The Sports Science is an interdisciplinary science (interdisciplinary science), the problems and manifestations ranging from sports and exercise has as its object. Since sports science draws on a number of other sciences and correspondingly specialized individual disciplines have developed, it is often referred to as sports science . The origin of the sciences related to sport ( sciences appliquées aux sports ) dates back to the Renaissance, but it was not until the end of the 19th century that an independent sport science emerged.
Sports science disciplines
Various disciplines have emerged in sports science:
- Movement science
- Sport and technology
- Sports didactics
- Sports ethics
- Sports history
- Sports informatics
- Sports journalism
- sports medicine
- Sports ecology
- Sports economics
- Sports education
- Sports philosophy
- Sports psychology
- Sports law
- Sports sociology
- Exercise science
The earlier qualification “Diplom-Sportscienler” has now been completely replaced by the qualifications “Bachelor” and “Master” as part of the Bologna Process . Sports science is also offered as part of a master’s degree at universities and colleges of higher education (such as universities of teacher education ). Sports science can be a major as well as a minor, and it can lead to a doctorate after completing a corresponding postgraduate course . As a subject at general schools, sport can be studied as part of various teacher training courses. In order to be able to teach sport at elementary and secondary schools as well as high schools, a scientific, didactic and practical study is necessary. At almost all universities, a sports aptitude test must be passed before the start of the course . In addition, almost all universities have an internal university admission restriction with numerus clausus .
The doctorate as “Dr. Sportswiss. “And other doctoral degrees are possible (e.g. Dr. phil., Dr. rer. Nat., Dr. disc. Pol. Or PhD). At universities of teacher education, in addition to the Dr. phil. also the Dr. ped. be awarded.
The standard period of study for bachelor’s courses is six semesters, the subsequent master’s course is another four semesters. In a sports science course, after the basic course, there is often the opportunity to specialize within the course and acquire key qualifications through elective courses. The offers for specialization, e.g. B. “ Sports Economics ”, “Media and Communication”, “ Sports Sociology ”, “ Sports Psychology ”, “ Sports Education ” or “Health Sports ” vary from university to university. There are currently (2016) 93 sports science courses at 40 university locations. Overall, if you also study courses such as B. sports economics or sports psychology, 243 courses at 103 universities.
Organizations and institutions
The European Union has encouraged and partially supported the association of scientific organizations at European level. On the one hand, this created networks of a large number of sport science university institutes and faculties with members from different European countries and, on the other hand, European professional societies, u. a. European College of Sport Science , European Committee for Sports History , Fédération Européenne de Psychologie des Sports et des Activités Corporelles , European Federation of Sports Medicine Associations etc.
The Federal Institute for Sport Science (BISp) is by decree of the Federal Ministry of the Interior of the Federal Republic of Germany of October 10, 1970 ( GMBl. P. 539), revised by decree of July 9, 1996 (GMBl. P. 668), as a federal institution with no legal capacity was established in the portfolio of the Federal Ministry of the Interior.
The German Association for Sports Science (dvs) is an association of scientists working in teaching and research at sports science institutions in the Federal Republic of Germany . The dvs was founded in Munich in 1976 and aims to promote and further develop sports science.
The German Sport University Cologne (DSHS) is the only sport university in Germany and one of the largest in the world. Research and teaching are currently carried out at 19 scientific institutes. The spectrum ranges from education, humanities and social science subjects to medical and natural science disciplines. From 1950 to 1990 there was the German University for Physical Culture (DHfK) in Leipzig in the GDR , which was the leading university for training science internationally, but was downgraded as a sports science faculty at the University of Leipzig as a result of the unification agreement.
The Sports University of Lithuania ( Lietuvos sporto universitetas ) is the only sports university in Lithuania. Research and teaching are carried out in three faculties, sixteen chairs and six laboratories. The spectrum ranges from educational and social science subjects to medical and natural science disciplines. There are also sports institutes at LUE (Lithuanian University of Education, Vilnius) and Klaipeda University.
The Austrian Sports Science Society (ÖSG) aims to promote and further develop sports science. 13 sports courses are offered at 7 university locations.
In Switzerland, the Federal Office for Sport is the national office for questions relating to sport as well as a federal training center in sport and an important documentation and information center. 11 sports courses are offered at 6 university locations.
- Klaus Willimczik : Interdisciplinary Sports Science - An epistemological dialogue . (Complete works), Vol. 1. History, structure and subject matter of sports science. Feldhaus Verlag, Hamburg 2001, ISBN 3-88020-388-1
- Arnd Krüger : Trasybulos. Or why we have to start earlier with the history of sports science, in: N. Gissel, JK Rühl, J. Teichler (eds.): Sport als Wissenschaft . Annual conference of the DVS sports history section. (1996) (⇐ Schriften der DVS, Vol. 90). Hamburg: Czwalina 1997, 57 - 74. ISBN 3-88020-308-3