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CDU election poster with the inscription "Dr. Helmut Kohl "(1972)

Doctor (female and doctor ; latin doctor / Doctrix ; to Latin docere teach ' , doctus taught' ) is the highest academic degree . The abbreviation is Dr. , in the plural Dres. (Latin doctores ). The academic PhD (the Doctoral ) is determined by the promotion at a university with Promotion Law obtained and corresponds to the highest level ( level 8 ) of the German Qualifications frame (DQR), the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) and the international ISCED-2011 of UNESCO . The doctorate certifies the candidate's ability to work independently in academic research . A completed doctorate is usually a prerequisite for a habilitation .

In many countries there are also practical doctoral programs to deepen or expand a previous master’s degree , in which successful graduates with an additional rigorosum and a corresponding written thesis are awarded a doctoral degree, a so-called professional doctorate . An example is the Juris Doctor ( JD / JD ) or the PhDr. (Doktor folozifie, Doctor of Philosophy) . The Juris Doctor is similar to the first state examination of law studies in Germany . Also known is the Doctor of Medicine / Medical Doctor ( MD / MD ) awarded in the United States , which every medical student receives after successfully completing his or her degree. The same abbreviation stands for Medicinae Doctor in the United Kingdom (previously also used in German-speaking countries) and designates one with the German Dr. med. comparable academic research doctoral degree (requires a scientific doctoral thesis).


As a rule, admission to the doctoral procedure today requires a master's , magisterial , diploma or licensing degree from a university. In the subjects of law , veterinary medicine , dentistry , pharmacy and medicine, as well as some teacher training courses , the degree is completed with a state examination . This also applies as an admission requirement for a doctorate.

In exceptional cases and depending on the federal state, particularly qualified graduates from universities of applied sciences or Bachelor graduates from other universities can be admitted as part of an aptitude test, but this usually requires additional study achievements at master's level, which can span several semesters.

At some faculties of the humanities , outstanding students in the major and minor subjects could, as an exception, be admitted to doctoral studies without a previous final exam, after two professors' assessments. This so-called "single-course" doctorate is no longer possible. Even the “undergraduate” doctorate, in which the aim is exclusively to obtain a doctorate as a degree from the beginning of the course, was abolished for the vast majority of subjects at most universities in Germany by 1990 at the latest.

Most doctoral regulations also require certain overall or exam grades (in general: at least the overall grade “good”, for lawyers mostly “ fully satisfactory ”) for admission to a doctorate or doctoral program.

For the doctorate, a written work ( dissertation or doctoral thesis) must be prepared that contains new scientific findings. It usually takes two to five years to write this thesis, depending on the subject; During this time, the doctoral candidate is supervised by a scientist who has qualified as a professor ( doctoral supervisor ) , generally a professor . The authorization to supervise doctoral students is regulated differently from faculty to faculty. Depending on the respective doctoral degree regulations, most university professors , i.e. both private lecturers and professors (regardless of whether they have qualified as a professor) and junior professors , can act as doctoral supervisors. The effort and level required vary greatly from subject to subject, and sometimes even from supervisor to supervisor, as there are no uniform guidelines (not only in Germany).

A cumulative doctorate on the basis of several scientific publications in specialist journals is possible in natural science subjects, but sometimes also in the humanities . The study results are published in thematically related specialist articles instead of in a monograph.

Depending on the doctoral regulations, the doctoral thesis can be prepared internally, at the university, or externally, in another institution, whereby in the case of an external doctorate at least one of the reviewers must be associated with the university awarding the degree.

The oral doctoral performance is taken by selected faculty representatives and consists of a disputation in which the theses submitted by the doctoral candidate are discussed, a defense in which the dissertation is defended, a rigorosum in which further subjects or subject areas are examined, or several the three examination options combined procedure.

The procedure is regulated by the doctoral regulations of the individual faculties or departments. After all examinations have been completed, the doctoral candidate usually receives his / her preliminary doctoral certificate. In Germany, dissertations are generally required to be published . The work must be made publicly accessible within a certain period of time, although many doctoral regulations meanwhile also recognize online publication (in addition to publication as a normal book, as a special university publication or as a microfiche ). The process is only finally completed once the dissertation has been published. The doctoral candidate then receives the doctoral certificate and thus the right to use the academic degree. In the doctoral regulations of some universities, the doctoral candidate is given the opportunity to acquire the degree of Dr. des. (doctor designatus) . Other doctoral regulations expressly forbid the use of this degree.

Doctorates play a special role in medicine . On the one hand, work on the dissertation can be started before the end of the course, and on the other hand, doctorates are often more comparable to diploma theses in natural science subjects in terms of demands and scope. For this reason, the German Dr. med. (doctor medicinae) today in the Anglo-Saxon area not the Ph.D. regarded as equivalent, but on the same level as a professional doctorate with a master’s thesis. The German Science Council has taken a similar position since 2009.

There are also special features when it comes to the recognition of the degree of MD (Doctor of Medicine) awarded in the USA or its Czech and Slovak equivalent MUDr (medicinae universae doctor) . Both degrees are professional doctorates that are awarded without a doctorate after completing the degree. The European Research Council (ERC) does not recognize the M. D. as equivalent to a doctoral degree, but requires an individual review as to whether it is a research doctorate or whether the applicant has completed further clinical training.


In 2010, a total of 25,500 doctoral degrees were awarded at German universities and equivalent universities. Nationwide, the rate of doctorates in 2010 was 1.1 doctorates per professor; in 2002 there were 1.0 doctorates for each professor. In Germany, a total of around 1.3% of the population was awarded the doctoral degree , in the USA around 1.5%.

Since the proportion of academics in the German population has risen sharply in recent decades, the number of doctorates has also increased among younger Germans, albeit not proportionally: In 2004, 2.7% of an average age group in Baden-Württemberg were Doctoral degrees awarded, in Hamburg 3.4% and Berlin 3.1%, in Germany a total of 2.1%. In the OECD state average, however, only 1.3% of a year group were able to successfully complete a doctorate. The first places in the OECD comparison occupied: Sweden with 3.1%, Switzerland 2.7%, Portugal 2.5% followed by Germany.

In 2001, the average age for a doctorate in Germany was 32.8 years. In Germany, the doctorate rate in 2001 was 1.4% for women and 2.4% for men.

The number of graduates who follow up with a doctorate varies greatly in the individual subjects. The lowest doctorate rate is around 6% in the field of architecture. In contrast, the doctorate rate in biology is around 86%, in chemistry around 79%, in physics around 64% and in medicine around 63%.

In 2009, 30.8% of doctorates in Germany were in medicine, 29.7% in mathematics and natural science subjects, 14.2% in law and economics, 10.5% in linguistics and cultural studies, 9.4% in engineering, 1.9% in agriculture and forestry, 1.0% in art and 0.4% in sports science. This means that three quarters of the doctorates are in medicine, natural sciences, law and economics; on the other hand, only about every tenth doctoral degree is earned in the humanities .


Academic teachers of medicine in the Eastern Goths were first referred to as Doctor in the 6th century . The first verifiable award of a doctoral degree took place in Bologna in 1219 after the doctoral regulations were confirmed by Pope Honorius III. instead of; the first doctoral degree from a university in the Holy Roman Empire was awarded on June 12, 1359 at Charles University in Prague.

In the medieval university, the doctoral degree was the highest academic degree awarded. It was initially only awarded by the theological , medical and law faculties , which were the only fully valid faculties (the other subjects were taught in the so-called " artist faculty " and usually ended with the baccalaureus or master's degree ) until in the early modern era, the fourth classical doctoral degree awarded by the philosophical faculties was Dr. phil. Added to this was. Initially, the abbreviation was usually just “D.”, from which the practice in some theological faculties has been derived to this day to allow the theological honorary doctorate to use this abbreviation.

Up until the Reformation , a doctorate had the right to teach in all Western universities ; this right was named ius ubique docendi . So the doctorate corresponded more closely to today's habilitation , which is still reflected today in the fact that there is no higher academic degree than the doctorate.

In addition to the people who got a doctorate through a university degree ( rite promoti or doctores legitimae promoti ), court counts made use of their imperial privilege , especially since the end of the 15th century , and also other people - usually against payment - the title to confer a master's degree and doctorate. Because the seal of the documents was often in a capsule ( bulla ), these people were then called "bull magisters " or "bull doctors " ( doctores bullati ).

The first woman to receive a doctorate in Germany was Dorothea Erxleben from Quedlinburg . In January 1754 she submitted her dissertation with the title Academic Treatise on the too quick and pleasant, but therefore often unsafe, cure of diseases , and on May 6 of the same year she took the doctoral examination in Halle (Saale), which she participated in made great success.



Colloquially, the term “doctoral degree” is used for the term “doctoral degree”. Since it is an academic degree , the correct term is doctoral degree.


Right to award doctorates

In Germany , the doctorate can be awarded by a university, technical university, technical university, comprehensive university, music university, art school, sports university, medical or veterinary university, church or educational university with the right to award doctorates . Universities of applied sciences generally do not have the right to award doctorates, with the exception of the State of Hesse, which enables universities of applied sciences to apply for the right to award doctorates. In Schleswig-Holstein, universities of applied sciences can give their students the opportunity to do a doctorate in cooperation with universities through a doctoral college.

Some university professors also work at a university and thus have the right to supervise doctorates in cooperation with them as first or second reviewers. Professors from universities of applied sciences in various federal states can also be appointed as supervisors or examiners in a doctoral procedure at a university that is entitled to award doctorates. Sometimes there is also cooperation with foreign universities that offer a Ph.D. to lend. If necessary, this can be recognized by the authorities as a doctoral degree (see also management of the Ph.D. degree ). According to some doctoral regulations doctoral procedure can be opened only if the student a police clearance certificate submitted or is an employee of the university.

PhD degree

In Germany, the doctoral degree may only be used by authorized persons. The Criminal Code regulates in § 132a abuse of titles, job titles and badges following:

  1. Anyone who uses domestic or foreign official or service titles, academic degrees, titles or public dignity [...] is punished with imprisonment for up to one year or with a fine.
  2. The designations, academic degrees , honorary titles , dignities , uniforms , official dress or official badges mentioned in paragraph 1 are equivalent to those that are confusingly similar.

According to the case law of the Federal Court of Justice and the Federal Administrative Court , the doctoral degree is not part of the civil name, such as former titles of nobility or nobility, but only an addition to the name (the “doctor” is an academic degree, not a “title”). This is also seen in the administrative literature. Since the "doctor" is not part of the name, but only an addition to the name, it can not be derived from § 12 BGB (naming law) that the mention of the "full name" must also include the mention of the "doctor". However, case law has made it clear that the employer has to respect the academic degree of the employee as a matter of principle, as it results from the doctoral certificate. None of this affects questions of courtesy.

The doctoral degree can be entered as the only academic degree in the passport and identity card when the entry is requested. Section 5 of the Identity Card Act and Section 4 of the Passport Act do not treat the doctoral degree as part of the name, as a specific regulation would be necessary for this. It should be noted that after submitting the doctoral certificate, the doctoral degree is only available in the non-subject-related designation Dr. (according to passport administration regulation from 2009 only with a point), Dr. H. c. or Dr. E. h. is entered. The entry must be made upon request ( Section 9, Paragraph 3 of the Identity Card Act).

According to a decision of the Federal Court of Justice published in October 2013, the doctoral degree is no longer to be entered in the civil registry.

Withdrawal of the doctoral degree

Was illegal awarding of a doctoral degree, because the conditions have not been met (for the doctoral thesis deception about the independence of the services provided scientific achievement through falsification, plagiarism , bribery of doctoral supervisor, etc.), they are withdrawing to normal principles of administrative law by canceling the ceremony. It does not matter whether the sponsor would have been awarded the doctoral degree for the submitted dissertation had it not been for the positions in question. Conditional intent is sufficient for the deception .

Under much more stringent conditions, the legally awarded doctoral degree can also be withdrawn in accordance with the doctoral regulations of many faculties if the holder of the degree has committed a serious criminal offense (but this is very rarely implemented) or, for other reasons, subsequently appears to be "unworthy of holding the doctoral degree “Has proven. As a rule, a qualified majority decision by the responsible doctoral committee is required. Usually this only happens in the case of blatant “scientific misconduct”. In 2004, for example, the University of Konstanz withdrew the doctoral degree from the physicist Jan Hendrik Schön due to falsifications that he made after completing his doctorate. In this, the university was confirmed on September 14, 2011 after a long legal dispute by the administrative court of Baden-Württemberg . However, a withdrawal due to abuse z. B. through publications on the “Auschwitz myth” with mention of the doctorate, as this asserts an emphatic scientific claim.


The Schleswig-Holstein Higher Regional Court ruled in 2011 (Az. 6 U 6/10) that the defendant was not allowed to use the Slovak degree “dr filozofie” in the abbreviated form “Dr.” without additional technical information in addition to his professional title “tax advisor” in business dealings lead, unlike in the federal states of Bavaria and Berlin. The local Chamber of Tax Advisors had sued.


Even in Austria, the doctor is not part of the name, but an academic degree, such as the Magister . It does not have to be used privately or in correspondence with authorities. However, the degree can be entered in official documents (such as identity cards or passports) on request, provided it was acquired at a recognized university in the EU, the EEA , Switzerland or the Vatican .

In the field of medicine , the academic degree “ Dr. med. univ. ", in dentistry the professional doctorate " Dr. med. dent. ". These degrees are acquired by completing diploma studies (Section 54, Paragraph 2 of the 2002 Universities Act) and have therefore been diploma degrees since 2002, despite the designation. The human medical qualifications obtained up to 2002 according to the AHStG are considered to be full doctoral degrees. You did not expect to write a scientific paper yourself. The student could choose between writing a dissertation or in-depth training. However, transitional regulations existed after 2002 so that students could obtain the full academic degree later if they had still enrolled in accordance with the study regulations in Federal Law Gazette No. 473/1978. It is mentioned in writing in the notification according to which valid version the medical degree was completed. Accordingly, this is evident to an employer. However, this does not mean that an Austrian medical graduate who has officially received his doctorate according to Austrian legislation will find himself a Dr. may call. Directive 2006/35 / EC states in Article 54: “The host Member State can stipulate that, in addition to this designation, the name and location of the educational institution or the examination board that has awarded this academic title are listed.” In Germany, Austria and the Switzerland is only permitted to carry out such professional doctorates in the original form awarded.

In Austria, for several doctoral degrees in related subjects, DDr. (2), DDDr. (3) or DDDDr. (4) etc. instead of the usual Dr. mult. used. The number of letters "D" corresponds to the number of doctoral degrees acquired. If doctoral degrees are acquired in different subjects, then usually Dr. Dr. written.


In Switzerland, the protection of academic degrees at the federal level is only regulated in the Federal Act against Unfair Competition (UWG). This prohibits the use of a wrong title in the scope of the UWG.

Only in some cantons is it forbidden to use a false doctoral degree for yourself. These are remnants of the cantonal criminal law.

Equivalents in other countries


Similar to the USA and Canada, there are two types of doctoral degrees,

  • Professional degrees , which are awarded in some degree programs after graduation without additional doctoral work, for example Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (abbr .: MB BS), which corresponds to the state examination in medicine,
  • Research doctoral degrees awarded on the basis of a doctoral procedure, such as Ph.D., whereby the doctoral subject is specified, for example Doctor of Philosophy in Computer Science (abbr .: Ph.D. in Computer Science).

In the Australian university education system, the aim of the dissertation is "to make a significant and unique contribution to current research". This contribution will be demonstrated in the form of a dissertation. The doctoral student is independent of supervisors, but can choose how often he visits them.

A doctorate in Australia is purely scientific research and takes an average of three to eight years. It is divided into two phases, the first phase being the “elaboration” of a research project and the second phase being the “implementation” of a program, which is documented as “writing down”. The minutes contain the presentation of the scientific problem, the methodology and the scientific knowledge. All academic work is carried out very independently by the doctoral candidate. The supervisors of the dissertation project are limited to a steering function. The supervisors are also not, as in Germany, the reviewers at the same time. This means that the doctoral student decides independently when to declare his / her dissertation finished and then submit it. Referees are then approached who must be from other universities / institutes and are in most cases from abroad (often also from Anglo-American countries).

The progress of the work and the qualitative scientific discussion are planned in a targeted manner. After a third of the time, the status of the work is checked by a committee in the form of a confirmation and a progress report . The finished dissertation will be assessed by two to three anonymous reviewers. The positive assessment means the successful completion of the work.

Dissertations are mainly financed through grants provided by the university , the state or research institutes. The scholarships can be combined with each other and top-ups with project funds are possible. However, it is not customary to finance it exclusively through project funds, as the independence and autonomy of the students should be preserved. In addition to the scholarships, all students have an annual budget at their disposal, which is to be used, for example, for attending national congresses. The universities also promote the establishment of contacts and a scientific network in order to create perspectives for the future.



In the Flemish part of Belgium the degree is doctor , in the Walloon part of Belgium the degree is docteur .

  • a legal title with a doctor - the training lasts seven years and is obtained after the medical examination;
  • in law, human sciences and philosophy, a legal title obtained through a doctorate with a dissertation;
  • in theology and canon law as well as in other sciences (e.g. political science, pedagogy) a scientific title, also with a dissertation.

Situation after the Bologna Process (from the academic year 2005-2006):

In French-speaking Belgium ( Wallonia ), a doctorate denotes a degree from the third university cycle and certifies independent, advanced research experience. To gain access to a doctorate, a (research) master's (master research) with a minimum qualification of 300 credit points ( European Credit Transfer System ) is required. This corresponds to a minimum of five academic years.

In the case of a scholarship, the doctorate lasts four years or six years if the student is an assistant at the university. In the case of justifying circumstances, an extension of one to a maximum of two years is possible. Usually the duration is between four and seven years. The absolute minimum duration for the preparation of the dissertation (thèse de doctorat) is three years.

If only 240 credit points have been earned up to the master’s degree, doctoral training of 60 credit points in in-depth courses related to the research topic is required before starting a doctorate (minimum duration: one year, which is not counted towards the duration of the doctorate, as the doctorate itself only begins after successful completion of the doctoral training and the research work of the doctoral training continues). The doctoral training, which belongs to the third cycle, ends with a certificate of research training (certificat de formation à la recherche).

Doctoral degrees are only awarded by universities. Some art colleges are authorized to carry out research under a cooperation agreement with a university awarding a doctorate.

The doctoral students have to defend their dissertation in one or two stages (défense). Either it is a single public defense or disputation before a jury of five professors and an audience or it is a non-public defense before a jury of at least five professors and a subsequent public defense attended by an audience other than the jury can participate.

Situation up to the Bologna Process:

The Diplôme d'études approfondies (DEA), a degree in the third cycle of studies, was the university-specific research degree that qualified for immediate admission to doctoral studies. This degree was abolished with the Bologna Process. Instead of the DEA, specializing master’s courses (master à finalité approfondie / master recherche or master à finalité spécialisée) were introduced, which, however, belong to the second cycle of studies and thus only to the master’s level, but not to the doctoral level (third cycle).

Total duration:

According to the Bologna Process, a regular minimum study period of nine years to a maximum of twelve years (three years to the Bachelor, two years to the Master and then four to six / seven years to obtain a doctorate) is to be set for a position in Belgium to be able to work as an independent researcher at a university.

In Belgium, the duration of a doctoral thesis after Bologna was set at at least three years (in the case of a scholarship). The doctoral scholarships awarded by the National Fund for Scientific Research (FNRS) extend over a period of four years. In the second case, doctoral students can be hired as assistants by the university. In this case, in addition to their research project, they are responsible for monitoring the internships of students or PhD students. The contract period is usually six years.

Until the Bologna Process, a total training period of at least ten years to a maximum of 14 years (five years to obtain a license, one to two years to obtain a DEA and four to six / seven years to complete a doctorate) was required in order to conduct independent university research to be able to.

Doctoral degrees of medical professionals:

The doctoral degrees in human medicine, dentistry and veterinary medicine after the professional academic degree in medicine, dentistry or veterinary medicine are to be assigned to the doctor at the level of the second study cycle and not to be confused with the research doctorates of the third cycle.


In Greece the doctoral thesis is called Διδακτορικό δίπλωμα, Δ.Δ. Didaktoriko diploma , the term borrowed from Latin δόκτωρ, Δρ. Doktōr is only used for the normal doctor, not for medical professionals . Doctors with a doctorate are also always referred to as γιατρός Giatros [ jaˈtrɔs ], German for 'doctor' , and occasionally also natural scientists.


The management of academic degrees in Italy is regulated by a 2004 decree of the Minister for Education, Universities and Research . Accordingly, graduates of a bachelor's degree ( laurea , level 6 of the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) or level 6 of the ISCED ) have the degree of dottore , graduates of a master's degree ( laurea magistrale o specialistica , level 7 of the European qualifications framework (EQF) or . Level 7 of ISCED ) the degree of dottore magistrale and graduates of a doctoral program ( dottorato di ricerca , level 8 of the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) or level 8 of ISCED ) the degree of dottore di ricerca . This took into account the conversion of university studies within the framework of the Bologna process . Graduates of the mostly four to five year university courses before the changeover ( laurea ) are allowed to use the title of dottore magistrale .

Only the degree of a dottore di ricerca ( "Doctor of Research" ) corresponds to a doctoral degree as understood in the German-speaking and Anglo-Saxon countries according to Level 8 of the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) or "Level 8" of ISCED .

The abbreviations for the two lower academic degrees are not regulated in the ministerial decree. The academic degree dottore and its feminine form dottoressa are usually abbreviated as dott./dott.ssa or dr./dr.ssa , both abbreviations being used equally., Due to the lack of regulation, academics are legally free to choose dottore / dottoressa can also be abbreviated with capital letters ( Dott. / Dott.ssa or Dr. / Dr.ssa ), however, Italian universities and the Ministry of Education, Universities and Research speak to each other because of the risk of confusion between dottore ( ISCED level 6) and dottore magistrale ( ISCED level 7) with doctor ( ISCED level 8) clear for the lower case abbreviation dott. / dott.ssa off. The addition mag is used for the abbreviation of the academic degree of a dottore magistrale or a dottoressa magistrale . or mag.le (for magistrale ) added (in the result e.g. dott.mag. ).

For the title dottore di ricerca introduced in 1980, however, a law expressly provides for the capitalized abbreviation in the forms Dott. Ric. or according to the English spelling Ph.D. in front.

German-speaking graduates of a Bachelor's or Master's degree from South Tyrol often use German translations of the Italian dottore as a name affix ( e.g. Dr., Dr.-Ing. , Doktor), which therefore do not correspond to the same academic degrees in the rest of the German-speaking area and in this form too cannot be awarded by universities in Italy. Dottore grades can also result from the recognition of the equivalence of Austrian degrees with Italian laurea degrees. These recognition procedures are mostly carried out by the Free University of Bolzano , which expressly recommends using the Austrian degree (and only within Italy, alternatively the title dott. ) , Even after the degree has been recognized , and makes it clear that Dr. is reserved for graduates of doctoral procedures. Nevertheless, the translation of dottore into doctor has been a widespread custom in South Tyrol for decades and can also be found in official texts, which is known under the term " Brenner doctor ".


In Luxembourg, a three to four year doctoral program is usually completed, which is accompanied and regularly evaluated by the "Dissertation Supervisory Committee" (CET). Upon successful completion, the course leads to a "Docteur en [subject in French]". The grading takes place on a five-point scale (sufficient - satisfactory - good - very good - excellent). The doctoral certificate is trilingual: French, German and English.


In Dutch there is the title doctorandus (drs.), Which can be misleading: It is the common degree in the humanities or natural sciences, which was once called that because a subsequent doctorate was expected (cf. German: Doktorand ) . In English it is rendered as Master of Arts or Master of Science . In the meantime, however, the Netherlands have completely switched to the Bachelor / Master system . The doctoraal exam is also the degree for lawyers ( meester in derechte , mr.) And university-trained engineers ( engineer , ir.).

In the case of a doctorate, the respective faculty awards the degree doctor (dr.), Which is placed in front of the name. There is no name for the subject (e.g. phil. Or rer. Nat. ). Particularly good dissertations can be rewarded with a doctorate cum laude .

In Dutch, the association of doctor with a doctor is particularly strong, regardless of whether the doctor in question has a doctorate. However, in this case the salutation is written more carefully .

Northern Europe (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden)

In Northern Europe, the doctoral degree is the highest academic degree. The habilitation , which is common in Germany, Austria and Switzerland , does not exist in Denmark. While in Germany the doctorate is a prerequisite for obtaining the habilitation, which has only existed in its uniform form in Germany since 1934 (circular of December 13, 1934), there is the possibility of a second academic work (habilitation, opus magnum) in Denmark Not. The Danish doctoral degree therefore corresponds to the German doctoral degree - not, as is often mistakenly assumed, the German habilitation - whereby the individual requirements in Denmark, as well as in the individual German federal states, diverge. The Danish ph.d. is on the other hand a "minor doctoral degree", which after 1988 granted the Danish title of Licentiat . The Danish doctoral degree is not necessary for the appointment to professor, a Danish ph.d. out.

There are some differences between the duration and quality of doctoral theses in Norway, Sweden, Denmark and Finland. In Sweden and Norway, a doctoral student has to work on a scientific problem in addition to taking compulsory courses over a period of three to five years. The acquisition of the Danish ph.d. usually takes three years. 30 ECTS credits must be acquired during the three years. In Sweden the doctorate is the highest academic degree. There, in order to obtain the doctoral degree, a doctoral degree equivalent to four years of full-time study is required, which is concluded with the public defense of the dissertation. The licentiate examination, which can be acquired after two years of academic studies, is less common.

A doctoral degree in Finland is designed for four years and is usually completed in four to six years. To obtain the degree, a dissertation must be submitted, either as a monograph or based on 3 or more publications, and 20–40 ECTS credits, depending on the branch of study, must be proven.


In Poland, a three to five year doctoral program is common, but not mandatory. Rigorosum and public defense are compulsory. Doctoral candidates are awarded the doctoral degree doctor , abbreviated as: dr (to be used in front of the name). The doctoral degree contains an indication of the specialist area completed, for example doktor nauk ekonomicznych (German: Doctor of Economics).

Czech Republic and Slovakia

The doctoral degrees are largely identical in both countries due to the fact that they were the same country until the end of 1992. The Czech and Slovak doctoral degrees can basically be divided into the following groups:

  • Doctoral degrees in medical fields of study, so-called professional doctorates (similar to e.g. in the USA), which are awarded with the completion of the degree without additional doctoral work. These include the degrees: MUDr. - Doctor of Medicine, MDDr. - Doctor of Dentistry and MVDr. - Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
  • So-called small doctoral degrees (JUDr., PhDr., RNDr., Etc.), which are awarded after a rigorous procedure lasting at least one to two semesters . This Rigorosum consists e.g. Z. from an oral examination in one or two subjects and the defense of a rigorous thesis.
  • Scientific research doctoral degrees , which are obtained after at least three years of doctoral studies, also known as doctoral studies . This course includes, among other things. Regular courses and exams and is concluded with taking a state doctoral examination and defending a dissertation in the form of a disputation . After completing a doctorate, you can obtain the Czech Ph.D. or the Slovak PhD., in theology the Th.D. (only in the Czech Republic) and in the field of arts the ArtD. (only in Slovakia). In the past, these doctoral degrees were also known as Dr. or CSc. (Czech: kandidát věd , Latin: candidatus scientiarum , German: candidate of the sciences). The qualification to teach is also acquired upon completion of the course.
  • In addition, the degree of Doctor of Science , abbreviated as DrSc , is still relatively seldom . or DSc., awarded.

The current higher education laws of both countries classify the medical professional doctoral degrees and the minor doctoral degrees in the 2nd Bologna level (master's level); only the scientific research doctoral degrees or the doctor of science are classified in the 3rd Bologna level (doctoral level).

Ukraine and Russia

In Ukraine and Russia, a three- to six-year doctoral program is common, often as a post-graduate course ( aspirant ). Exams and the preparation of a doctoral thesis , which must be defended publicly, are the content of these courses. Upon successful completion, the academic degree candidate nauk ( candidate of the sciences ) is awarded. It is comparable to the Ph.D. in English speaking countries. Based on this, there is the possibility of acquiring the highest degree of Doktor nauk (Doctor of Science, Russian доктор наук) to be awarded in Ukraine and Russia . This degree is comparable to a habilitation . The habilitation thesis should make a contribution to the further development within a certain research area and should be published in full or in important parts.


In Hungary, a three to five-year doctoral program has been common since 1994, resulting in the uniform doctoral degree doctor , either abbreviated as Ph.D. or, in artistic courses, abbreviated as DLA (Doctor of Liberal Arts), and has replaced the university doctorate doctor universitatis on the one hand and the so-called CSc degree awarded by the Hungarian Academy of Sciences on the other . In Hungary, the doctoral degree can - contrary to rumors to the contrary, it does not have to - be used as part of the family name. In addition, there are medical and legal professional doctorates that do not count as academic degrees, only as titles.

Up until the end of the 1990s, some universities were also familiar with the method commonly used in the Eastern Bloc via a dissertation as a candidate for science . After several years of training, the candidate received his doctorate in Hungary as Candidatus scientiarum (C.Sc.) . Today, Hungarian scientists who have completed this training also often use the abbreviation Ph.D. chosen because this academic degree corresponds to the PhD according to the Higher Education Act.

In Germany, the Hungarian Ph.D. and DLA also as Dr. The professional doctorates and the former university doctorate are only listed in the form awarded with additional information on the awarding institution.

United Kingdom and Ireland

For the United Kingdom and Ireland, the North American equivalents apply (see below). However, the MD (Medicinae Doctor) is not a professional, but a research doctoral degree, similar to the one in Germany.

USA and Canada

Deviating from the Bologna system , degree designations and the value of academic degrees are used in the United States and Canada , including the Ph.D. / Doctoral degrees, not uniformly regulated.

In the USA and Canada there are two types of doctoral degrees,

  • Professional degrees , which are awarded in some degree programs after graduation without additional doctoral work, for example Medical Doctor (abbr .: MD) or Juris Doctor (abbr .: JD), which correspond to the state examination ,
  • Research doctoral degrees awarded on the basis of a doctoral procedure, such as
    • Ph.D. (Doctor of Philosophy) ; some universities also award this degree in the spelling DPhil .
    • Doctoral degrees for certain courses that do not lead to a Ph.D. lead, for example Doctor of Business Administration (abbr .: DBA).
    • In theology as an upscale Doctor of Divinity (DD), Doctor of Religious Science (Dr. sc. Rel.), Doctor of Biblical Sciences (DBS) and Doctor of Metaphysics (Dr. mph. ). Depending on the title, either the American spelling after the name or the Latinized form in front of the name has historically developed.

The Anglo-American doctorate is carried after the name, e.g. Jerry F. Fishwish, Ph.D. If the holder of the doctoral degree is mentioned or addressed, the Dr. (spoken: Doctor ) in front of the name, instead of the addition Ph.D. ( Good morning, Dr. Fishwish or Dr. Fishwish is an excellent researcher. ).

Comparison with Europe

The importance of a Ph.D. degree and its comparability with European degrees depends, among other things, on the university at which it was obtained. As a result, problems arose again and again between North American and European universities with regard to the crediting and recognition of qualifications, especially when it came to admission to postgraduate studies .

Professional doctorates from professional schools , for example in law (JD), medicine (MD) and theology (DD), which can be obtained immediately after a three- or four-year bachelor's degree, are again not considered to be equivalent in Germany to the European doctor / Bologna PhD recognized and therefore may not be listed as "Dr." here.

Recognition of foreign doctoral degrees

The Anabin database was developed in cooperation with the Hessian Ministry of Science and Art, the Central Office for Foreign Education in Germany, the Equivalence Center of the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science and Culture and the Equivalence Center of the Luxembourg Ministry of Science ("Recognition and assessment of foreign educational certificates"). In this database, the Central Office for Foreign Education (ZAB) at the Secretariat of the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of the Federal Republic of Germany (KMK) collects extensive documentation for a large number of foreign countries about their educational system, the various degrees and academic degrees as well as their Built up value.

It also includes an information collection of important documents about the correct management of foreign doctoral degrees in Germany and corresponding resolutions of the KMK; in particular the favorable regulations decided by the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs on September 21, 2001 in accordance with section 4 of the "Principles for the regulation of the management of foreign university degrees in the sense of a statutory general license through uniform legal provisions" of April 14, 2000 as well as, based on this, the favorable regulations of the KMK of May 15, 2008 simplify the use of certain foreign doctoral degrees in Germany.

Foreign university degrees that were not acquired in a country of the European Union (EU) or the European Economic Area (EEA) may only be used with the addition of the awarding institution. Example: Dr. (Univ. Ankara) Max Mustermann . However, the regulations differ depending on the federal state.

"Promotion advice", title trading and plagiarism

The doctoral degree brings its holder social prestige and possibly an increase in income, depending on profession and country. Therefore, there is a temptation for some people to attain the degree without the appropriate qualifications and investment of time and effort. The grade without the addition “h. c. “and without the requirement to have it with an indication of origin. This is not legally possible in Austria or Germany without a regular doctorate and dissertation.

The sociologist and elite researcher Michael Hartmann called the "social prestige of a doctorate" still relatively high. The doctoral degree is no longer absolutely necessary in order to belong to an elite , but it rounds off the "supposedly flawless overall picture" and certainly helps with one's personal career. In particular, "in professions in which you also have to represent, it is definitely beneficial to get a doctorate". Debora Weber-Wulff demanded that the doctoral degree no longer be entered in the identity card, as it is only of importance in a scientific context and should not play a role in an economic or private environment.

There are so-called “doctoral advisors” who offer the person seeking help the opportunity to establish contact with a professor and to provide support during the doctorate. Since the doctoral student ultimately has to find and work on his topic himself, there is very little left that could legally be taken over by a “doctoral counseling”.

Companies that provide honorary doctorates from foreign (mostly Eastern European) universities or institutes, which are awarded to interested parties in return for a “donation”, operate in a legal gray area. Although this is not necessarily illegal, these degrees may not be entered in the ID card and also not without “h. c. "and indication of source are made if they were purchased outside the EU.

A clearly illegal "doctoral advice" consists, for example, in having the work written by a ghostwriter and in a crash course to prepare the doctoral candidate for the oral examination. The bribery of a professor can fall under this kind of "promotion advice". Those involved make themselves liable to prosecution here.

In title trading, on the other hand, so-called " title mills " sell false or worthless doctoral degrees. The customer receives:

  • The doctoral certificate from a foreign institution (university, educational institution, church, etc.) whose degrees are not recognized in the customer's country.
  • The doctoral certificate from a non-existent bogus university, which the title dealer has usually simply made up.
  • The fake doctoral certificate from an actually existing university with the right to award doctorates.

The last two cases mean a forgery of documents . For this it is not important whether the certificate of an existing exhibitor was forged, but that the impression is given that the certificate was issued by a corresponding institution.

If the customer tries to have the doctoral degree entered in the identity card on the basis of a certificate obtained in this way, he will usually fail, especially since only those degrees can be entered that may be used without any additional information. However, it can happen that the official z. B. not adequately checked a forged document. Then, however, there is a permanent risk of discovery, and the customer can be blackmailed by the title dealer because he is permanently guilty of abusing academic degrees. Furthermore, applying for a job with a false doctorate is a scam .

Another problem is plagiarism . The President of the German University Association, Bernhard Kempen , warned that, in addition to career pressure, technical possibilities such as the Internet and search engines encourage plagiarism. These are "the best prerequisites for creating a work using copy and paste ". He assumes that “the number of plagiarism is increasing.” Ministers and state presidents have resigned in the past after their doctorate was revoked because of allegations of plagiarism in the context of their dissertation. Well-known examples are the German Defense Minister Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg (2011), the Hungarian President Pál Schmitt (2012) and the German Education Minister Annette Schavan (2013).

Differentiation according to subjects

A doctoral degree can be awarded in all scientific disciplines. Additions are Latin (or Greco-Latin) or (especially in Germany) also German, e.g. B. Doctoral Engineer (Dr.-Ing.).

The doctoral degree is usually awarded by a university faculty and then also bears its title. For some subjects, such as physics, the faculty allocation is regulated differently in individual universities. Here z. B. award the degree from a philosophical or scientific faculty; The designation for one and the same subject varies accordingly, depending on the university.


Some of the doctoral degrees listed below are no longer awarded, some were awarded in the GDR. The variety of different doctoral degrees only exists in Germany or in German-speaking countries. By far the most common German doctoral degrees are the Dr. med. , the Dr. med. dent. , the Dr. med. vet. , the Dr. rer. nat. , the Dr. phil. , the Dr. iur. , the Dr. oec. , the Dr. rer. pole. , the Dr.-Ing. and the Dr. theol. So z. B. a mathematician after graduation usually the Dr. rer. nat. or the Dr. phil. awarded, not the unusual Dr. math.

Other doctoral degrees

  • GDR. ( Dr. theol. Or D. et Dr. ): a person with a theological (possibly honorary) doctoral degree and another doctoral degree
  • Dr. des. (Doctor designatus): Doctoral degree which, according to some doctoral regulations, can be used between the end of the doctoral procedure and the publication of the dissertation or between the publication of the dissertation and the delivery of the doctoral certificate
  • Dr. habil. (Doctor habilitatus): Doctor with teaching qualification ( habilitation )
  • Dr. mult. (Doctor multiplex): Abbreviated for a person with at least three doctoral degrees; usually only in carriers of several honorary doctoral degrees common
  • Dr. H. c. mult. (Doctor honoris causa multiplex): Abbreviated for a person with at least three honorary doctorates
  • Dres. (Doctores): Plural (see above) to Doctor . However, the plural only refers to several (at least two) different people, i.e. H. the doctoral candidates, not the doctoral degree per se. Often - also in the university environment - the plural doctores is wrongly used for mostly two doctoral degrees.

Honorary doctorate

  • D. (honorary): Honorary doctorate in Protestant theology
  • Dr. H. c. (Doctor honoris causa): Honorary doctor ("for the sake of honor")
  • Dr. e. H. (Honorary doctor): Honorary doctor, also: eh. Or E. h. (almost only at technical universities)

The honorary doctorate can be awarded by a university with the right to award doctorates. This is done without a dissertation . The honorary doctorate is not an academic degree .


  • Dr. rer. comm. (Doctor rerum commercialium): Doctor of Commerce
  • Dr. rer. mil. (Doctor rerum militarium): Doctor of military science
  • Dr. rer. silv. (Doctor rerum silvestrium or rerum silvaticarum): Doctor of Forest Sciences (adopted in the FRG)
  • Dr. sc. (Doctor scientiae ...): Doctor of science (in combination with the respective faculty, e.g. Dr. sc. jur.) - title after successful doctorate B , similar to the habilitation for Dr. habil.


  • GDR. : unofficial abbreviation for double doctoral degree (Dr. mult. is not used in Austria)
  • Dr. iur. (iuris): Doctor of Law (in practice often also in the formerly common spelling Dr. jur. )
  • Dr. med. dent. (medicinae dentalis): Doctor of Dentistry  - This degree is acquired through a diploma course and is proof of professional training, not scientific qualification (see: Dr. scient. med.!).
  • Dr. med. dent. et scient. med. (medicinae dentalis et scientiae medicae): Doctor of dentistry with scientific qualification (see Dr. scient. med.)
  • Dr. med. univ. (medicinae universae): Doctor of  general medicine - this degree was a full doctoral degree with scientific qualification according to the AHStG until 2002 and has only been acquired through a diploma course since the beginning of the course from the UG2002 and is a proof of professional training, not the scientific qualification (see: Dr. scient. med.!).
  • Dr. med. univ. et scient. med. (medicinae universae et scientiae medicae): Doctor of all medicine with scientific qualification (see: Dr. scient. med.!).
  • Dr. med. vet. (medicinae veterinariae): Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
  • Dr. mont. (rerum montanarum): Doctor of Montanistic Sciences. Only awarded by the Montan University Leoben .
  • Dr. rer. comm. (rerum commercialium): Doctor of Commerce. Was previously awarded by the University of World Trade .
  • Dr. nat. techn. (naturalium technicarum): Doctor of soil culture. Only awarded by the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU).
  • Dr. phil. (philosophiae): Doctor of Philosophy . Includes the entire humanities, including German Philology ("German Studies"), Philosophy, Political Science and much more. a. m.
  • Dr. phil. fac. theol. (philosophiae facultatis theologicae): Doctor of philosophy from a Catholic theological faculty.
  • Dr. rer. nat. (rerum naturalium): Doctor of Natural Sciences
  • Dr. rer. silv. (rerum silvestrium): Doctor of Forest Science
  • Dr. rer. soc. oec. (rerum socialium oeconomicarumque): Doctorate in social and economic sciences, includes business administration, sociology, economics, business informatics and business education
  • Dr. sc. hum. (scientiarum humanarum): Doctor of Health Sciences
  • Dr. sc. inf. med. (scientiarum informaticarum medicinarum): Doctor of medical informatics. ( UMIT - Private University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology - until the end of 2004)
  • Dr. sc. inf. biomed. (scientiarum informaticarum biomedicae): Doctor of Biomedical Informatics (Private University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology Tyrol - since the beginning of 2005)
  • Dr. scient. med (scientiae medicae): Doctor of Medical Science, at the Medical University of Vienna also: Doctor of Applied Medical Science. This is a scientific doctorate that demonstrates the ability to conduct independent research in medicine. When graduates of a Dr. med. dent. or Dr. med. univ. the Dr. scient. med. acquire, no additional doctoral degree is awarded, but “et scient. med. "added, see Dr. med. dent. et scient. med. or Dr. med. univ. et scient. med.
  • Dr. techn. (technicae): Doctor of technical sciences , includes, inter alia. Civil engineering, architecture, electrical engineering, computer science, mechanical engineering and technical chemistry / mathematics / physics - cf .: Dr.-Ing. in Germany.
  • Dr. theol. (theologiae): Doctor of Theology
  • Dr. H. c. ( honoris causa ): Honorary doctorate .
  • Ph.D. (philosophiae doctor): This doctoral degree can be awarded in all subjects instead of the traditional degree (Dr. ...), but is not per se higher than the Dr. phil.

Honorary doctorate

  • Dr. H. c. (honoris causa): Honorary doctor ("for the sake of honor")
  • Dr. e. H. (honorary): Honorary doctor, also: eh. or E. h. (almost only at technical universities)
  • D. (honorary): Honorary doctorate in Protestant theology

The honorary doctorate can be awarded by a university with the right to award doctorates. This is done without a dissertation . The honorary doctorate is not an academic degree .


See also


  • Dominik Groß : The discussion about the medical doctorate in the Federal Republic of Germany (1949–2001) or how do you end a neverending story? In: Würzburg medical history reports 20 (2001), pp. 425–441.
  • Dominik Groß: title without value? On the debate about the status of the 'Doctor medicinae dentariae' from its beginnings to the present. In: Dominik Groß and Monika Reininger (eds.): Medicine in history, philology and ethnology. Festschrift for Gundolf Keil. Würzburg 2003, ISBN 3-8260-2176-2 , pp. 69-88.
  • Hans Joachim Meyer : The academic degrees in the English-speaking area and the German concept of science . In: Thoughts. Journal of the Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig. Issue 6, 2011, ISSN  1867-6413 , pp. 23-43, digitized

Web links

Wiktionary: Doctor  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. See Baden-Württemberg LHG i. d. F. from January 1, 2005, § 38 Paragraph 3 or Bayern BayHSchG i. d. F. of May 23, 2006, Art. 64 Paragraph 1
  2. University of Kiel, Doctoral Degree Regulations , § 20 Completion of the Doctorate, Paragraph 3: “Upon receipt of the doctoral certificate, the applicant is authorized to use the doctoral degree. Before this point in time, the degree may not be in any form, not even as a Dr. des., to be performed. "
  3. a b U. Beisiegel: Doctorate in Medicine. The position of the Science Council. ( Memento from June 9, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: Research & Teaching 7/09, 2009, p. 491.
  4. Scientific Council criticizes the quality of the "Dr. med." In: June 30, 2009. Retrieved January 8, 2017 .
  5. Universities at a Glance, 2012 edition, Federal Statistical Office, p. 24
  6. ↑ Compulsory fees for doctorates in the USA ( Memento of November 17, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF file)
  7. Press release Statistisches Landesamt Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart, September 13, 2006 pp. 34 and 35
  8. Selection by gender in education ( Memento from September 23, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) pp. 14 to 16
  9. In the spotlight: doctorates as an indicator of the performance of universities. Evaluation of data from the Federal Statistical Office and the CHE Ranking 2019/20 - CHE. Accessed December 21, 2020 (German).
  10. Federal Statistical Office: Fachserie 11 Reihe 4.2 (2009).
  11. ^ Bernhard Dietrich Haage: Medical Literature of the Teutonic Order in the Middle Ages. In: Würzburg medical history reports. Volume 9, 1991, pp. 217-231; here: p. 222.
  12. ^ History of the doctorate. P. 22 (PDF file; 2.54 MB)
  13. Erwin Schmidt: The dignity of the court palatinate at the Hesse-Darmstadt University of Marburg / Gießen , published by the University Library of Gießen, special edition 1973 from: Communications of the Upper Hessian History Association. 57.1972. (PDF, 96 p., 4.9 MB)
  14. ^ Hilde de Ridder-Symoens, Walter Rüegg (ed.): Universities in Early Modern Europe (1500-1800). In: A History of the University in Europe. Volume 2, Cambridge University Press, 2003, ISBN 0-521-54114-X , p. 183 ( ).
  15. Duden | PhD | Spelling, meaning, definition, origin. Retrieved June 23, 2021 .
  16. University of Applied Sciences: Hessen enables a doctorate at the FH . In: Frankfurter Rundschau . March 18, 2016 ( [accessed March 7, 2018]).
  18. Baden-Württemberg LHG i. d. F. of January 1, 2005, Section 38 Paragraph 4 Clause 3 or Bayern BayHSchG i. d. F. of May 23, 2006, Art. 64 Paragraph 1 Clause 3
  19. See Hamburg University of Applied Sciences
  20. "[...] the academic degrees are listed together with the job title and not with the name. The plaintiff's opinion that the doctorate should be considered part of the name according to customary law does not apply. ”BVerwG, judgment of October 24, 1957 - IC 50.56, BVerwGE 5, 291-293, = DÖV 1957, 870, = JZ 1958 , 207.
  21. a b Cf. Wolfgang Zimmerling: On the right to be addressed with the doctoral degree.
  22. Text of the passport administration regulation
  23. Doctorate no longer has to be in the civil registry. In: Ärztezeitung. October 16, 2013, accessed October 30, 2013 .
  24. ^ VGH Baden-Württemberg, judgment of April 19, 2000 , Az. 9 S 2435/99, full text.
  25. ^ VG Darmstadt, judgment of April 14, 2011 , Az. 3 K 899 / 10.DA, full text.
  26. Title justifiably lost. In: Badische Zeitung. September 15, 2011, accessed September 15, 2011 .
  27. BVerfG of November 30, 1988; Az. 1 BvR 900/88, based on BVerwG, judgment of May 5, 1988, Az. 7 B 8.88, NJW 1988, 2911, key words ( memento of February 15, 2013 in the Internet Archive ).
  28. OLG Schleswig, judgment of May 26, 2011 - Az. 6 U 6/10. In: May 26, 2011, accessed January 8, 2017 .
  29. Jan Friedmann: CSU General Scheuer and his doctorate: Degree still so. In: Spiegel Online . January 17, 2014, accessed January 8, 2017 .
  31. N201 Doctoral Studies in Medicine - Med Uni Wien ( Memento from July 20, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
  34. Law BGBL. No. 473/1978 Download
  35. Doctoral program in Medicine N201 ( Memento from February 26, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  36. Directive 2005/36 / EC
  37. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Austria and the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany on equivalencies in higher education (NR: GP XXII RV 12 AB 180 p. 28 BR: 6827 p. 700.) StF: Federal Law Gazette III No. 6/2004
  38. Passion for collecting - Mag. DDDDr. Ingeborg Kappel now has her fourth doctorate ( memento from March 18, 2005 in the Internet Archive )
  39. Criminal liability for unauthorized use. In: Retrieved January 8, 2017 .
  40. See among others: Zoek een onderwijsterm - Taalunieversum. In: Retrieved January 8, 2017 (Dutch).
  41. Decree of the Minister for Education, University and Research of October 22, 2004, No. 270, Art. 13, Paragraph 7 Modifiche al regolamento recante norm concernenti l'autonomia didattica degli atenei, approvato con decreto del Ministro dell'università e della ricerca scientifica e tecnologica 3 November 1999, n. 509. In: October 22, 2004, accessed January 8, 2017 .
  42. MINISTERO DELL 'UNIVERSITA' E DELLA RICERCA SCIENTIFICA E TECNOLOGICA. In: November 3, 1999, accessed January 8, 2017 .
  43. Dott. e Dr .: che differenza c'è tra le due abbreviazioni e quale si deve usare per riferirsi a chi svolge la professione di medico?
  44. Con l'iniziale minuscola o maiuscola? Decida lo scrivente a seconda della sua intenzione e del contesto e della situazione comunicativa - più o meno formale = lowercase or uppercase? The decision is up to the writer, depending on his intention or depending on the context and more or less formal communicative situation
  45. ^ “Title: Dottore / Dottoressa, to be shortened to Dott./Dott.ssa. This is a 2nd level academic title not to be misunderstood with the Italian "Dottore di Ricerca" or with such titles as Philosophy Doctor, Docteur, Doctor, Doktor, Doutor, etc. which correspond to 3rd cycle doctorates, and are usually shortened to PhD or Dr. ” ( Memento from September 24, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  46. On the international classification of Italian degrees: Carlo Barone, Antonio Schizzerotto: The application of the ISCED-97 to Italy, in Silke L. Schneider (Ed.): The International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED-97), 2008, MZES, Mannheim.
  47. Università degli studi di Parma : "DOTTORE / DOTTORESSA: Generalmente si usa abbreviato con l'iniziale minuscola. Es .: il dott. Nome Cognome, la dott.ssa Nome Cognome ... NB: Non va abbreviato con dr., Dr .ssa, d.ssa. "
    DOTTORE / DOTTORESSA: In general, the abbreviation with a lower case letter is used. Example: the [Lord] dott. First name Last name, die [Frau] dott.ssa First name Last name ... NB: Is not abbreviated as dr., Dr.ssa, d.ssa.
  48. «8-bis. Il titolo di dottore di ricerca e 'abbreviato con le diciture: "Dott. Ric." ovvero "Ph. D." ». Law of December 30, 2010, No. 240, Art. 19 Paragraph 1 lit. d,
  49. After recognition, either the originally acquired Austrian degree (e.g. Mag.) Or the corresponding Italian degree (e.g. Dott.) Can be used in Italy, while in Austria only the Austrian degree can still be used. It should be noted that the Italian degree “dottore” (Dott.) Must not be translated as “Doktor” (Dr.) in German. In Italy, the degree of "Doctor" is only available to those who have completed a PhD. - Quoted from the Free University of Bozen ( Recognition of Austrian academic degrees and titles in Italy ( Memento from 23 September 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  50. ^ Reich Ministry for Science, Education and National Education. Retrieved January 22, 2020 .
  51. Who can do a habilitation? January 20, 2020, accessed January 22, 2020 .
  52. Per Vejrup-Hansen: Bliver der uddannet for mange Samfundsøkonomen Nr. 3, October 2012, pp. 37-42, accessed on January 22, 2020 (Danish).
  53. ^ Structure of the degree and doctoral thesis. University of Helsinki, June 26, 2017, accessed November 2, 2017 .
  54. ^ Theoretical studies - Doctoral Candidates, Doctoral Program in Science - Aalto University. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on November 7, 2017 ; accessed on November 2, 2017 .
  55. ^ David F. Wells: Reformed Theology in America: A History of Its Modern Development. Wm.B. Eerdmans Publishing, Grand Rapids 1985.
  56. ^ E. Brooks Holifield: Theology in America. Yale University Press, 2005.
  57. Mark G. Toulouse, James O. Duke: Sources of Christian Theology in America. Abingdon Press.
  58. Archive link ( Memento from March 11, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  59. Archive link ( Memento from September 14, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  60. Favorable regulations in accordance with section 4 of the “Principles for the regulation of the management of foreign university degrees in the sense of a statutory general license through uniform statutory provisions” of April 14 , 2000 (resolution of the Conference of Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs of September 21, 2001 in the version of May 19, 2008; PDF; 19 kB).
  61. Management of foreign university degrees In:
  62. Archive link ( Memento from December 16, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  63. ↑ Doing a doctorate on your own behalf. In: Spiegel Online . February 18, 2011.
  64. a b Welcome to the TUM Medical Graduate Center doctoral programs at the TUM Medical Graduate Center. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  65. PhD. Film University Babelsberg Konrad Wolf, accessed on November 22, 2018 .
  66. § 1 Paragraph 1 of the doctoral regulations of the Medical Faculty of the University of Rostock to obtain the degree of Dr. rer. hum. Rostock University Medical Center website, accessed on August 23, 2012.
  67. ^ Title in medicine - Clinic - Via medici. Thieme Via medici, accessed on October 23, 2017 .
  68. (PDF) Retrieved October 23, 2017 .
  69. Doctoral Regulations of the Medical Faculty Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on October 21, 2017 ; accessed on October 23, 2017 .
  70. Dr. rer. med [ic]. In: Duden. Bibliographisches Institut GmbH - Dudenverlag, accessed on October 23, 2017 .
  71. § 2 Paragraph 1 of the doctoral regulations of the Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus of the TU Dresden to obtain the degree of Dr. rer. medic. ( Memento of January 28, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Website of the Technical University of Dresden, Carl Gustav Carus Faculty of Medicine, accessed on December 7, 2012.
  72. Section 1, Paragraph 3 of the Doctoral Degree Regulations of the Faculty of Economics from December 18, 2007 in the version of the 3rd order to amend the doctorate regulations from January 7, 2013, published as the complete version of the website of the Faculty of Economics at RWTH Aachen University, accessed on June 20, 2015 .
  73. Ph.D. Medical Research - Medical Faculty - LMU Munich . Website of the Medical Faculty of the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich . Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  74. Promotion / Ph.D. / Study . Website of the Brandenburg Technical University . Retrieved February 14, 2017.
  75. Judgment/kolumne-mein- Judgment-dres-hc- 1828624.html ; representative for countless others: , -dres-hc-bertram-schefold / kurzbiographie.html , , /fst/haben/personenkube/kirchhof.html ,ösungen/sellin.html [accessed on: March 7, 2020].
  76. Art. 2, Paragraph 1 of the Ordinance on Doctoral Studies at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne. In: January 26, 1998, accessed July 31, 2020 .
  77. Art. 2 para. 1 of the Ordonnance sur le doctorat délivré par l'École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne. In: January 26, 1998, accessed July 31, 2020 .
  78. Art. 3 Paragraph 1 of the Doctoral Degree Ordinance of 2008 (PDF, 280 kB) ( Memento of July 18, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on March 23, 2010