka : Political Philosophy Today. An introduction to the campus, Frankfurt am Main / New York 1997, ISBN 3-593-35891-3 .
  • Hauke ​​Brunkhorst : Introduction to the History of Political Ideas. Munich 2000, ISBN 3-8252-2161-X .
  • Henning Ottmann: History of Political Thought. From the Greeks to modern times. 8 partial volumes. Stuttgart / Weimar 2001-2008.
  • Klaus von Beyme: Political Theories in the Age of Ideologies (1789-1945). Westdeutscher Verlag, Wiesbaden 2002, ISBN 3-531-13875-8 .
  • Hans Maier, Horst Denzer (ed.): Classics of political thought. 2 volumes. 8th edition. Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-42161-X .
  • Wilhelm Bleek, Hans J. Lietzmann (ed.): Classics of political science. From Aristotle to David Easton. Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-406-52794-9 .
  • Walter Reese-Schäfer : Classics of the history of political ideas . From Plato to Marx. Oldenbourg, Munich / Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-486-58282-6 .
  • Manfred Brocker (Ed.): History of political thought. A handbook with 53 works by political thinkers. Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-518-29418-5 .
  • Anton Pelinka, David Wineroither (ed.): Political ideas and social theories in the 20th century. Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-7003-1627-5 .
  • Marcus Llanque: History of Political Ideas. A fabric of political discourse. Oldenbourg, Munich / Vienna 2008, ISBN 978-3-486-58471-4 .
  • Klaus von Beyme: Theory of Politics in the 20th Century. From modern to postmodern. Extended edition. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-518-28569-5 .
  • Tobias Bevc: Political Theory. Introduction. (= Licensed edition of the Federal Agency for Political Education. Volume 668). Bonn 2007, ISBN 978-3-89331-829-2 .
  • Klaus von Beyme: History of the political theories in Germany 1300-2000 . VS Verlag, Wiesbaden 2009, ISBN 978-3-531-16806-7 .
  • Bernd Ladwig : Modern Political Theory. Fifteen introductory lectures. Wochenschau-Verlag, Schwalbach iT 2009, ISBN 978-3-89974-454-5 .
  • Walter Seitter : Concepts of people. Studies on Epistemology (Boer Munich 1985), ISBN 3-924963-00-2 . Second edition with a foreword by the author and an essay by Friedrich Balke (Velbrück Weilerswist 2012), ISBN 978-3-942393-29-4 .
  • Reinhold Zippelius : History of the state ideas. 10th edition. CH Beck, Munich, 2003, ISBN 3-406-49494-3 .
  • Wilhelm Bleek, Andreas Anter : State concepts. The theories of German political science. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt am Main / New York 2013, ISBN 978-3-593-39895-2 .

Democracy theories

  • Peter Massing, Gotthard Breit (Ed.): Democracy Theories. Introductory overview: From antiquity to the present. (= Licensed edition of the Federal Agency for Political Education. Volume 424). Schwalbach / Ts. 2002, ISBN 3-89331-518-7 .
  • Manfred Gustav Schmidt: Democracy Theories. An introduction. 3. Edition. Opladen, Wiesbaden 2000/2006, ISBN 3-8100-2635-2 .
  • Giovanni Sartori : Democracy Theory. 3. Edition. Edited by Rudolf Wildenmann. Darmstadt 2006, ISBN 3-534-19609-0 .
  • Arno Waschkuhn: Theories of Democracy. Political theory and the history of ideas. Instructional and manual. Munich 1998, ISBN 3-486-23557-5 .
  • Richard Saage: Democracy Theories . Historical process - theoretical development - socio-technical conditions. An introduction. Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-531-14722-6 .

Comparative Political Science, German Politics, Public Administration

  • Karl-Heinz Röder: The political system of the Federal Republic of Germany. Berlin 1985.
  • Franz Lehner , Ulrich Widmaier : Comparative Government. Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-8100-3199-2 .
  • Wolfgang Rudzio : The political system of the Federal Republic of Germany. 8th edition. Wiesbaden 2011, ISBN 978-3-531-17582-9 .
  • Michael Greven: Political Thinking in Germany after 1945. Experience and Dealing with Contingency in the Immediate Post-War Period. Opladen 2007, ISBN 978-3-86649-079-6 .
  • Arno Kahl, Karl Weber: General administrative law. 2nd Edition. Vienna 2008, ISBN 978-3-7089-0296-8 .
  • Wolfgang H. Lorig: Modern administration in civil society. Lines of development of administrative modernization in Germany. Baden-Baden 2008, ISBN 978-3-8329-3278-7 .
  • Arthur Benz : The modern state. Basics of political analysis. 2nd Edition. Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-486-58749-4 .
  • Robert Weiß, Manfred Heinrich: The Round Table: Bankruptcy Trustee of “Real” Socialism. Analysis and comparison of the work of round tables. In: Europa.Köln: Bundesinst. for Ostwiss. and boarding. Studies (BIOST, 1991). - V, 51 S. Subject (key word.)

International politics, development politics, peace research

Occupational fields

Web links

Commons : Political Science  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Political Science  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikiversity: Political Science  Course Materials

Individual evidence

  1. ^ A b labor market: political scientists. Flexibility counts, in: Uni-Magazin. Perspectives for Profession and Labor Market 3/2003, pp. 48–52.
  2. ^ Website of the Munich School of Politics
  3. Ralf Forsbach (Ed.): Eugen Fischer-Baling 1881–1964. Manuscripts, articles, letters and diaries. (= German historical sources of the 19th and 20th centuries , edited by the Historical Commission at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, Vol. 62). Munich 2001, facsimile after p. 228.
  4. It is named after the siblings Hans and Sophie Scholl , who were members of the White Rose and who resisted National Socialism .
  5. ^ Laudation for Ernst Florian Winter ( memento from September 27, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), Michel Cullin , May 3, 2008.
  6. PAIR | Politics, Administration and International Relations. Retrieved March 7, 2017 .
  7. Master PAIR | Politics, Public Administration and International Relations. Retrieved March 7, 2017 .
  8. BA in Sociology, Politics & Economics - Zeppelin University. Retrieved October 25, 2019 .
  9. Political Science (TU Darmstadt)
  10. a b Bernd Butz u. a .: Graduate survey of the Hamburg University. 1997.
  11. Volker Jahr, David Frechenhäuser, Thorsten Büchner, Thomas Galgon: Marburg political scientists on the labor market revisited: The years 1993–2000. In: W. Hecker, J. Klein, HK Rupp (Ed.): Politics and Science - 50 Years of Political Science in Marburg. Volume 2: Perspectives. Lit Verlag, Münster 2003, ISBN 3-8258-5441-8 , pp. 401-443 ( online ( Memento of January 4, 2007 in the Internet Archive )).
  12. Barbara Strobel: What they became, where they went. Results of a study on doctoral and post-doctoral candidates from the Department of Political and Social Sciences at the Free University of Berlin. ( Memento of March 31, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 213 kB) 2009, on: gender politik online ( Memento of February 4, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), requested on August 26, 2009.
  13. Helga Ostendorf Political Scientists - In the Minority in the Long Term? ( Memento of January 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 157 kB), 2009, on: gender politics online queried on August 27, 2009.
  14. International Political Science Association : Official website. Retrieved February 12, 2020.
  15. About POLLUX | POLLUX - Political Science Information Service. Retrieved January 26, 2020 .