The term sport encompasses various forms of exercise, games and competitions , which are usually related to physical activities of people without primarily serving the production of goods , armed conflict, the transport of goods or luggage or the sole purpose of changing location . The word itself was borrowed from the English sport in the 19th century , which was created by Prokope from disport and is borrowed from Old French . The word "sport" was then introduced into German by Prince Pückler . The health aspect of physical activity can be seen as essential.
“Since the beginning of the 20th century, sport has developed into a slang term used worldwide. A precise or even unambiguous conceptual demarcation can therefore not be made. What is generally understood by sport is less a question of scientific dimensional analysis, but is determined much more by everyday theoretical use and by the historically grown and traditional integration into social, economic, political and legal realities. In addition, the factual occurrence of sport itself changes, expands and differentiates the understanding of sport. "
This quotation makes it clear that the meanings behind the term sport are largely shaped by the colloquial usage and the context in which the term sport is used. For the German Olympic Sports Confederation (DOSB), for example, (physical) motor activity is in the foreground. Brain Games, the training of animals and motorsport without inclusion of such motor activities therefore do not conform to sports understanding of the DOSB. Nevertheless, the DOSB has recognized chess as a sport; the International Olympic Committee (IOC) even chess and bridge .
This facet of meaning also has historical reasons. As sport, as a new phenomenon in the German-speaking area, spread more and more since the end of the 19th century, he came across the phenomenon of gymnastics . Two very different concepts of body culture and movement culture were thus antithetical to one another. The term sport in particular stood for the stronger emphasis on the idea of competition and for the staging of standardized, measurable and often staged competitive situations. Today, the term sport as an umbrella term also includes concepts that were more commonly grouped under the term gymnastics at the time. Sport can therefore be understood both as a body and movement culture and as a competitive or competitive culture. Depending on the view, the term sport usually includes phenomena that fulfill both aspects as well as those that either predominantly concern the motor body movement aspect (e.g. strength training , private morning exercise or exercise ) or predominantly competition -Aspect (chess, motor sports, bodybuilding competitions).
It is significant for the history of sport that it was originally confronted as a game without commerce with the seriousness of gainful employment or a military conflict. So he had to free himself from religious reservations that existed about gambling and, like dance and theater, could initially only develop in court ( hunting , tournaments ).
The term sport was first mentioned in the Duden dictionary in 1887 .
History of sport
The WHO defines health as “a state of complete physical, emotional and social well-being”. These make it possible to counteract three elementary disease factors: lack of exercise, stress and social isolation.
In order to stay healthy, it is important to give the body, its musculoskeletal system, its organs, the immune system and the psyche reserves. Physical activity plays a key role in this. We call the expansion of the load areas fitness. The supercompensation principle , which has to be considered in a differentiated manner, is essential for fitness . The organism and its systems adapt to a physical stress stimulus.
Movement training improves the organic capacity, the psychoregulative systems and often takes place in groups, thus creating social points of contact.
Since the definition of modern sport by Allen Guttmann (1978), this term of “modern sport” has been controversial, as the seven elements cited by Guttmann (worldliness, equal opportunities, role specialization, rationalization, bureaucratization, quantification, search for records) were already in earlier Individual sports pervaded epochs. So showed u. a. Krüger & McClelland (1984), Carter & Krüger (1990), Szymanski (2008), Arnd Krüger (2008), McClelland (2012) and Behringer (2012) that modern thinking in societies and sport started much earlier and with it at least individual sports were permeated with this thinking. According to these authors, the elements of Guttmann are characteristics of every sport that distinguishes it from general forms of movement. As long as swimming, for example, is viewed as “unnatural” or as a divine judgment , it cannot be a “sport”, but if there is a competition or if one scientifically examines the properties of humans in the water, the prerequisites for a sport are given.
Sport as a culture of movement
A distinction is essentially made between mass sport and competitive sport , as well as professional sport and amateur sport. There are also the extreme sports and fun sports categories that have emerged in the recent past, some of which differ significantly from traditional sports. Sport can be played as a team sport (for example ball sports ) or as an individual sport.
Sport is practiced in different social contexts and forms an essential part of leisure and entertainment culture . In addition to traditional sports clubs and school sports , commercial fitness studios and sports centers have increasingly appeared in popular sports since the 1980s . In addition, either alone or with the family or friends (Examples goes even beyond these structures in the private sphere sport, jogging , running club ). This is known as informal sport and includes, for example, playing football and basketball in public places, in city parks, on football fields or in backyards. It is characteristic of informal sport that it is organized and regulated by the actors themselves. In the field of competitive sports, the structures are much more complex; therefore, reference is only made to the relevant articles at this point. With the increasing integration of people with a disability, more and more disabled sports have recently developed , which are often also practiced at competitive sports level. The Paralympic Games , which first took place in Sweden in 1976, serve as an example .
While Meyers Konversations-Lexikon of 1888 could still say: "As an essential characteristic of sport it is finally to be mentioned that it is not practiced for the sake of making money" (Vol. 15, p. 176), this can be done today because of its existence no longer considered a feature by professional athletes. In addition, the commercial interests of powerful third parties (e.g. large corporations as sponsors , supporters or patrons ) who hope that sports or athletes will transfer their image to their company should not be underestimated . That is the internal difference between sport as a spectacle and a cult of the body. In addition, popular sport, for example through sports equipment and sportswear, is closely linked to economic interests.
Although the benefits of physical training for the cardiovascular system are scientifically undisputed, 45 percent of German adults do not do any sport at all and only one in eight achieves the current recommendations for adequate physical activity. A new study shows the high health effects of sport into old age.
Major sporting events
In Germany there are specialized sports magazines , television stations and internet providers . The sports magazine with the highest circulation is Sport Bild . The kicker sports magazine also has a large reach. Eurosport and Sport1 broadcast sporting events on free-to-air television . Sky Sport News HD reports on the latest news around the clock. Sky , Sportdigital and #Dabei for MagentaTV show live events on Pay TV. As a pure Internet provider there is DAZN , the Eurosport Player and Amazon Prime.
In the course of a debate about the possible inclusion of sport as a national goal in the German constitution, the former Federal Constitutional Court judge Dieter Grimm summarized the positive and negative social effects of sport as follows:
- “Sport contributes to the cohesion of society, but it also sows discord. Sport promotes international understanding, but is also prone to nationalism. Sport encourages fairness, but also becomes a starting point for violence. Sport makes an important contribution to preventive health care, but it is also a source of great damage to health and its consequential social costs. Since sport is no longer just about fame, but also about money, it attracts unfair practices. Doping is only the most visible. "
Activities and facilities of some sports can have a negative impact on nature and the environment. There are ways of avoiding such conflicts or reducing them to an acceptable level.
The state sports associations represent the interests of sports clubs in politics:
The federal states promote sport through sports laws.
Passive sport consumption
In addition to actively practicing sports, following sports competitions as a spectator at the venue or via the mass media has an important social significance. Competitive athletes and professional teams are often revered as idols. The extreme identification with athletes leads to the phenomenon of the sports fan . In football in particular, a passive sports cult has developed, especially in Europe, which is cultivated by football fans , " ultras " and football hooligans . Such a fan culture often focuses on different sports in different countries.
- Category: Continental Sports Federation
- Professional sport
- Health sport
- Physical activity
- Integration of immigrants # Integration through sport
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