State examination

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A state examination ( plural state exams ; from Latin exam , interrogation 'or' investigation '; short Stex or StEx ), also interchangeably state exam , is a detached by a German government agency (Examination Office) test . The Brockhaus Encyclopedia defines the state examination or the state examination as an "examination taken by state examination boards for entry into a state or state-monitored profession". This usually marks the completion of courses at a German university or another institution under state supervision.


The state examination gives access to certain professions regulated by the German state. In Germany, the term is used, for example, for a corresponding final exam for philologists after studying at a university. However, it is also used in non-academic professions, for example in health care with the qualifications as health and nurse or geriatric nurse , in technology with the degree as a state-certified technician or in business with the degree as a state-certified business economist or in the Design as a state-certified designer .

The reason for the special state control is the public interest in compliance with certain quality standards in the training courses concerned. In short, the state examination could be described as a quality control of the buyer state, which as a rule does not act directly as a training institution itself.

In Germany, the fields of study with the designation "State Examination" are structured differently: For example, the "First State Examination" (sometimes also "Scientific State Examination") concludes the teaching degree at a university or equivalent scientific college . The “second state examination” takes place after completing a subsequent practical training at another institution, such as a study seminar . During medical school , the study of dentistry , of veterinary medicine , the law , the Food Chemistry and Pharmacy , the term "state exam" or not anchored "state examination" in the study and examination regulations, but is also often used in campus jargon and sometimes even on Partial, preliminary and intermediate exams expanded.

Sometimes the theoretical studies are followed by practical training or a preparatory service , which can end with another state examination at another institution, such as a study seminar . Some universities also award their graduates with an academic degree upon request if they have passed the First State Examination . In some cases, additional proof of performance or additional examination elements are required. Philology students advance after passing the pre-exam, the Philosophikum , for example from Stud. Phil. to Cand. phil., from student to candidate in philology. A qualified completion of the First State Examination (for example with the grade “good” or better) usually entitles to a doctorate .

With the exception of the apprenticeship professions , the first state examination does not usually give successful graduates the right to use a legally protected professional title . He also does not receive a manageable degree of qualification according to the type of academic degree.

The theological exam at the end of the theological studies follows the model of the state examination for philologists (first theological exam at the end of the course, second theological exam at the end of the vicariate ). In the literal sense, however, it is not a “state examination”, since not representatives of the state, but delegated examiners from the respective regional church take the examination.

Law and Public Administration

Legal training in Germany consists of a university and a post-university training phase. The former concludes with the first legal examination . According to Section 3 Paragraphs 1 - 3, since 2003 this has included a state part (compulsory subject examination with 70% of the overall grade) as well as a university part (focus area examination with 30% of the overall grade) and is therefore no longer a pure state examination Compulsory subject examination can be referred to as state examination , as only this examination is set and assessed by the judicial examination offices of the federal states . The focus area examination is taken at the respective universities. The design is a matter for the federal states, which have created legal training and examination laws and associated ordinances.

In contrast to the first legal examination, the second legal examination ( assessor examination ) is a pure state examination . This is provided and assessed exclusively by the state justice examination offices of the individual federal states.

If the assessment is “fully satisfactory”, in Bavaria, Baden-Wuerttemberg and Saxony, it is already “satisfactory”, a state examination in law counts as a distinction . A grade examination with at least “fully satisfactory” is often required by the public service as a requirement for employment and by universities as a qualification for a subsequent doctorate.

In the case of academic administrative training (Diplom-Verwaltungswirt (FH) or Diplom-Finanzwirt (FH)), the intermediate and final examinations must be passed before the state examination authority (examination office) of the respective federal states. They are thus state exams, which then open up access to the relevant professional profile.

Food chemistry

The examination regulations differ slightly from state to state, as the law of the food chemist is state law . However, the responsible state ministers agreed in 1994 on a uniform framework.

The situation in Baden-Württemberg is shown below. The deviations from other federal states are only minor:

The state examination (also known as the state examination in some federal states) consists of three parts:

  • First examination section after four semesters (basic course)
  • Second examination section after a further four semesters (main course)
  • Third part of the examination after practical training at a food inspection office lasting one year

Furthermore, an academic thesis must be submitted, which must be prepared within a period of six months.

First exam section

The following subjects are examined:

The exam is taken by university lecturers .

A preliminary diploma in the degree course in chemistry with a supplementary biology examination or a certificate for the second examination section in the course in pharmacy are equivalent to the examination.

Second part of the exam

The following subjects are examined:

The exam is also taken by university lecturers.

Third section of the exam

The exam consists of three parts:

  • a practical test (experimental examination and assessment)
  • three supervisory tasks (expert report, to be drawn up on the basis of specified analysis data)
  • Oral examination (food and consumer goods law; organization and function of food and consumer goods monitoring; quality assurance in laboratories and companies)

The examination is carried out by an examination board at the state food inspection offices.


After the second or third section of the examination, a thesis must be submitted within a period of six months. The work can be done at a university or other suitable institution. The work is assessed by two examiners, at least one of whom must be a professor.

Teaching position

The training to become a teacher at a primary, secondary, special, secondary or higher school (grammar school) comprises two phases: the teacher training course as the first phase with two school subjects and an educational part, u. a. with pedagogy and pedagogical psychology , at a university or equivalent scientific college . The degree is the “First State Examination” (increasingly being replaced by the Master of Education degree ). The qualification in a third subject (additional subject, see additional subject ), which is also examined in the exam, is possible as part of an additional examination. The one to two-year legal traineeship or preparatory service forms the second phase, concluded with the “Second State Exam”. Both are made up of the grades obtained in the respective examination phase, in particular the two subject grades and a term paper grade, in some cases other educational grades, and for the second exam also at least one general assessment of the trainee by the instructor.

In contrast to medical studies, for example, in which the term “state examination” was also used for a further partial examination for a while, the synonymous term “state examination” is regulated in the ordinances for teacher training courses: In the state law of Baden-Württemberg, for example, the High School Teacher Examination Regulations I (GymPO I of July 31, 2009, valid from September 1, 2009 to December 31, 2024), but also in the examination regulations of the other courses, the term “First State Examination for Teaching at Gymnasium” is used throughout . With the "First State Examination", the results of which include preliminary and partial exams, such as the Philosophikum after the sixth semester, the academic study at the university ends. In Section 1, Paragraph 2 it says literally: The first state examination for teaching at grammar schools concludes the study for teaching at grammar schools . Organizational implementation of the examination is incumbent upon the " State Teacher Examination Office" according to Section 3, Paragraph 1 of the Ministry of Education's ordinance , while the technical and professional responsibility lies with the university teachers. The “Academic Intermediate Examination” (Philosophikum) provided for in Section 10 (1) is not a separate “State Examination”, but part of the First State Examination.

In many federal states, the abolition of the first state examination for teachers is planned (not least for cost reasons) in favor of “ tiered teacher training ” (Bachelor and Master) with examinations accompanying the course. At the moment (2010) the training is in a transition phase. At the end of the development, however, there should be a 12 to 18-month trainee training following a Bachelor's / Master's degree. Essentially, it will mean that the university's final examinations (e.g. master’s) will be carried out by the university in accordance with certain state requirements and then recognized by a state examination office after a formal check.

First state examination

The end of the first phase of the teacher training see teaching degree .

The first state examination completes the university studies. The results of all preliminary tests flow into it. As a rule, they consist of “work under supervision” (exams) and oral exams in the specialist disciplines and in educational science. In addition, there is a state examination thesis , which in some examination regulations is referred to as an " admission thesis", in others as a thesis. The requirements of this term paper correspond roughly to a master’s thesis.

As far as it concerns the completion of studies after at least eight semesters of study, these examinations can be recognized on application in whole or in part as examinations for a Magister or Master degree.

The business education course plays a special role . The diploma of commercial teacher obtained there is to be equated with the first state examination, is also recognized as this and thus entitles to pursue a career in the higher service.

Second state examination

For details of the preparatory service, see trainee teacher training .

A 12- to 24-month preparatory service is provided for teaching posts in all school types, depending on the federal state . The trainee lawyer / candidate enters into a civil service relationship upon revocation or is hired as an employee with a training contract.

The second state examination should relate to the teaching, educational, advisory and reflective skills acquired in the preparatory service and accordingly contains more practical elements. The second state examination consists of another oral examination and another state examination paper. The training takes place z. B. at a study seminar . Details can be found in the relevant legal ordinances of the federal states (sometimes referred to as OVP , regulations for the preparatory service and the examination ; also LAVO - Teacher Training Ordinance ).

The university graduate with a distinction can gain further academic qualifications in a two- to three-year doctoral program and complete a third, extensive research work, the dissertation , as well as an oral examination before an examination board of the university for the Doctor of Philosophy , the Dr. phil., or Dr. ped. PhD. Anyone who aspires to a career as a university lecturer has to prove himself in several years of dependent teaching activity as an academic teacher in the university area, with a fourth, scientific research work, the "habilitation thesis" and face further, university- dependent , qualification measures and selection processes.


The designation “state examination” is not provided for in the 2012 study regulations / license to practice medicine. This only speaks of a "first, second and third section of the medical examination" (Art. 4, § 13 Paragraph 1 and § 20 Paragraph 1, amendment of the license to practice medicine as of January 1, 2014). The final document issued does not contain the word "Staatsexamen" either, but rather is called "Certificate of Medical Examination" (Appendix to Art. 4 No. 28, Federal Law Gazette I p. 2432 ).

Nevertheless, the term “Staatsexamen” is widely used in the campus jargon for medical studies, based on comparable courses. In contrast, it is used here not only for the final examination of the training, but also extended to the individual partial exams, so it is given an extensive interpretation.

First section of the medical examination

The Physikum is the colloquial term for the first section of the medical examination and represents the first comprehensive examination in the context of medical studies. The examination takes place at the earliest after two years of standard study time (1st – 4th semester) and includes a two-day written part as well as an additional a one-day oral-practical part.

The following subjects are tested:

  • Physics for medical professionals
  • Biology for medical professionals
  • Chemistry for medical professionals
  • Biochemistry and molecular biology
  • physiology
  • Macroscopic anatomy
  • Microscopic anatomy (histology)
  • Basics of medical psychology and medical sociology

Second section of the medical examination

The second section of the medical examination can be taken at the earliest after three additional years of study (5th – 10th semester) . A total of 320 questions must be answered on three consecutive days over five hours each. All clinical subjects in medicine are examined in writing. This second section of the Medical Examination is informally known as the Hammer Examination .

Third section of the medical examination

After completing the practical year (11th – 12th semester), the third section of the medical examination can be taken. Oral and practical tests are carried out on two consecutive days. This exam usually takes place in groups of up to four students over a minimum of four hours each.

The following subjects are tested:

  • Internal Medicine
  • surgery
  • A chosen elective
  • Another allocated subject

The third section of the examination is the completion of the medical degree. After passing it, the graduates receive the license to practice medicine on application . Only then are they entitled to practice as a doctor and to use this professional title. In addition, passing the third section of the examination entitles you to pursue a doctorate with the achievement of the doctorate in medicine (Dr. med.)

Veterinary medicine

The current ordinance on the licensing of veterinarians (TAppV) differentiates between a "veterinary preliminary examination" (§§ 19 and 22) and a "veterinary examination" (TAppV § 5 para. 1, § 6, § 16 and § 29). The "veterinary preliminary examination" is divided according to § 19 into a "natural science section" (preliminary physics) and an "anatomical-physiological section" (physics) according to § 22. The "veterinary examination" is regulated in more detail in § 29. Section 30 lists the individual subjects of the “final exams”. These include the following subjects:

  1. Animal husbandry and animal hygiene,
  2. Animal welfare and ethology,
  3. Animal nutrition,
  4. Clinical Propaedeutics,
  5. Virology,
  6. Bacteriology and mycology,
  7. Parasitology,
  8. Animal disease control and infection epidemiology,
  9. Pharmacology and toxicology,
  10. Drug and narcotic law,
  11. Poultry diseases,
  12. Radiology,
  13. General pathology and special pathological anatomy and histology,
  14. Food science including food hygiene,
  15. Meat hygiene,
  16. Reproductive medicine,
  17. Internal Medicine,
  18. Surgery and anesthesiology and
  19. Forensic veterinary medicine, professional and ethical law.

These exams are completed in several blocks in accordance with the study and examination regulations of the respective university. The TAppV only stipulates a few subjects in Section 30 that may not be examined before the end of the eighth semester. After completing all partial examinations, the successful graduate of the veterinary training will be issued a “Certificate of the result of the veterinary examination and the overall result of the veterinary examination” (Appendix 5 to Section 16, Paragraph 1). He can then apply for a license to practice medicine and is then entitled to practice as a veterinarian and to use this professional title.


The license to practice medicine for dentists does not recognize the word “state examination”. Instead, she speaks of a three-part course of study, two “preliminary exams” and a “final examination” in the course of the academic training. However, it uses the terms "state examinations" (§ 2) and "state examination commission" (§ 4). The structure of the course, the length of the course and the function of the final examination suggest a degree of similarity with the “First State Examination” of the philologists.

Scientific preliminary examination

After the second semester at the earliest, the natural science preliminary examination , also known colloquially as the “ preliminary physics ”, can be completed with three oral exams in the subjects of chemistry, physics and biology / zoology.

Dental preliminary examination

After the fifth semester, the preliminary dental examination , also known as the " Physikum ", must be taken. Four oral exams are held in the subjects of anatomy / histology / embryology, biochemistry, physiology and dentistry / materials science. These subjects are examined separately orally, and dentistry is also linked to a practical examination lasting several days. The Physikum ends the preclinical part of the dental studies and entitles the dental student to continue his studies in the dental clinic of a university clinic .

Dental exam

After the tenth semester in the standard period of study, the final exam is the “Dental Exam”, (also known as the “State Exam”) with oral exams in the following subjects:

There are also written and practical exams in the following subjects:

  • The practical test in dentistry lasts ten days. Both fixed and removable dentures must be incorporated into the patient. The scope of the examination differs between the individual universities, because at some of them the dental work has to be carried out by the examinees themselves.
  • In the subject of tooth preservation, the exam lasts five days. A root canal treatment has to be carried out, a partial crown has to be incorporated and several side and front tooth fillings have to be placed.
  • In the field of surgery , an oral-practical examination is planned, in which patients must be examined and their anamnesis taken. This is followed by the diagnosis and its justification, therapy proposals and, if necessary, their implementation (e.g. tooth extraction or other minor surgical intervention).
  • The exam in orthodontics should extend over four days. In addition to the production of a simple regulatory device, a written report on an illness must be prepared. Knowledge of the development of jaw abnormalities, as well as their assessment and treatment, must be demonstrated in an oral examination.

The degree in dentistry ends with the "final examination". Afterwards, the dentist receives the license to practice medicine on application . Furthermore entitled successfully passing the final exams for promotion to Doctor of Dentistry (Dr. med. Dent.).


The license to practice medicine for pharmacists (AAppO) provides for a "pharmaceutical examination" which must be taken in three sections. According to Annex 10, it issues a “Certificate of the first, second or third section of the pharmaceutical examination” after successful completion. The first section of the pharmaceutical examination consists of a written examination, the other two parts of oral examinations according to the license to practice pharmacists.

First section of the pharmaceutical examination

Several subjects are examined in one exam:

  • General, inorganic and organic chemistry
  • Basics of pharmaceutical biology and human biology
  • Basics of physics, physical chemistry and the theory of dosage forms
  • Basics of pharmaceutical analysis

Second section of the pharmaceutical examination

  • Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Chemistry
  • Pharmaceutical biology
  • Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy
  • Pharmacology and toxicology
  • Clinical pharmacy

Third section of the pharmaceutical examination

  • Pharmaceutical Practice
  • Special areas of law for pharmacists

With the passing of the pharmaceutical examination (1st, 2nd and 3rd section in the ratio 2: 3: 2) the academic prerequisite for obtaining the license to practice as a pharmacist (carrying out the profession and bearing the professional title) is fulfilled. Passing the "Second Section of the Pharmaceutical Examination" ends university training and entitles you to write a thesis in pharmacy at some universities . If you pass the academic degree Diplom-Pharmaceut (Diplom Pharmacist). Furthermore, passing the examination entitles the holder to write a dissertation and obtain a doctorate in natural sciences (Dr. rer. Nat.).

Higher Forest Service: Great State Forest Examination

Anyone who wants to qualify for higher positions within the forest administration of the federal states and the federal government - for example as the head of a forest office - must also successfully pass a state examination, the “Great State Forestry Examination”. Details can be found in the respective statutory ordinances of the federal states (training and examination regulations). Those who have passed the Great State Forest Examination are authorized to use the professional title “Assessor des Forstdienstes” (or “Forstassessor”) or “Assessorin des Forstdienstes” (or “Forstassessorin”). However, there is no guarantee of acceptance by the forest administration.

The prerequisite for applying for a legal traineeship is the successful completion of a degree in forest sciences with the academic degree of " Diplom-Forstwirt " or "Master". These degrees are legally equivalent to the “First State Examination” in comparable subjects, such as philologists or theologians.

This examination - it corresponds to the "Second State Examination" of comparable subjects - is at the end of the compulsory 24-month preparatory service , which is divided into different stations and at the end of each of which a grade is given. The forest trainee enters into an employment relationship on revocation for the duration of the training. In the state examination, the trainee lawyers should not only show that they have specialist knowledge, are able to solve tasks of practical administrative work, forest management and economic planning and management and are able to justify suggestions, but also demonstrate judgment and decision-making skills. The exam accordingly contains strong practical elements.


The Great State Forest Examination is divided into three parts:

  1. Written exam - this part consists of several exams lasting several hours, which are written within an exam week
  2. Forest test - this involves testing practical examples on site in the forest for one or two days (mostly verbally, but sometimes also in writing)
  3. Oral exam - this part is usually held over a day or two by the members of the examination committee in conversation.

In particular, the forest test and the oral test are designed as "stress tests", since the examinee is expected to make quick assessments and decisions on complex situations in an unfamiliar environment.


Questions from the following subjects, among others, must be dealt with in all three examination sections:

Higher archive service

For entry into the career of the senior archive service ( archivist ), the second state examination (career examination for the higher archive service, archival state examination) is generally required, especially in the state and state archives as well as the federal archive. This can be completed at the Archive School Marburg - University of Archival Science or, for Bavaria, at the Bavarian Archive School in Munich. The hiring archive administrators will decide on the admission to the archive clerkship; free enrollment in the "scientific courses" of the two archive training centers is not possible.

The appointment as archives trainee required within the Prussian archives administration, which set the guidelines of the discipline from the middle of the 19th century to 1945, the first state examination for high school teaching (in history and German as well as Latin or French) or law as well as the doctorate in History or law, which in western Germany partly remained a prerequisite until the 1990s (e.g. within the Lower Saxony archive administration). Currently, a master’s degree (or equivalent) and almost always a doctorate in history are required, often on a topic of the pre-modern era (Middle Ages or early modern times) and not infrequently with a regional historical orientation. Additional qualifications, such as archival trips and internships, expertise in the historical auxiliary sciences, language and IT skills or experience in the fields of public relations are also required.

While practical phases and theoretical training at the Bavarian Archive School deliberately intermingle, the two-year archive traineeship is divided into three clearly separated phases according to the Marburg model: First, a practical phase of eight months (May to the end of December of each year) is completed at the training archive of the hiring archive administration During this time, there are two secondments in the form of an agency internship and an archive internship at another archive, usually lasting three weeks each. Subsequently, the secondment to the archive school in Marburg takes place in order to complete a one-year course (January to the end of December), divided into three trimesters. This course mainly includes:

  • Archive science in the narrower sense (assessment, indexing, preservation, etc.)
  • Archive law ( archive law , public law and administrative law, copyright law, contract law, etc.)
  • Legal history and administrative history
  • Archive-specific IT (digital long-term archiving, database systems, archive software, DMS, XML, etc.)
  • Historical auxiliary sciences (especially diplomacy, records, palaeography, sphragistics, heraldry and chronology)
  • Document management, records management and advice to authorities
  • Archive management and management functions (including role play and lessons by an external coach)
  • Public relations (planning and holding exhibitions, drafting press releases, etc.)
  • Guest lectures by representatives of different archives and archives
  • A big excursion abroad (one week) and numerous smaller excursions to archives and related institutions

Both the practical phase and the university course are structured modularly and are characterized by a rapid succession of numerous examinations to be performed. The "Scientific Courses" usually consist of ten to fifteen historians ("course colleagues") from all over Germany (apart from Bavaria), most of whom have already completed their doctorate, and almost without exception have already reached the age of thirty. In addition to the technical training, the courses actually serve as an initiation into the numerically very manageable profession of scientific archivists (“Marburger Weihen”) as well as to establish permanent professional connections.

The course is followed by a three-month "transfer phase" (January to the end of March) in which the "transfer work" (second state examination work) on an archival scientific topic of practice, which is often chosen under significant influence of the training archive, is to be written. There are no lessons during this time. In April, there will then be two oral exams in the form of a regular oral exam and a management exercise (manager interview in the role of manager). The overall grade of the career examination consists of the modules of the practical phase (30%) and the university studies (30%), the thesis (20%) as well as the oral examination and the management exercise (10% each). As a rule, one or two graduates per course complete the exam with an overall grade of “very good” (14 or 15 grade points), while the overall results of the other graduates are “good” or “satisfactory”.

Successful completion of the examination entitles the holder to use the professional title "Assessor of the archives service". A takeover guarantee is not connected with this. However, the Federal Archives and the Lower Saxony State Archives traditionally take over the trainee lawyers they have trained directly to the higher archives service, so that the appointment to the archivist takes place on the same day and the use of the official title replaces the professional title. In view of the relaxed labor market situation for trained archivists, this is usually the case relatively quickly for the other graduates of the course.

Changes due to the Bologna process

In the course of the Bologna process , the standardization of degrees in Europe, it was discussed to abolish the state examinations as a degree in higher education in 2010 and to switch to the consecutive Bachelor's and Master's degrees . However, there were never any concrete implementation plans for this.

The Bologna process was in some controversial programs (such as medicine and law), for the teaching degree , he is considered by many experts as unsuitable. For example, in 2005 the grand coalition (consisting of CDU, CSU and SPD) rejected the need for new degrees in medical and legal training to transfer the Bologna Process.


Web links

Wiktionary: Staatsexamen  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Brockhaus Encyclopedia, keyword Staatsexamen / Staatsprüfung , Volume 17, 17th edition, Wiesbaden 1973, p. 809.
  2. H. Lenhard: Second phase at study seminars and schools. In: Sigrid Blömeke, P. Reinhold, G. Tuoldziecki, J. Wildt (Hrsg.): Handbuch Lehrerbildung. Westermann / Klinkhardt, Braunschweig, Bad Heilbrunn 2004, pp. 275–290.
  3. Law on Legal Examinations and the Legal Preparation Service NRW, status October 6, 2017 - accessed on October 21, 2017.
  4. Janwillem van de Loo, Marinus Stehmaier: Why, why, why - does Jura remain stupid? Perspectives of a model . In Kritische Justiz (KJ) 04/2013, pp. 383–395; Short version in Forum Recht (FoR) 03/2013, pp. 85–88 ( digitized version ).
  5. Thuringian Administration College : Course of Study. May 15, 2018. Retrieved May 17, 2018 .
  6. ^ First state examination for teaching at grammar schools - accessed on October 19, 2017.
  7. ^ First state examination for teaching at grammar schools - accessed on October 19, 2017.
  8. Second state examination for teaching at Realschulen - Retrieved on October 19, 2017.
  9. ÄApprO 2002 - License to practice medicine for doctors . Retrieved October 17, 2017.
  10. First State Exam , Miamed.
  11. Second State Exam , Miamed.
  12. 3rd State Exam , Miamed.
  13. IMPP: Outline of Medical Studies ( ).
  14. IMPP: Information on the written exams ( ).
  15. Ordinance on the licensing of veterinarians - accessed on October 20, 2017.
  16. Text of the license to practice medicine for dentists
  17. according to chap. B, § 18 to § 24
  18. according to chap. C, § 25 to 31.
  19. according to chap. D, § 32 to § 58.
  20. Appendix 1 to the AAppO (PDF; 100 kB); Retrieved October 19, 2017.
  21. Training and examination regulations for the career of the higher forestry technical service of the State of Hesse (APOhFtD) . In: The Hessian Minister for the Environment, Rural Areas and Consumer Protection (ed.): Law and Ordinance Gazette for the State of Hesse . No. 4 , January 22, 2007, p. 223–230 ( Citizens' Service Hessenrecht [PDF; 1.1 MB ]).
  22. ^ Johanna Weiser: History of the Prussian archive administration and its leaders. From the beginnings under State Chancellor Hardenberg to its dissolution in 1945 . Cologne 2000.
  23. Philip Haas / Martin Schürrer: What remained of Prussia. The struggle for the training and organization of the archival profession after 1945 (sources and research on Hessian history 183) . Darmstadt / Marburg 2020, p. (in press) .
  24. See the essay by Ulrich Herrmann . (PDF).
  25. ^ Coalition agreement between the CDU, CSU and SPD . November 11, 2005, p. 145 ( [PDF; 1.9 MB ]).