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State of Schleswig-Holstein
State of Sleswig-Holsteen ( Low German )
Delstat Slesvig-Holsten ( Danish )
Lönj Slaswik-Holstiinj ( North Frisian )
Flag of Schleswig-Holstein
Country flag
Berlin Bremen Bremen Hamburg Niedersachsen Bayern Saarland Schleswig-Holstein Brandenburg Sachsen Thüringen Sachsen-Anhalt Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Baden-Württemberg Hessen Nordrhein-Westfalen Rheinland-Pfalz Schweiz Bodensee Österreich Luxemburg Frankreich Belgien Tschechien Polen Niederlande Dänemark Bornholm (zu Dänemark) Stettiner Haff Helgoland (zu Schleswig Holstein) Nordsee Ostseemap
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Coat of arms of Schleswig-Holstein
State coat of arms
Motto : Up forever untagged ("forever undivided")
Basic data
Language : German (approx. 2.7 million),
Low German (approx. 1.3 million),
Danish (approx. 65,000),
North Frisian (approx. 10,000),
Romanes (approx. 5,000)

The official languages ​​are (partly spatially limited): German, Low German, Danish and North Frisian

State capital : Kiel
Form of government : parliamentary republic , partially sovereign member state of a federal state
Area : 15,799.65 km²
Foundation : August 23, 1946
ISO 3166-2 : DE-SH
Population : 2,903,773 (December 31, 2019)
Population density : 184 inhabitants per km²
Unemployment rate : 6.3% (July 2020)
GDP (nominal): EUR 93.37 billion  ( 10th ) (2017)
Debt : EUR 31.820 billion  (Dec. 31, 2015)
Head of Government : Prime Minister
Daniel Günther ( CDU )
President of the State Parliament : State Parliament President
Klaus Schlie ( CDU )
Ruling parties: CDU , Greens and FDP
Allocation of seats in the 19th state parliament :
Distribution of seats in the state parliament : Of the 73 seats:
  • CDU 25
  • SPD 21st
  • Green 10
  • FDP 9
  • AfD 4
  • Week 3
  • non-attached 1
  • Last choice: May 7, 2017
    Next choice : 2022
    Votes in the Federal Council : 4th
    Bremerhaven (zu Freie Hansestadt Bremen) Niedersachsen Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Helgoland (zu Kreis Pinneberg) Königreich Dänemark Kreis Nordfriesland Flensburg Kiel Neumünster Lübeck Kreis Herzogtum Lauenburg Kreis Stormarn Kreis Segeberg Kreis Ostholstein Kreis Pinneberg Kreis Steinburg Kreis Dithmarschen Kreis Schleswig-Flensburg Kreis Plön Kreis Rendsburg-EckernfördeSchleswig-Holstein, administrative divisions - de - colored.svg
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    Schleswig-Holstein ( officially : Land Schleswig-Holstein ) / ˈʃleːsvɪç ˈhɔlʃtaɪ̯n / ( Low German Sleswig-Holsteen , Danish Slesvig-Holsten , North Frisian Slaswik-Holstiinj , abbreviation SH ) is a parliamentary republic and a partially sovereign member state ( Land ) of the Federal Republic of Germany . The state capital and largest city ​​in the state is the city of Kiel ; other regional centers are the city of Lübeck and the medium- sized cities of Flensburg and Neumünster . These four cities are independent. The fifth largest city of Norderstedt , which was created through the merger in 1970, has roughly the same number of inhabitants as Neumünster, but due to its proximity to Hamburg it only counts as a middle center in the metropolitan area.

    The land between the seas of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea is the second smallest German area after Saarland . With an area of ​​around 15,800 km², Schleswig-Holstein ranks 12th among the 16 German states and is in 9th place in terms of population with around 2.9 million.

    The present-day state emerged from the province of Schleswig-Holstein in the Free State of Prussia on August 23, 1946, shortly after the Second World War . It borders in the north on the Danish region Syddanmark , across a sea border in the Fehmarnbelt on the Danish region Sjælland , in the south on the state of Lower Saxony and the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg and in the south-east on the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania .


    Natural landscapes in Schleswig-Holstein
    Schleswig-Holstein from space

    Geographically, Schleswig-Holstein consists of the southern area of ​​the Cimbrian Peninsula ( Jutland ) and part of the North German Plain . It is enclosed between the North Sea in the west, the Baltic Sea and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in the east, Hamburg and Lower Saxony in the south and Denmark in the north. The geographical center of Schleswig-Holstein is located in the small town of Nortorf .

    Historically, today's Schleswig-Holstein consists of the southern part of the Duchy of Schleswig , the Hanseatic City of Lübeck and the two duchies of Holstein and Lauenburg . The rivers Eider and Levensau marked the border between the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein and were also the northern border of the Holy Roman Empire and the German Confederation until 1806 and 1864 ( German-Danish War ) . After the Prussian province of Schleswig-Holstein had been formed from the two duchies of Schleswig and Holstein , the Duchy of Lauenburg was incorporated as a district in 1876 . With the "Law on Greater Hamburg and other territorial consolidations" ( Greater Hamburg Law ) in 1937, the Lübeck region ( Eutin district ) of the Free State of Oldenburg , the Hanseatic City of Lübeck and the former Hamburg exclaves Geesthacht , Großhansdorf and Schmalenbeck fell to Schleswig-Holstein. In exchange for this, the Holstein cities of Altona (until then the largest city in the country) and Wandsbek as well as several rural communities, including Blankenese , went to Hamburg.

    Natural spaces

    The landscape of Schleswig-Holstein is divided from west to east into the marshland , the high and low Geest and the Schleswig-Holstein hill country (also known as the eastern hill country). This landscape and the Geest were created as a terminal moraine landscape in the last Ice Age . Further east is the island of Fehmarn , which also belongs to the country and which emerged as a ground moraine from the last Ice Age. The largest river in the country is the Eider , the highest point is the Bungsberg (168 m).

    The west coast is by the Wadden Sea marked, with the northern part ( North Friesland ) in addition to the North Frisian islands , numerous islets lie before. The Eiderstedt peninsula protrudes further into the sea. The landscape names of the Wiedingharde and the Bökingharde were last (until 2007) only preserved as a designation for two offices . To the south of it, and already partly in the area of ​​the Geest, there is the Nordergoesharde between the Soholmer Au and Arlau rivers , and the Südergoesharde between the latter and Husumer Mühlenau . The latter is largely (except for the Hattstedtermarsch ) a geest landscape. The island of Helgoland also belongs to the landscape of the islands and halligen .

    South of North Friesland, between the mouths of the Eider and Elbe, lies the Dithmarschen landscape , which is made up of the Norderdithmarschen and Süderdithmarschen areas. This is followed by the Elbmarschen with the Wilstermarsch and the Kremper Marsch .

    The equally fertile east coast is divided by fjords and bays into the hilly peninsulas fishing , swansen , danish weld and wagrien . The landscape around the great Holstein lakes is known as Holstein Switzerland . The landscape of the Hüttener Berge lies inland on the border with the Geest.

    The Geest itself could only be opened up late due to the soils that are not very suitable for arable farming - even the attempts at heather and bog colonization in the 18th century can still be regarded as failed. The traditional landscapes are accordingly few and far between. Particularly noteworthy are the Schleswigsche Geest on the isthmus between Schlei and the Eider, which was important for traffic at an early stage, with the already mentioned Südergoesharde and the Stapelholm landscape . The Aukrug Nature Park lies near Neumünster and the Stormarn landscape east of Hamburg, the eastern part of which today forms the Stormarn district. In relation to the other federal states, Schleswig-Holstein has few forests, as the forests here only cover around 10 percent of the state's area.


    Lübeck always played a special role in Schleswig-Holstein. The actual hinterland was Mecklenburg. Nevertheless, the Holsten Gate is seen by many as a landmark of the country.
    A symbol of Schleswig-Holstein: Westerheversand lighthouse

    Nature and landscape protection

    The state is home to the Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park, the largest national park in Central Europe, some of which is also designated as a biosphere reserve. In addition, with the nature reserves "Hohes Elbufer between Tesperhude and Lauenburg" and "Lauenburger Elbvorland" as core areas, part of the Elbe river landscape biosphere reserve in Schleswig-Holstein is - albeit a smaller one .

    A total of 189 nature reserves and 275 landscape protection areas have been established by state ordinances over the past 80 years . Without the national park, the areas take up 2000 km², of which about 1600 km² are sea or mud flats. Nature conservation associations often look after the areas on the basis of a contract with the state. In addition, there are six natural parks : Natural Park Schlei , Hüttener Berge nature reserve , nature park Westensee , Naturpark Aukrug , Holstein Switzerland Nature Park and Lauenburg Lakes Nature Park . None include marine or coastal areas. Immediately Lauenburgische to the natural park includes lakes in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern the Schaalsee on.

    A specialty is the Haseldorfer gray heron colony , a species protection area in Haseldorf, district of Pinneberg. It is the largest and one of the most important breeding colonies of the gray heron in Schleswig-Holstein.

    See also
    List of bodies of water in Schleswig-Holstein
    List of surveys in Schleswig-Holstein
    List of natural monuments in Schleswig-Holstein
    List of landscape protection areas in Schleswig-Holstein
    List of nature reserves in Schleswig-Holstein
    List of the natural spatial units in Schleswig-Holstein
    List of nature experience areas in Schleswig-Holstein
    List of geotopes in Schleswig-Holstein
    State representative for nature conservation in Schleswig-Holstein



    Schleswig-Holstein has 2.9 million inhabitants, the population density of 183 inhabitants / km² is around a fifth below the national average (as of December 2019). Age structure and gender distribution largely correspond to the national situation. Of the women, 45.7% are married, 12.9% widowed and 6.4% divorced. For men it is 47.7%, 2.6% and 5.4%. The population is geographically unevenly distributed. In addition to the independent cities, the Hamburg area, especially the Pinneberg and Stormarn districts , is densely populated, while the Schleswig and Dithmarschen districts are comparatively thin. In terms of area and population, Schleswig-Holstein has some superlatives. The state is represented 9 times in the list of the smallest municipalities in Germany . B. with the second smallest municipality Arnis . In the list of the smallest municipalities in Germany by population 25 times, e.g. B. with the smallest municipality Gröde and the municipality Wiedenborstel , which has the lowest population density of all German municipalities. Schleswig-Holstein is characterized by a large number of small communities. The largest municipality in Schleswig-Holstein in terms of area is the Hanseatic City of Lübeck , which was a free imperial city for many years . In contrast, Arnis is the smallest city in Germany, both in terms of population and area. In the list of the smallest cities in Germany , Schleswig-Holstein is represented 17 times, although Schleswig-Holstein only has 63 cities. The four cities with the smallest area in Germany alone are in Schleswig-Holstein and five others up to 16th place.

    The average life expectancy in the period 2015/17 was 78.1 years for men and 82.8 years for women. The men are 6th among the German federal states, while women are 11th.

    Total birth rate
    in Schleswig-Holstein
    2000 1.43
    2005 1.37
    2010 1.45
    2015 1.51
    2018 1.58

    Originally resident population

    The historically ancestral population is of (Lower) Saxon , Anglic , Jutian , Frisian and Slavic origin. Up until the Great Migration , northern Schleswig-Holstein was still populated by fishing rods. The landscape designation fishing still testifies to this today . The Anglers who emigrated to Great Britain from Angling gave this part of England its name. During the Viking Age , the Slavic tribes of the Wagrier and Polabians settled in central and eastern Schleswig, Danes in western Schleswig- Frisians , in central and southwestern Holstein, Saxony, and in eastern Holstein and Lauenburg .


    In Schleswig-Holstein there is a Danish (ancestral in Schleswig , now also in Holstein ), a Frisian (on the North Frisian coast and on the islands) and a traditional Sinti and Roma minority (especially in the cities of Kiel and Lübeck as well as in the Hamburg area). These minorities are under special protection of the Schleswig-Holstein state constitution according to Art. 5; Their minority languages, like Low German, are protected by the European Charter of Regional and Minority Languages (see also: Languages ​​and Dialects in Schleswig-Holstein ).

    Refugees and displaced persons

    In relation to its own population, Schleswig-Holstein took in the most refugees and displaced persons of all West German states during and after the Second World War . Most of them came from East Pomerania and East Prussia . The population grew by 1.1 million between 1944 and 1949. The integration of the refugees was marked by conflicts, especially in rural regions.

    Immigration from abroad

    Due to its geographically remote location and the rather weak economic development, Schleswig-Holstein has the lowest proportion of foreigners among the western German states. (1999: 5.1%). Of the 140,000 foreigners living here, a good three quarters come from Europe, 22% of which are from the old countries of the European Union . The largest group of all foreigners in 2012 came from Turkey with 30,000 people , the second largest with 15,400 from Poland .


    “Only three people understood the history of Schleswig-Holstein - Prince Consort Albert, he is dead; a German professor who has gone mad; and I just forgot all about it. "

    - Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston , British Prime Minister

    Settlement and development of Schleswig and Holstein

    Megalithic systems
    Settlement areas between 800 and 1100 in today's Schleswig-Holstein

    Schleswig-Holstein was settled by hunters and gatherers after the last Ice Age. From around 4000 BC In the 3rd century BC, farmers came to the country who built between 3500 and 2800 megalithic systems , of which only over 100 have survived. The ox trail has probably been leading through the country since the Bronze Age , and in historical times it served the trade of North Jutian livestock.

    In the period of mass migration many of the left Germans counted ethnic groups the country, wandered between the 3rd and the 5th century, the fishing from the same area north of the Schlei to Britain , where they deal with other peoples of the Anglo-Saxons united and became eponymous for later England . Schleswig-Holstein was very sparsely populated at the time.

    By the early Middle Ages , four ethnic and linguistic groups developed in what is now Schleswig-Holstein: In the northern part up to a line Eider - Treene - Eckernförde, Germanic Jutes and North Germanic Danes , in the north-western part, West Germanic Frisians since the 7th century , and Slavic in the eastern part Abodriten , in the south-western part up to the Eider and on the line Kiel - Geesthacht West Germanic Saxons , whose tribe the Holsten later gave their name to the southern part of the country Holstein .

    After the Angling wave of emigration, Danish and Jutian settlers advanced northeast into the country. Around 770 they founded Haithabu, one of the most important trading centers of the early Middle Ages, and built a protective wall against the Saxons with the Danewerk . In the course of the Saxon Wars , the southern part of the country came under the influence of the Franconian Empire . Between 768 and 811 there were repeated confrontations between the king of the Franconian Empire and later Christian emperor Charlemagne and the pagan northern Germans, in the course of which the Danewerk was expanded. In 811 the Eider was laid down in a peace treaty as the border between the Carolingian and the Danish empires .

    With increasing settlement in the 12th and 13th centuries, the Eider border lost its real meaning as a dividing line, but it remained until the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 or until 1864 as the border between Schleswig and Holstein . Until the introduction of the Civil Code in 1900, it was also a legal limit, as Denmark's Jutian law was still in force in Schleswig up to this point in time . From 1111, independence grew on both sides of the Eider, from which the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein (at that time still as a county) emerged. At the same time, ever closer political and economic ties were established between the two areas.

    Rule of the Schauenburgers

    In the early 13th century, the Danish king tried to integrate Holstein into his empire. However, after initial successes, it failed in the Battle of Bornhöved in 1227 due to the resistance of North German princes.

    From 1250 the Hanseatic League developed into an important power and economic factor and Lübeck became one of the most important cities in Northern Europe. From 1386 Schleswig and Holstein were united in the coat of arms for the first time, when the Schauenburg counts received Schleswig as a Danish fief and thus bound the southern county and the northern duchy under one sovereign. After the Holstein counts were able to expand their influence far into Jutland in the 14th century , Margrete I succeeded in regaining Danish feudal sovereignty in Schleswig around 1400 . But they too had to recognize the ownership claims of the Holstein nobles in Schleswig.

    The territorial history of Schleswig and Holstein is very complicated due to numerous inheritance divisions and reversals. However, the Schauenburg dynasty succeeded in establishing a rule in Schleswig-Holstein, so that in the late Middle Ages Schleswig-Holstein can be spoken of as a de facto contiguous territory. In 1474 the county of Holstein became the duchy of the same name .

    Danish supremacy

    Schleswig-Holstein 1559
    Schleswig-Holstein around 1650; the duchies are divided into numerous sovereign territories like a patchwork quilt, of which the royal and ducal shares as well as the jointly governed property districts occupy the largest area

    In 1460 the Schleswig-Holstein knighthood directly elected the Danish King Christian I from the House of Oldenburg as ruler after the Schauenburgs died out , he was a nephew of the last Schauenburger Adolf VIII. The regulation made in the Treaty of Ripen determined for the duchies, "Dat se bliven ewich tosamende ungedelt" (that they stay together forever undivided), a statute that was soon broken. The Danish king ruled Schleswig and Holstein not in his capacity as king, but as duke of the two areas, whereby the Duchy of Schleswig remained a royal Danish fiefdom, while the Duchy of Holstein belonged to the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation and was therefore an imperial fief . Christian I and his successors on the throne were therefore Danish kings and German imperial princes in personal union . Danish supremacy lasted until 1864.

    Christian III introduced the Reformation in 1542 with the church ordinance of Johannes Bugenhagen . As early as 1544, the king broke the Treaty of Ripen and handed over parts of the Schleswig-Holstein duchies to his younger half-brothers Johann and Adolf I , creating the partial duchies of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf and Schleswig-Holstein-Hadersleben . In 1564, his son, King Friedrich II , also handed over parts of his property in the duchies to his brother Johann , creating another part of Schleswig-Holstein, the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg . This time the estates refused to consent to the renewed breach of the Ripen Treaty and refused to pay homage to him, so that the Duke of Sønderborg became the first of the gentlemen who had been divided up without government rights. The Sonderburger share subsequently split up into numerous divided duo-duchies . The Hadersleben Duchy was dissolved again in 1580 due to the lack of male heirs, but the Duchy of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf developed into an important political and cultural power factor. Among other things, the castles of Husum , Reinbek and Tönning were built under the Gottorf dukes , the castles of Kiel and Gottorf were renewed and enlarged and the University of Kiel was founded. The family also provided the prince-bishops of Lübeck .

    The contrast between the royal share and the ducal - that is, the Gottorfschem - share shaped the politics of the duchies for the next two centuries. The administrative areas of the individual domains, the so-called offices , hares and landscapes , were divided according to the level of taxation, among other things, so that neither the royal nor the ducal portion had completely contiguous areas and Schleswig-Holstein was divided into a patchwork of smaller units. While the ducal portion was ruled directly by the Gottorf line from the eponymous Gottorf Castle , the Danish royal family appointed the so-called governors to manage its portion . The goods districts had an exceptional status , largely independent areas, which were mostly owned by the ancient noble families and which were alternately under royal and ducal sovereignty. The estates were in high economic prosperity, and the landed gentry experienced its “golden age” in this epoch of Schleswig-Holstein. The Prince Diocese of Lübeck , the County of Holstein-Pinneberg and the resulting County of Rantzau , Dithmarschen , which was not conquered until 1559, and the Duchy of Saxony-Lauenburg, which was not yet part of Holstein at the time, had other special roles in the state structure of Schleswig-Holstein .

    While the Thirty Years' War broke out in the south of the empire in 1618 , Schleswig and Holstein were spared combat operations for the time being and experienced a high phase due to the profitable agriculture. In 1625, Denmark intervened in the war, as a result of which the fighting shifted to the duchies from 1627 onwards. The fortresses in Holstein, such as Krempe , Glückstadt and Breitenburg , were particularly targeted. The Thirty Years' War in Schleswig and Holstein ended in 1629 with the Peace of Lübeck . The duchies, which had previously been less severely devastated than other regions of the German Empire, subsequently recovered until they were again included in the fighting and devastated from 1643 by the Torstensson War.

    In the course of the 17th century, the contrast between the ducal and royal shares led to increasing conflicts between the two parties. The Gottorf Duchy demanded greater sovereignty and turned away from Denmark and instead turned to the Kingdom of Sweden . This culminated at the end of the century with a multiple occupation of the ducal portion by Denmark. The Great Northern War broke out at the beginning of the 18th century . Gottorf stood on the side of Sweden, which after the defeat of the kingdom in 1713 led to the complete annexation of the ducal share in Schleswig by Denmark. The former Gottorf duchy only had holdings in Holstein, the annexation was declared legal in the Peace of Frederiksborg in 1720 .

    In the course of the 18th century, Denmark tried to unite its territory and to complete the so-called state as a whole . The numerous partial duchies of Schleswig-Holstein, which had emerged from the Sonderburger share, were no longer given as a new fief in the event of a failure to inherit, but instead given to the Danish kingdom. After the Gottorf share in Holstein was combined by inheritance in personal union with the Russian tsarist title , the Treaty of Tsarskoe Selo was negotiated in 1773 , through which Schleswig and Holstein came almost entirely under the rule of the Danish king. In 1779, Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (older line) was the last divided duchy dissolved. A certain independence was retained, however, when the administration of the duchies was concentrated in a separate German chancellery in Copenhagen and a separate currency was introduced in 1789 (see Schilling Schleswig-Holsteinisch Courant , Schleswig-Holsteinische Speciesbank ).

    First Schleswig War

    Schleswig-Holstein coat of arms of the Carlshütte
    Postage stamps 1850–1866

    In 1800 the whole of Schleswig-Holstein - with the exception of the Principality of Lübeck and the Duchy of Saxony-Lauenburg - was under Danish administration. The city of Altona , today a district of Hamburg , was the second largest city in the kingdom after Copenhagen. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars , Denmark found itself on the loser's side with broken finances. In breach of promises made, its own currency fell victim to the Danish bankruptcy in 1813; a new compulsory tax, rigorously imposed in the duchies, brought additional resentment.

    The emerging nationalism in both Denmark and Germany led to a contradiction in terms of membership of the so-called Elbe duchies , which resulted in two wars. Not the exclusively German-settled Holstein, which had belonged to the Holy Roman Empire since the early Middle Ages and to the German Confederation after 1815 and was only ruled by the Danish king, was not controversial , but the Duchy of Schleswig , which had been a fief of Denmark, but linguistically - was culturally influenced by German, Danish and Frisian. In both Germany and Denmark, the country was fully claimed by the nationally-minded liberals, although it was divided into a predominantly Danish-speaking and Danish-minded north and a predominantly German-speaking and German-minded south.

    In 1830, the German-speaking and German-minded south of Schleswig found their first eloquent advocate in Sylt's North Frisian Uwe Jens Lornsen ; he and his colleagues often wrote "Schleswigholstein" to express the togetherness of the two areas in the spelling. From 1840 both German and Danish national liberals tried to gain influence in Schleswig, so that a conflict emerged. This broke out openly in connection with the March Revolution in 1848: a German-oriented provisional government was proclaimed in Kiel . Shortly before that, the March Ministry had been formed in Copenhagen as part of the Danish March Revolution . Both governments were characterized by a dualism of (national) liberal and conservative forces. While conservative forces in Copenhagen advocated the continued existence of the German-Danish state as a whole, De Nationalliberale in the program of the Eider Danes called for the abandonment of Holstein and the constitutional admission of Schleswig to the kingdom. This was opposed by the German-influenced Schleswig-Holstein movement, which demanded the inclusion of a united Schleswig-Holstein in the German Confederation.

    The incompatibility of both demands led to the Schleswig-Holstein uprising , in which the German-minded people tried in vain to end Danish sovereignty. According to the will of the German National Liberals, Schleswig should also become a member of the German Confederation and, united with Holstein, be a sovereign state under the government of Duke Christian August of Augustenburg . According to the German view, Salic law also applied in Schleswig, which would have made the Duke of Augustenburg the legitimate heir in both duchies after the Danish King and Duke Friedrich VII had no heirs . According to the Danish view, the Duke of Augustenburg could be considered the heir to the throne in Holstein, but not in Schleswig, where according to Danish law the line of succession also existed through the female line.

    Initially, the Schleswig-Holstein uprising was supported by the German Confederation or the emerging German Empire , as was Prussia. The Schleswig-Holstein survey became the only federal war in the German Confederation. However, under pressure from the major European powers, the Prussian army and federal troops withdrew, leaving the Schleswig-Holstein army on its own. The Danish victory at Idstedt in 1850 initially put an end to German hopes for a German “Schleswigholstein”. Instead, the status quo ante was restored. On July 2, 1850, the Peace of Berlin was concluded between the German Confederation and Denmark. The London Protocol of 1852 , which was concluded with the participation of the Allies, guaranteed the continued existence of the entire state and determined that Schleswig should not be bound closer to the kingdom than Holstein. A nation-state solution to the so-called Schleswig-Holstein question (and above all the question of Schleswig's national affiliation) has not yet been found.

    Second Schleswig War

    Military course of the German-Danish War 1864

    With the London Protocol (1852) the whole state was restored. However, in the actual Kingdom of Denmark, since the introduction of the Danish Basic Law in 1849, there has been a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary elected government, while the duchies continued to be governed in an absolutist way with census-based advisory assemblies of estates - a construction that made legislation considerably more difficult. As a common link between the kingdom and the duchies, the overall state constitution was passed in 1855 , which provided for a joint Imperial Council , but met with criticism on the German and Danish side and was accordingly rejected by the Holstein assembly of estates . In 1858 the German Confederation also rejected the constitution for the two federal states of Holstein and Lauenburg, which means that the entire state constitution (contrary to its intention and the provisions of the London Protocol) was only valid for Denmark and Schleswig. Holstein and Lauenburg therefore no longer complied with the Federal Act of the German Confederation, which laid down a constitution for each federal state. In 1863 the Danish government finally passed the so-called November Constitution , which should bind Schleswig closer to Denmark and reduce the domestic political influence of the Holstein assembly of estates. However, the German side saw the London Protocol as broken with the new constitution. Accordingly, in the same year the German Confederation obtained a federal execution against the federal members Holstein and Lauenburg , which was implemented in December 1863 with the occupation of Holstein by federal troops. In February 1864, in protest of the German Confederation, Prussian and Austrian troops crossed the Eider and occupied the Duchy of Schleswig and large parts of the rest of Jutland in the German-Danish War . The negotiations on the national division of Schleswig, which took place during a ceasefire mediated by the great powers, did not lead to any results, Denmark finally had to sign the Peace of Vienna on October 30th , according to which the rights to the duchies of Austria and Prussia, known on the German side as "Elbe Duchies", were jointly held Condominium were transferred. Only small parts of the north of Schleswig remained Danish: the island Ærø , seven parishes south of Kolding and a strip around Ribe ; In return, Denmark gave up its claims to the royal enclaves on Schleswig's west coast.

    The duchies of Schleswig and Holstein then formed an Austro-Prussian condominium . This was modified with the Gastein Convention of August 1865, when Schleswig came under Prussian and Holstein under Austrian administration; the dual power itself remained. Also according to the convention, the Prussian King Wilhelm became the Duke of Lauenburg, for which Austria received a compensation payment. Prussia, however, sought to annex all of Schleswig-Holstein. The claims of the Augustenburgers Friedrich VII on Schleswig-Holstein passed over the victorious powers, although Austria let the Augustburg movement act.

    After the German War in the summer of 1866, Schleswig-Holstein became a Prussian province as a whole in 1867 . In contrast to the original demands of most German Schleswig-Holsteiners - separation from Denmark and membership as an independent state structure within the German Confederation - the duchies only achieved separation from the entire Danish state. As a province of Prussia, they were part of the North German Confederation in 1867 and in the German Empire in 1871. The German-Danish War of 1864 was the first of the three German wars of unification ; the question of who the duchies, and especially Schleswig, belonged to was a central aspect of Bismarck's policy , which ultimately led to the unification of the empire . With the treaty between the German Empire and the United Kingdom on the colonies and Heligoland , Heligoland was incorporated into the Süderdithmarschen district of the province of Schleswig-Holstein on July 1, 1890 .

    Final division of Schleswig

    However, the international legal dispute with Denmark was not concluded until 1920. In the Peace of Prague in 1866, Prussia and Austria agreed on the intervention of Napoleon III. Article 5 provided for a referendum in North Schleswig, according to which the North Schleswig people would have been free to choose Denmark or Prussia / Austria. This clause was mutually canceled by the two contracting parties in 1879. Denmark had to grudgingly acknowledge this. Prussia had already incorporated the duchies as a province beforehand. Denmark had not agreed to this. The originally planned referendum in North Schleswig was then carried out after the First World War under pressure and under the supervision of the victorious powers of the First World War . An international commission with representatives from England, France, Sweden and Norway was set up to administer the voting areas. It was based in Flensburg, had a newly trained police force and had English and French troops to support it. The vote resulted in a Danish majority in the northern part of the country and a German majority in the southern part. The middle district (including Flensburg ) was particularly controversial, but then decided clearly in favor of belonging to the German Empire . Therefore, on July 6, 1920, a transfer agreement was concluded in Paris , which awarded northern Schleswig Denmark and southern Germany.

    National Socialism and World War II

    Election results of the NSDAP in the Reichstag elections
    Schleswig-Holstein's share of the vote
    in percent
    Share of voters in the
    German Reich
    in percent
    1924 (I) 07.4 06.6
    1924 (II) 02.7 03.0
    1928 04.0 02.6
    1930 27.0 18.3
    1932 (I) 51.0 37.4
    1932 (II) 45.7 33.1
    1933 53.2 43.9
    The Naval School Mürwik 1929. It was in 1945 in the special area Mürwik , where the last Reich government stayed.

    Schleswig-Holstein was an early stronghold of National Socialism . The NSDAP achieved high election results in Dithmarschen as early as 1928 . The so-called Bloody Night of Wöhrden in 1929 and the Altona Bloody Sunday in 1932 - Altona was then still part of Schleswig-Holstein / Prussia, not Hamburg - were cannibalized nationwide by Nazi propaganda . Well-known Schleswig-Holstein authors were among the intellectual pioneers of National Socialism: Julius Langbehn from North Schleswig, Adolf Bartels from Dithmarsch and - to a limited extent - Gustav Frenssen .

    There were some satellite camps of Neuengamme concentration camp in Schleswig-Holstein: u. a. the KZ Kaltenkirchen , the concentration camp Kiel , the KZ Ladelund and KZ Neustadt in Holstein . One of the first concentration camps was Wittmoor : on March 10, 1933, the first prisoners, mostly members of the KPD , were locked up there. Other early (also known as wild) concentration camps were set up in 1933 in Eutin , Glückstadt , Rickling / Kuhlen , Ahrensbök , Altona and Wandsbek . In the Reichspogromnacht on 9/10 November 1938, synagogues and shops were attacked by Jewish citizens in Lübeck - which had belonged to Schleswig-Holstein since 1937 -, Elmshorn , Rendsburg , Kiel , Bad Segeberg , Friedrichstadt , Kappeln and Satrup by the SA and SS - with the tolerance or help of the police - and destroyed.

    Prisoners of war had to do forced labor in Schleswig-Holstein . The Soviet prisoners of war arrived in a deplorable condition as they were poorly fed. In Heidkaten near Kaltenkirchen (autumn 1941 to April 1944) and Gudendorf (April 1944 to the end of the war) camps were set up which Gerhard Hoch referred to as “death camps ”. 3,000 Soviet prisoners of war died in Gudendorf in 1944 and 1945. The death toll in Heidkaten is unclear, but a four-digit number is also assumed. Atrocities also occurred in the medical field during this period. Between 1939 and 1945 at least 216 children were murdered in the Schleswig Children's Department .

    The air war in World War II affected the sparsely populated parts of the country only slightly. Kiel, as a base of the Navy and the location of three large shipyards on the east bank of the fjord , has repeatedly been the target of British ( RAF ) and US ( USAAF ) bombers (see air raids on Kiel ). The attack on Lübeck by the RAF at the end of March 1942 was the first area bombing of a historic German city center. During the large-scale attacks of " Operation Gomorrah " against Hamburg in the summer of 1943, places such as Wedel and Elmshorn in Schleswig-Holstein were also badly hit. The Flensburg shipyard was directly attacked several times (see air raids on Flensburg ) and the DEA refinery in Hemmingstedt near Heide . On May 3, 1945 RAF planes mistakenly bombed the three ships Cap Arcona , Thielbek and Deutschland , which were lying in the Neustädter Bay, unable to maneuver . About 7,000 people died. The SS had about 10,000 concentration camp prisoners crammed onto the ships. Most likely, the SS intended to sink the prisoners.

    On May 7, 1945 at 12:45 p.m., Lutz von Schwerin-Krosigk gave a speech on the Reichsender Flensburg for the first time that the German side announced the end of the Second World War in Europe. The unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht came into effect on May 8, 1945 at 11:01 p.m. At that time, most of Schleswig-Holstein was still under the control of German troops. The arrest of the last Reich government under Karl Dönitz in Flensburg - Mürwik did not take place until May 23, 1945.

    post war period

    Altenhof Manor : Residence of the British Regional / Land Commissioner
    Police action against the demonstration on the construction site of the Brokdorf nuclear power plant , February 1981

    As early as the end of 1944, Schleswig-Holstein was part of the Hannibal company , the evacuation of around 2.5 million people from the Baltic States ( Memelland ), East / West Prussia , Pomerania and Mecklenburg , the main port of call for refugees and displaced persons . Bombed out people from the cities of Kiel, Lübeck and Hamburg also moved to the countryside. The population , which was 1.6 million in 1939, rose to 2.7 million in 1949. Of all western German states, the proportion of refugees was highest in Schleswig-Holstein compared to the indigenous population.

    By dispensing with the reporting obligation on the part of the British occupation forces and the attraction of the special area Mürwik to Schleswig-Holstein developed into a "safe haven" for countless NS - war criminals who have the rat line north into hiding there and sometimes decades unmolested remained.

    At the turn of 1945/1946, the military government of the British occupation zone appointed advisory German denazification committees . In the mass proceedings, 406,500 people were denazified: In Schleswig-Holstein, however, nobody was classified in Category I of the main culprits and Category II of the culprits . 2217 was classified in category III of the burdened ; this also included the former Gauleiter Hinrich Lohse . 66,500 came to Category IV as followers and 206,000 to Category V as exonerated .

    After the end of the war, Schleswig-Holstein was formally still a Prussian province . The Christian Democrat Theodor Steltzer , who had been close to the military resistance against the Nazi regime , was appointed head of the administration as senior president in November , and was later appointed first prime minister. On February 26, 1946, the first state parliament met, which had not yet been elected but was appointed by the military government, initially represented by its "Regional Commissioner for Schleswig-Holstein", the retired air marshal Hugh Vivian Champion de Crespigny , Reserved final decisions. With the ordinance No. 46 of the British military government of 23 August 1946 "Concerning the dissolution of the provinces of the former Prussia in the British zone and their new formation as independent states" the state of Schleswig-Holstein received its legal basis. As the capital, Kiel prevailed against Schleswig ; The seat of the British "Regional", later the "Land Commissioner", was the so-called Somerset House in Kiel, the residence of the Altenhof manor . In the state elections on April 20, 1947 , a state parliament was elected for the first time . A State was Schleswig-Holstein with the 1949 adopted by parliament country Statute , which entered into force on 12 January 1950th It was not until the constitutional reform passed by the Kiel state parliament on May 30, 1990 that this was also called the state constitution.

    On March 29, 1955, the Bonn-Copenhagen Declarations were signed, in which the Federal Republic and Denmark each agreed protective rights for the respective minority of the other nationality in their area and at the same time the free commitment of every citizen to an ethnic group as ex officio undeniable and not verifiable. This agreement is still regarded today as a model for the amicable solution of ethnic group issues.

    During the Cold War , Schleswig-Holstein became a focus of the Bundeswehr, founded in 1955, because of its strategic importance for NATO . The specially established command area LANDJUT was subordinate to the 6th Panzer Grenadier Division , the NATO division with the largest number of personnel , which was deployed in the northernmost country, plus the Baltic Sea bases of the German Navy .

    Some of the fiercest protests against nuclear power plants in Germany took place from 1976 to the early 1980s around the construction site of the Brokdorf nuclear power plant . The most drastic natural event in the history of the country was probably the snow disaster at the turn of the year 1978/79.

    The biggest scandal in post-war history was the Barschel affair in the fall of 1987. This scandal was continued in 1993 with the drawer affair , as a result of which Björn Engholm resigned as Prime Minister and, with Heide Simonis as his successor, a woman at the helm for the first time Landes stand. Most recently, Schleswig-Holstein came to the fore when Simonis failed spectacularly in the election of the Prime Minister of Schleswig-Holstein in 2005 . The subsequent grand coalition under Prime Minister Peter-Harry Carstensen (CDU) only lasted until July 2009. The new elections in September 2009 led to the formation of a black-yellow coalition under the old and new Prime Minister Carstensen on October 27, 2009 .

    In a decision of August 29, 2010, however, the state constitutional court of Schleswig-Holstein declared the state election law on which the state elections were based to be unconstitutional. The state parliament was ordered to pass a new law by May 2011. In addition, new elections were ordered by September 2012 at the latest.

    In the state elections in Schleswig-Holstein in 2012 , the so-called Danish traffic light from SPD Schleswig-Holstein , Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen Schleswig-Holstein and Südschleswigschem Voters' Association came about for the first time under the leadership of Torsten Albig .

    A Jamaica coalition led by Daniel Günther ( CDU ) has been ruling the country since June 2017 .


    According to the wording of § 82a I of the State Administration Act Schleswig-Holstein of 1992 (LVwG SH), last amended on June 30, 2016, "German" is the official language in the northernmost federal state, although it is legally unclear whether this only refers to the High German language or also the Low German .

    Partially (spatially and / or factually) in Schleswig-Holstein, in addition to Standard German, the regional and minority languages ​​Low German, Danish and North Frisian have the status of authorized official languages: via the now clarifying regulation of § 82 b LVwG SH, these languages ​​are expressly also as official languages Admitted to Standard German, a similar regulation exists for North Frisian in § 1 of the Frisian Act . For Low German, the area of ​​application is nationwide according to the previous legal conception in the state and now also in accordance with § 82 b LVwG SH; for Danish, the status according to this standard applies in Flensburg and the districts of North Frisia , Schleswig-Flensburg and Rendsburg-Eckernförde , for Frisian in the district of North Friesland and on Heligoland .

    The low German language, usually as low German referred to is also according to the European Charter of regional or minority languages as regional language according to Part III of the Charter, the Danish language (usually in the form of Sydslesvigdansk ) and the Frisian Language (in their dialects) as minority languages in accordance with Part III and Romani are recognized as a minority language in accordance with Part II of the Charter in the State of Schleswig-Holstein.

    In communities near the border between Niebüll and Flensburg, South Jutian (Low Danish) is also spoken, which is generally regarded as the dialect of the Danish language, and in the Flensburg area Petuh , sometimes also Missingsch . This makes Schleswig-Holstein the richest state in traditionally spoken languages. On the other hand, the Dutch language , which was once spoken in Friedrichstadt , and Yiddish , which was partly spoken in individual cities up to the time of National Socialism, are considered to be extinct ; It is not known how high the proportion of Yiddish speakers is among the almost 2000 residents of the Jewish faith.

    Proportion of languages: German approx. 2.7 million inhabitants, Low German approx. 1.3 million, Danish ( Standard Danish , Sydslesvigdansk and Sønderjysk ) approx. 65,000, North Frisian approx. 10,000, Romani approx. 5000.

    In the district of North Frisia there are also bilingual place-name signs in High German / North Frisian; for example, the city is announced to the visitor to Niebüll as Naibel . In other municipalities in the country there are bilingual entrance signs in the combination of High German / Low German, for example Eckernförde / Eckernföör.

    The southeast of the country was populated by Slavic peoples until the 12th century , which can still be recognized today by some Slavic place names (for example Lübeck , Laboe , Eutin , Preetz , Ratzeburg ).


    Denomination statistics

    The largest denominational communities are the Protestant churches (44.6% of the population) and the Roman Catholic Church (6.1% of the population). Around 49.3% of the population do not profess either of these two religious communities. A year earlier, 45.5% of the population belonged to the Protestant Church , 5.8% were Roman Catholic . 48.6% of the citizens did not belong to any of the major religious communities.

    Detailed figures on other religious communities in Schleswig-Holstein (in addition to the Protestant and Roman Catholic Church) were last collected in the 2011 census . At that time 0.9% were members of a Protestant free church , 0.7% professed a Christian-Orthodox denomination , less than 0.1% were of the Jewish faith and another 1.8% belonged to other religious communities recognized under public law in Schleswig-Holstein (this includes mostly Christian special communities such as Jehovah's Witnesses ). There are no figures from the 2011 census on the proportion of the population with a Muslim faith . A 2016 study by the BIM of the Humboldt University of Berlin estimates the proportion of Muslims in the population in Schleswig-Holstein at around 3%.


    Schleswig-Holstein is a Protestant country.

    Evangelical Lutheran Churches

    The Evangelical Lutheran Regional Church has been the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Northern Germany , or “Northern Church” for short , since May 27, 2012 . It emerged from the North Elbe Church , the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Mecklenburg and the Pomeranian Evangelical Church after a lengthy merger process that resulted in a merger agreement signed on February 5, 2009. There are two districts in the Schleswig-Holstein area: Schleswig and Holstein as well as Hamburg and Lübeck, each headed by a bishop or a female bishop. The North Elbian Church was also an amalgamation founded in 1977, in which the three Evangelical Lutheran regional churches in Schleswig-Holstein had merged.

    In addition to the northern German state church also consist of municipalities in Schleswig-Holstein altkonfessionell authored Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church and in the north of the Danish Church in South Schleswig . The Danish Church in southern Schleswig has around 6,300 members (as of January 1, 2012).

    Catholic churches

    The parishes of the Roman Catholic Church in Schleswig-Holstein are subordinate to the Archdiocese of Hamburg . In addition to the Roman Catholic Church, there is also an Old Catholic community on the North Frisian island of Nordstrand . The Roman Catholic Church is growing, 6.1% of the population are Roman Catholic in 2018, a year earlier 5.8% were Roman Catholic.

    Evangelical Free Churches

    The Evangelical Free Churches represented in Schleswig-Holstein include Evangelical Free Churches ( Baptists ), Methodists , Mennonites , Free Evangelical Congregations , the Salvation Army , the Remonstrants , Seventh-day Adventists and several Pentecostal churches . The first Anabaptist congregations existed on Eiderstedt as early as the 16th century . The first Baptist congregation in Schleswig-Holstein was founded in February 1849 in Pinneberg, Holstein.

    According to the 2011 census, the Protestant free churches had around 25,000 members at that time. The Evangelical Reformed Church is represented with a congregation in Lübeck, while the Hamburg congregation also has many members in Schleswig-Holstein. The Remonstrants are represented by a community in Friedrichstadt.

    New Apostolic Church

    In the New Apostolic Church, Schleswig-Holstein is part of the Hamburg apostle area and comprises five districts with around 10,000 members on Schleswig-Holstein territory.


    About 1900 residents of the country are members of Jewish communities . The Jewish communities spread across two national associations: the more orthodox embossed Jewish community Schleswig-Holstein and the more liberal National Union of Jewish Congregations of Schleswig-Holstein . The Goethestrasse synagogue in Kiel was destroyed in the Night of the Reichspogrom . Today there are three active synagogues in Schleswig-Holstein, namely in Lübeck , Bad Segeberg and Kiel.

    See also:


    85,000 people in Schleswig-Holstein are said to profess Islam . The largest mosque in the country is the Centrum Mosque Rendsburg . There are over 60 mosques in Schleswig-Holstein .

    State building

    Landeshaus Kiel with a prefabricated plenary hall


    According to Article 1 of its constitution of January 12, 1950, Schleswig-Holstein is a member state of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the aftermath of the Barschel affair in 1987, structural changes were suggested by the committee of inquiry . A commission of inquiry drew up proposals for a constitutional and parliamentary reform and presented its final report in 1989. As a result, the constitution was changed and renamed from the state statute to the state constitution . It was passed by the state parliament on May 30, 1990. Since then, the constitution has also contained state objectives , e.g. B. the protection of minorities of the Frisian and Danish ethnic groups in the country (Art. 5), the promotion of equality between men and women (Art. 6), the protection of the natural foundations of life (Art. 7) or the protection and promotion of culture including the Low German language (Art. 9).

    Compared to other German state constitutions, the constitution has far-reaching elements of direct democracy . As in all other German states, state authority comes from the people, that is, the people express their will in elections and votes in the state, in the municipalities and in the municipal associations.

    Unless otherwise regulated by federal law, the constitution loses its validity on the day on which a reorganization of the federal territory comes into force.


    The state parliament of Schleswig-Holstein is the highest body elected by the state people for the formation of political will and thus exercises legislative power . The state parliament elects the prime minister. The state parliament usually (without overhanging seats ) consists of 69 members (see table). They are elected according to a procedure that combines the choice of personality with the principles of proportional representation .

    State government

    Ministry of Justice Schleswig-Holstein in Kiel

    In the area of executive power, the state government is the highest management, decision-making and executive body. It consists of the Prime Minister and the State Ministers .

    The prime minister is elected by the state parliament without debate. He or she appoints and dismisses the state ministers and appoints a representative from this group. Anyone who has the majority of votes of the members of the state parliament is elected as prime minister (absolute majority). If nobody receives this majority in the first ballot, a new ballot takes place. If the election does not take place in the second ballot either, the person who receives the most votes in a further ballot is elected.


    The judiciary is entrusted to the judges; it is exercised in the name of the people. The judges are independent and subject only to the law.

    As a small state, Schleswig-Holstein has only one higher regional court with its seat in Schleswig. A separate higher administrative court was only established in 1991 with the Schleswig-Holstein Higher Administrative Court in Schleswig . Until then, the OVG Lüneburg was due to a state treaty between Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein in accordance with Section 3 (2) VwGO is responsible as a joint higher administrative court for the states of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein.

    Schleswig-Holstein was the last state to have its own state constitutional court since May 1, 2008. Previously, the constitutional jurisdiction according to Article 44 of the state constitution and according to Article 99 of the Basic Law, the decision of constitutional disputes within the state was assigned to the Federal Constitutional Court .

    Direct democracy

    Initiative from the people

    All citizens have the right, within the scope of its decision-making competence, to deal with certain subjects of political decision-making in the state parliament . An initiative can also be based on a reasoned bill; he must not contradict the principles of the democratic and social constitutional state . The initiatives must be signed by at least 20,000 voters. Their representatives have the right to be heard. Initiatives about the state budget, salaries and pensions as well as public taxes are not permitted.


    If the state parliament does not approve the draft law or the submission within a period of four months, the representatives of the popular initiative are entitled to apply for a referendum to be carried out. The state parliament now decides whether the petition for a referendum is admissible. A referendum has come about when at least 5% of those eligible to vote have approved the referendum within six months.


    If a referendum a come about, it must within nine months on the bill or other document referendum to be brought about. The state parliament can submit its own draft law or another submission for simultaneous voting. A referendum does not take place if the state parliament has already passed the law, so that a referendum has become superfluous and if the Federal Constitutional Court, at the request of the state parliament or the state government, has classified the referendum as unconstitutional.

    The bill or other submission is passed by referendum if the majority of those who cast their vote, but at least a quarter of those entitled to vote, have approved. A constitutional amendment by referendum requires the approval of two thirds of those who have cast their vote, but at least half of those entitled to vote. Only valid yes and no votes count in the vote.


    The bills are introduced by the state government or by individual or several members of the state parliament or through initiatives from the people. The laws are passed by the state parliament or by referendum. Laws that change the constitution require the consent of two thirds of the members of the state parliament and the consent of the people. In addition, they must expressly change and supplement the wording of the amending constitutional text.

    National emblem


    The national flag consists of three horizontal stripes. The top stripe is blue, the middle one white, and the bottom one red. The colors are taken from the state coat of arms and were used for the first time in 1840 by the German Schleswig-Holsteiners in the emerging German-Danish conflict over Schleswig . In 1949 the flag was officially recognized by the British. In contrast to the state flag, the service flag contains the state coat of arms. The service flag is hoisted when the flag is officially displayed. The official flag may only be used by the relevant authorities, the national flag, on the other hand, can be freely used by anyone, which is used generously - for example in the form of flags in the front yard. Ships carry an identification flag in the colors of the national flag. State coats of arms, state colors and flags were only established in 1957 by the law on the national emblems of Schleswig-Holstein of January 18, 1957.

    coat of arms

    The coat of arms includes heraldically (seen from the coat of arms) on the left a silver / white shield with a red border - the coat of arms of the Schauenburg territorial lords - which has been known as the Holstein nettle leaf since the Oldenburgers and the Schleswig lions on the right . Since 2009 there has been a civic coat of arms rounded at the bottom.


    The national anthem is not officially called Wanke, my fatherland . The common name is Schleswig-Holstein-Lied . The text is by Matthäus Friedrich Chemnitz , the melody by Carl Gottlieb Bellmann .

    Administrative division

    Structure of Schleswig-Holstein
    1900 1959 1994 2009 2020
    Circles 17th 17th 11 11 11
    Offices ? 199 119 87 84
    Communities ? 1371 1131 1116 1106

    Schleswig-Holstein underwent a regional reform in 1970/74 . The number of districts was reduced from 17 (see Province of Schleswig-Holstein ) to eleven; the number of municipalities fell in the medium term from 1371 (1959) to 1131 (1994) and the previous 199 offices have been combined into 119 offices.

    Schleswig-Holstein today (as of March 1, 2020) consists of a total of four independent cities, eleven districts, 84 offices and 1106 municipalities. Of these communities, around 900 have fewer than 2000 inhabitants and are administered by a volunteer mayor . 63 municipalities have city ​​rights . City rights can be granted to a municipality with at least 10,000 inhabitants; Cities that have this from old times do not lose it. 1.6 million of the country's 2.9 million inhabitants live in cities (as of December 2018). The circle Pinneberg is with 314,000 inhabitants the most populous in the country, Rendsburg-Eckernförde with 2,189 square kilometers of area, the largest and almost as big as the Saarland.


    Districts in the state of Schleswig-Holstein
    circle County seat License Plate Area in km²
    District of Dithmarschen Heath (Holstein) HEI, MED 1,428.13
    District of the Duchy of Lauenburg Ratzeburg RZ 1,263.01
    North Friesland district Husum NF 2,082.96
    Ostholstein district Eutin OH 1,392.55
    Pinneberg district Pinneberg PI 0.664.28
    Plön district Plön PLÖ 1,083.17
    District of Rendsburg-Eckernförde Rendsburg RD, ECK 2,189.17
    Schleswig-Flensburg district Schleswig SL 2,071.14
    Segeberg district Bad Segeberg SE 1,344.39
    Steinburg district Itzehoe IZ 1,056.13
    Stormarn district Bad Oldesloe OD 0.766.33

    One district cities

    Independent cities in the state of Schleswig-Holstein
    District-free city License Plate Area in km²
    Flensburg FL 056.74
    Kiel AI 118.65
    Lübeck HL 214.21
    Neumunster NMS 071.63

    Since January 1, 2005, the city of Norderstedt has been taking on a special status as a " large district town ", which according to Section 135 a of the Schleswig-Holstein municipal code made possible an experimentation clause. This means that some tasks can be transferred from the district (here: Segeberg) to the city via a public law contract.

    cities and communes

    Aerial view of Lübeck's old town (World Heritage)
    Flensburg east bank
    Largest cities and communities in the state of Schleswig-Holstein
    local community circle Resident
    December 31, 2000
    December 31, 2007
    December 31, 2012
    December 31, 2017
    Kiel circular 232.612 236.902 239,866 247.943
    Lübeck circular 213,399 211,541 211.713 216,318
    Flensburg circular 084.281 087,792 083,462 088,519
    Neumunster circular 079,831 077,595 076,951 079,335
    Norderstedt Segeberg 071,523 071.903 074,574 078,679
    Elmshorn Pinneberg 047,391 048.052 047,490 049,618
    Pinneberg Pinneberg 039,423 042,301 041,726 043,155
    frond Pinneberg 032,060 032,033 031,725 033,347
    Ahrensburg Stormarn 029,117 030,663 031,292 033,305
    Itzehoe Stone castle 033,549 032,800 030,956 031,848
    Geesthacht Duchy of Lauenburg 029,106 029,295 029,098 030,407
    Rendsburg Rendsburg-Eckernförde 029,321 028,391 027,446 028,789
    Henstedt-Ulzburg Segeberg 024,950 026,560 027.199 028,056
    Reinbek Stormarn 024,570 025,516 026,347 027,409
    Schleswig Schleswig-Flensburg 025.093 024,036 023,665 025,118
    Bad Oldesloe Stormarn 023,314 024,172 024,448 024,964
    Husum North Friesland 020,994 022,327 022.092 023,274
    Eckernförde Rendsburg-Eckernförde 023,304 022,915 021,791 021,979
    pagan Dithmarschen 020,530 020,827 020,894 021,699
    Kaltenkirchen Segeberg 018,081 020,000 019,904 021,386
    Quickborn Pinneberg 019,875 020,136 019,986 021,056

    Schleswig-Holstein is characterized by a large number of communities with fewer than 500 inhabitants. In contrast to most other countries, the territorial reform that was carried out did not change anything. 1033 smaller towns and municipalities are grouped together in 85 offices in order to make administrative tasks more effective (as of January 1, 2013).

    With around 300 inhabitants, Arnis is the smallest city in Germany. Gröde and Wiedenborstel are among the smallest independent communities in Germany.

    On November 1, 2016, the Südschleswigsche Voters' Association proposed that the number of municipalities should decrease from the current 1100 to 170 by 2022. The official level with 88 offices should be dropped and large municipalities should be created with at least 8,000, but better up to 20,000 inhabitants. The background is the assumption that the small-scale community structure has democratic deficits. For the 2013 local elections, almost every third municipality had only one voter list.


    Schleswig-Holstein is a rural and Protestant country. In the post-war period , the Association of Displaced Persons and Disenfranchised Persons was able to get almost 25% of the voters behind them at times. With the slide into national political insignificance due to the progressive integration of the displaced into West German society, he lost most of the voters here too. In the 1960s ( NPD ) and in the 1990s ( DVU ), right-wing extremist parties were able to record electoral successes in state elections, but not repeat them.

    In Schleswig-Holstein, the votes of the FDP and the Greens are usually lower than in the other West German states. The regional distribution of votes within the country is very different. The SPD 's share of the vote tends to be higher in the independent cities and the surrounding area of Hamburg , while the CDU's share of the vote tends to be higher in the districts of North Friesland and Dithmarschen as well as in the rural communities of Steinburg , Rendsburg-Eckernförde and Segeberg . In the 2019 European elections, the Greens became the nation's strongest party.

    A special feature in Schleswig-Holstein's political landscape is the South Schleswig voter association . It represents the interests of the Danish and part of the Frisian minority and is exempt from the five percent threshold under the electoral law for the Schleswig-Holstein state parliament in state elections.

    State government

    Since the state elections in Schleswig-Holstein on May 7, 2017, the government has been supported by a coalition of CDU, Greens and FDP, which holds 44 of the 73 seats.

    The cabinet of Prime Minister Daniel Günther (CDU) includes:

    Prime Minister

    Prime Minister of Schleswig-Holstein
    No. Surname Life dates Political party Beginning of the term of office Term expires
    01 Theodor Steltzer 1885-1967 CDU 1946 1947
    02 Hermann Lüdemann 1880-1959 SPD 1947 1949
    03 Bruno Diekmann 1897-1982 SPD 1949 1950
    04th Walter Bartram 1893-1971 CDU 1950 1951
    05 Friedrich-Wilhelm Luebke 1887-1954 CDU 1951 1954
    06th Kai-Uwe von Hassel 1913-1997 CDU 1954 1963
    07th Helmut Lemke 1907-1990 CDU 1963 1971
    08th Gerhard Stoltenberg 1928-2001 CDU 1971 1982
    09 Uwe Barschel 1944-1987 CDU 1982 1987
    * Henning Schwarz 1928-1993 CDU 1987 1988
    10 Bjorn Engholm * 1939 SPD 1988 1993
    11 Heath Simonis * 1943 SPD 1993 2005
    12 Peter Harry Carstensen * 1947 CDU 2005 2012
    13 Torsten Albig * 1963 SPD 2012 2017
    14th Daniel Günther * 1973 CDU 2017 in office
    • After the resignation and the death of Uwe Barschel shortly thereafter, Henning Schwarz continued the official business of the Prime Minister until Björn Engholm was elected Prime Minister.


    Partnerships of the state of Schleswig-Holstein
    Local authority Country Partnership
    Southern Jutland DenmarkDenmark Denmark 2001
    Pays de la Loire FranceFrance France 1992
    Pomeranian Voivodeship PolandPoland Poland 1992
    Kaliningrad Oblast RussiaRussia Russia 2004
    Hyogo Prefecture JapanJapan Japan 1995/2005
    Maryland United StatesUnited States United States 2002

    In addition, the state has been operating Schleswig-Holstein offices in the Baltic Sea region since 1995 to strengthen the traditionally close relationship between the countries in the Baltic Sea region. Schleswig-Holstein offices are located in Gdansk, Kaliningrad, St. Petersburg, Vilnius, Riga and Tallinn.


    ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems (TKMS) in Kiel, the largest German shipyard (until 2012: HDW )

    In economic terms, three large areas can be distinguished: the prosperous metropolitan region of Hamburg , also known as the “ bacon belt ” (with mechanical engineering and services), the structurally weak west coast, where agriculture, tourism and wind power plants dominate, and the port cities on the east coast (especially Lübeck, Kiel and Flensburg) with trade, transport, shipbuilding, tourism and wind energy.

    ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems (TKMS, HDW until the end of 2012 ) in Kiel is the largest German shipyard known internationally for its class  212 A and 214 submarines with fuel cell propulsion. The Flensburger Schiffbau-Gesellschaft / FSG ( Flensburg ) has specialized in RoRo / ConRo ships, while Lürssen-Kröger ( Schacht-Audorf ) and Nobiskrug ( Rendsburg ) occupy a leading position in the construction of mega yachts . The Flender shipyard in Lübeck ceased operations in 2002.

    In the last few years, sea ​​trade with other Baltic Sea countries has regained importance. The Jutland Line and the Vogelfluglinie as well as the Lübeck port play a special role as routes to Scandinavia , Finland , Russia and the Baltic States . The port of Lübeck is - with 23.3 million tons of goods handled in 2014 - the strongest port in Schleswig-Holstein, while the Rostock ports, which are also on the Baltic Sea, were only slightly higher with 24.16 million tons. In all Schleswig-Holstein seaports, on the North Sea and Baltic Sea as well as on the Elbe and the Kiel Canal, 51.3 million tonnes of goods were handled by sea in 2014. Cruise calls in Kiel have reached record highs in recent years.

    A good two thirds of the entire German fishing fleet is stationed in Schleswig-Holstein . Around a quarter of the German shipping companies are based in the country; around 20% of German shipbuilding sales are generated here.

    The GMSH takes as AöR the Bauherren- and planning tasks of Schleswig-Holstein and the Federal within Schleswig-Holstein true.

    The Tourism in Schleswig-Holstein has a far greater significance than in most other countries. In 2018, around 151,000 employees generated sales of 7.9 billion euros. The contribution of tourism to national income was thus 5.9%. Allocated to the average national income per capita and year, this results in an equivalent of over 168,000 people who can earn their living from tourism demand.

    The North Frisian Islands in particular (especially Sylt ) are very popular with - mostly German - tourists, but the Baltic
    seaside resorts (e.g. Grömitz , Timmendorfer Strand , Ostseebad Laboe , Schönberg (Holstein) , Eckernförde or Glücksburg ) are also important .

    Also, the cross-border trade plays a role in the Schleswig-Holstein economy. In 2011, for example, almost 60 percent of Danish households bought beer or lemonade in German border markets, according to a survey . In total, around 800 million euros are turned over annually in border trade. In shopping parks such as the Scandinavian Park in Handewitt and the Grenzmarkt Zur Krone in Harrislee , purchases by Scandinavians account for up to 25 percent of sales, according to the Flensburg Chamber of Commerce .

    In 2017, Schleswig-Holstein had an export surplus for the first time since 1989: goods worth 22.6 billion euros were exported and 20.8 billion euros were imported. The most important trading partner was Denmark with goods worth 1.8 billion euros (7.9% share in exports). The export share of the EU was 56.3%, with the EU states Netherlands , United Kingdom , France , Poland , Belgium and Italy being particularly involved.

    In comparison with the GDP of the EU, expressed in purchasing power standards, Schleswig-Holstein achieved an index of 104.0 (EU-28: 100) (2014).

    In 2010, economic output in Schleswig-Holstein measured against GDP was around 75.6 billion euros. The debt level at the end of 2010 was around 26 billion euros.

    Most important locations of employment subject to social insurance
    workplace social insurance
    June 30, 2012
    since June 30, 2007
    in percent
    Commuter balance
    June 30, 2012
    Job density 1
    Kiel 108,563 0+6.49 +30.429 0684
    Lübeck 086,220 0+9.42 +18,818 0662
    Flensburg 036,808 0−1.57 +10,827 0690
    Neumunster 032,944 +10.65 0+7,930 0695
    Norderstedt 030,551 0+0.51 0+1,340 0669
    Ahrensburg 017,438 +16.34 0+6,726 0953
    Itzehoe 016,543 0+8.00 0+6,266 0888
    Elmshorn 015,942 0+0.92 0−3,110 0540
    Rendsburg 015,535 0+0.20 0+6,896 0919
    Husum 013,802 +14.08 0+7,326 1036
    1Jobs subject to social security contributions per 1000 inhabitants between the ages of 18 and 64; Figures as of May 9, 2011 according to the 2011 census.

    More than 15,000 people currently work in the renewable energy sector. New added value has been created, especially in rural areas.

    power supply

    In Schleswig-Holstein there are three nuclear power plants at Brunsbüttel , Brokdorf and Krümmel . Of these, only the Brokdorf NPP is still active; the other two were after the Fukushima nuclear disaster (March 2011) turned and left after a change in the Atomic Energy Act ( nuclear energy ) finally shut down. In the last few years, nuclear power has significantly lost its share of electricity generation in Schleswig-Holstein, most recently (as of 2017) 17.7%.

    In contrast, the use of renewable energy sources , which is being promoted as part of the energy transition, is playing an increasingly important role . In 2017 these fuels generated 69.3% of the electricity produced in the country. Wind energy in particular is strong in this country - it alone contributed 55.9% to total generation . As one of the German pioneering countries, wind energy has grown in importance in Schleswig-Holstein since the 1990s, after the first test facilities such as the Growian were set up in the 1980s . In addition to onshore plants, which are still of the greatest importance, the expansion of offshore wind farms in the German Exclusive Economic Zone in the North Sea is now being pushed. In mid-2016 there were 3498 wind turbines with a total output of almost 6149 MW in the country. The wind turbines installed at the end of 2014 could theoretically cover around 70% of Schleswig-Holstein's electricity needs. In the field of renewable energies, electricity generation from biogas (8.3%) and photovoltaics (3.8%) is still noteworthy . Renewable energy systems that generate electricity from hydropower, biomass, sewage / landfill gases and biogenic waste, on the other hand, play a subordinate role.

    In the area of ​​fossil fuels, the share of extraction from coal is falling steadily with 8.0% most recently, natural gases contributed 3.4% in 2017, the contribution of mineral oil power plants with 0.8% is less significant. Non-biogenic waste (0.8%) and other energy sources (0.1%) also play a subordinate role in electricity generation.

    In 2013 the government spoke out in favor of increasing the share of renewable energies in gross electricity consumption to 300 to 400 percent by 2020 and thus increasingly supplying other countries as well. In 2017, however, the share of all energies in electricity consumption was only around 150%.

    Biggest employer

    According to the number of employees, the ten largest employers in Schleswig-Holstein in 2006 were:

    Largest employer in the state of Schleswig-Holstein
    rank employer Headquarters Employees
    01. armed forces - 25,700
    02. University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein Kiel, Lübeck 10,706
    03. Possehl Group Lübeck 07.117
    04th Deutsche Post DHL Bonn 07,050
    05. coop eG Kiel 06,385
    06th Deutsche Telekom AG Bonn 05,637
    07th Damp Holding AG Damp 04,416
    08th. Bockholdt Group GmbH Lübeck 04,352
    09. Drägerwerk AG Lübeck 03,488
    10. Deutsche Bahn AG Berlin 03,150
    11. Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft GmbH Kiel 02,974


    The state of Schleswig-Holstein connects Germany with Denmark and thus with Scandinavia. The main traffic flows along the Jutland line (Hamburg – Flensburg – Fredericia – Copenhagen), the Vogelfluglinie (Hamburg – Lübeck – Puttgarden – Rödby – Copenhagen), along the west coast axis (Hamburg – Itzehoe – Heide – Husum – Sylt / Esbjerg) and in the east -West direction over the Kiel Canal (NOK), the Elbe and the Hamburg – Berlin land routes. Important nodes are the ports of Kiel and Lübeck as well as Neumünster in land traffic. While land-based traffic (road and rail) is concentrated mainly in north-south direction towards Hamburg, the main axis of shipping traffic is the east-west running Kiel Canal . The ports with the heaviest handling are in Lübeck towards the Baltic Sea and in Brunsbüttel towards the North Sea. The Lubeck Airport -Blankensee lost recently in importance as a landing place and will no longer be served in regular service. At the airfield Kiel -Holtenau has been around since 2006, no more scheduled flights, expansion plans were discarded. The result of a referendum, however, confirmed the continued existence of Kiel Airport. Plans to build apartments on the airfield site in Kiel were rejected by the majority of those who voted. Sylt Airport, which is frequented by holidaymakers, is currently of the greatest importance with 125,000 passengers in 2018 and 7,892 flight movements in 2016.

    Proportionally transported individual transport systems:

    • Road: 162.4 million tons (2004)
    • Rail : 5.7 million tons (2004)
    • Shipping: 13.2 million passengers (2019), 53 million tons of goods handled in Schleswig-Holstein ports (2019; in 2015 it was 39.5 million tons)
      • Shipping : 35 million tons with 51,224 seagoing vessels (2015)
      • Inland navigation : 4.5 million tons (2015) (2004: 3.8 million tons)
      • Kiel Canal: 99.1 million tons of goods transported on around 32,600 ships (2014)


    The most important motorways in the country start from Hamburg . There are the A 1 to Lübeck , which further connects the Öresund region Copenhagen / Malmö via the Vogelfluglinie , the A 7 via Neumünster and Rendsburg to Flensburg with a branch to Kiel , the A 215 , and the A 23 to Heide with a connection to Husum and the North Frisian Islands. The A 20 has so far led from Bad Segeberg via Lübeck to the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Baltic Sea coast and in future is to lead in a south-westerly direction via Bad Bramstedt and cross the Lower Elbe at Glückstadt . The A 24 connects the Hamburg metropolitan region with the Berlin / Brandenburg metropolitan region . The 18-kilometer A 25 connects Geesthacht with Hamburg. The federal autobahn 21 will one day connect Kiel with Lüneburg in Lower Saxony. The construction of the A21, which began in 1972, keeps stalling. The A 21 currently runs from Löptin in the Plön district to Hammoor in the Stormarn district. The remainder of the route is currently still dedicated as federal highway 404 . With the B404, it is already possible to cross the Elbe east of Hamburg and bypass the congestion-intensive New Hamburg Elbe Tunnel . The construction of the Elbe crossing (A 20) west of Hamburg is expected in the 2020s. Extensive construction work is planned on the A 7 main traffic artery. The Rader Hochbrücke must first be swiveled and then torn down, as it can only withstand the flow of traffic for a few more years. The new Rader Hochbrücke should be completed in 2026. In place of the swing bridge from 1913, the Rendsburg Canal Tunnel has been under the Kiel Canal since 1961 .

    Schleswig-Holstein's road network comprises 498 km of motorways, 1601 km of federal roads , 3669 km of state roads and 4112 km of district roads .

    Bus transport

    The regional bus network of Schleswig-Holstein is mainly operated by Autokraft GmbH according to the requirements of the districts.


    NAH.SH route network map for Schleswig-Holstein
    Lübeck main station , station concourse

    The railway has in Schleswig-Holstein, a relatively large importance for tourism and for commuters to the centers of Hamburg, Lubeck and Kiel.

    The main lines of the railway are oriented towards Hamburg. From there they lead to Kiel / Flensburg and Lübeck . The trains of the Marschbahn also start in Hamburg and end in Westerland on Sylt . The railway ferry from Fehmarn to Lolland on the Vogelfluglinie became important from the 1960s onwards . Since the opening of the Fixed Belt Link in Denmark, freight traffic via the Vogelfluglinie has come to a standstill. As part of the planned Fehmarnbelt Fixed Link , a new, more efficient route is being planned between Lübeck and Fehmarn.

    The largely non-electrified main line Hamburg – Elmshorn – Itzehoe – Heide – Husum – Sylt / –Esbjerg runs along the west coast . Various branch lines branch off from it in Heide, Husum and Niebüll, which open up tourist locations:

    Another important main axis is the Hamburg-Altona – Kiel railway , from which the Neumünster – Flensburg railway branches off in Neumünster and continues to Denmark via the Flensburg – Fredericia railway . These three electrified and largely double-track lines can be seen as part of the Jutland line .

    The east coast is accessed by largely single-track, mostly non-electrified lines, from north to south these are:

    There are two connections to the south from Lübeck:

    In the northern and central part of Schleswig-Holstein there have only been two pure east-west connections since the closure of the Flensburg-Weiche – Lindholm railway in the 1980s:

    In the northern Hamburg area there are some connections of the AKN

    A1: Neumünster - Bad Bramstedt - Kaltenkirchen - Henstedt-Ulzburg - Quickborn - Hamburg-Eidelstedt
    A2: Henstedt-Ulzburg - Norderstedt
    A3: Elmshorn - Barmstedt - Henstedt-Ulzburg

    and the Neumünster – Bad Oldesloe railway via Bad Segeberg . Norderstedt and Ahrensburg are also connected to Hamburg by the U1 underground line .

    In addition, freight trains run on some additional routes, for example to Brunsbüttel . There are currently only seasonal and museum traffic on other routes:

    The most important railway companies are DB Regio and AKN . There are also other private railways in Schleswig-Holstein. The most important of the railway stations in Schleswig-Holstein is Lübeck main station .

    The regional transport in the country is vertaktet so operate on any route at least every two hours trains. Most routes run every hour , sometimes even half an hour. An exception is the Niebüll – Dagebüll route, which is not synchronized due to the ferry schedule.

    The non-clocked long-distance traffic is the densest with a few pairs of InterCity trains on the Marschbahn. ICE trains reach Lübeck and Kiel via Hamburg and to Kiel via Neumünster. Since 2007 there has also been a diesel ICE to Århus via Neumünster, Rendsburg and Flensburg, until 2019 these drove to Copenhagen via Lübeck, Oldenburg in Holstein and Puttgarden . Several long-distance trains on the Berlin – Hamburg line stop in Büchen with transfer options to and from Lübeck and Lüneburg.

    29 percent of the routes are electrified , less than in comparable federal states.


    The state has a total of 46 public ports and landing stages, four of which fulfill supraregional transit functions: Kiel, Lübeck / Travemünde and Puttgarden on the Baltic Sea , Brunsbüttel on the North Sea. Kiel and Lübeck are also important for freight traffic to Scandinavia and Eastern Europe. Lübeck-Travemünde and Kiel are also important ferry and cruise ports (2013: 153 cruise ships, 397,000 passengers began or ended their cruise in a Schleswig-Holstein port). Puttgarden is the German port of the Vogelfluglinie to Denmark. Brunsbüttel is an important port for bulk goods and also serves as a base for offshore - wind energy industry . In terms of cargo handling, the largest ports are:

    • Lübeck (including Lübeck-Travemünde): 25 million t (2017)
    • Brunsbüttel: 9.882 million t (2017)
    • Kiel: 7.407 million t (2017)
    • Puttgarden: 5.493 million t (2017)

    The Kiel Canal is the most widely used artificial waterway in the world with over 41,000 ship movements annually. Shipping traffic on the canal almost tripled between 1998 and 2006.

    Air traffic

    Map of the airports and landing fields in Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg

    The two major civilian airports in the country are the airfield Kiel and Luebeck Airport . In the 1980s, citizens' initiatives prevented the extension of the runway at Kiel "Airport" for medium-haul aircraft . While Kiel Airport does not currently offer any scheduled flights, Lübeck-Blankensee Airport, with 697,559 passengers in 2009, was also important for long-distance tourism, as it was regularly served by so-called low - cost airlines - but operations have been severely restricted since then. The insolvent Lübeck airport was bought by a Lübeck laboratory doctor in June 2016.

    Sylt Airport gained increasing importance from the 2000s ; since 2005 it has been served several times a day by airlines in regular service and in 2009 had a passenger volume of 157,000. There are also several airfields , including on the island of Dune near Helgoland , near Uetersen / Heist , Flensburg-Schäferhaus and Hartenholm , as well as numerous special airfields . The airbases scorn and Schleswig are still used for military purposes, while other military airports shut down or former airbase Husum to Husum Schwesing Airport were converted.

    By far the most important commercial airport for the country is Hamburg Airport , only a few kilometers south of the state border; runway 2 extends in Norderstedt to the Schleswig-Holstein area.


    Campus of the CAU Kiel

    Schleswig-Holstein has three universities, but only the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel , which was founded in 1665, is a full university . In addition, the University of Lübeck has a medical and a technical and scientific faculty. The University of Flensburg emerged from the University of Education. Furthermore, there are in the country, the Muthesius Academy Kiel , the Lübeck Academy of Music , the University of Applied Sciences Kiel , the University of Applied Sciences Lübeck , University of Flensburg (University of Applied Sciences) , the University of Applied Sciences west coast and the College of administration and services . In addition, there are three private universities in Schleswig-Holstein ( Nordakademie , AKAD private universities and Wedel University of Applied Sciences ). A total of 45,542 people studied in Schleswig-Holstein in the 2003/04 winter semester, 26,510 of them at universities and 16,973 at universities of applied sciences.

    In the 2007/08 school year, 36% of the 335,473 pupils in general schools attended a primary school, 25% a grammar school, 18% a secondary school, 11% a secondary school, 6% a comprehensive school and 3% a special school. There are also free Waldorf schools (1% of the students) and evening grammar schools (0.1%).

    A special feature of the Schleswig-Holstein educational landscape are the 48 Danish schools in the Schleswig region, which are supported by the Danish School Association for Southern Schleswig . The bilingual school-leaving qualifications obtained here are easily recognized in both Germany and Denmark.

    In the 2017 Education Monitor, the education systems of the federal states were compared with one another on the basis of twelve different indicators, such as: B. educational poverty or support infrastructure . Schleswig-Holstein came in 13th place, and 10th in 2018.

    In a comparison of the federal states (as of 2013), Schleswig-Holstein has the highest student-to-teacher ratio in Germany at around 16.5: 1 (national average: 15.2: 1). In addition, Schleswig-Holstein is the third last federal state in terms of expenditure per pupil at public schools with around € 5750 (national average: € 6500).

    Science and Research

    With the generation and transfer of knowledge, the state's universities form a strong backbone of the research system in Schleswig-Holstein, which is supplemented by numerous non-university research institutes. Research at a recognized high and international level is carried out in Schleswig-Holstein in areas such as marine research, biomedicine and medical technology as well as in the natural and engineering sciences.

    Schleswig-Holstein has the fifth lowest current expenditure (basic funds excluding medical facilities) for teaching and research at public universities (national average: 6300 €) with 6100 € per student.

    Non-university research institutes span the spectrum from basic research to application relevance to knowledge and technology transfer. The majority of the research institutes belong to the large national research organizations such as the Max Planck Society , the Leibniz Association and the Fraunhofer Society . Three of Schleswig-Holstein's non-university research institutions are part of Germany's largest scientific organization, the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centers : The Helgoland Biological Institute ( Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research), the Helmholtz Center Geesthacht - Center for Materials and Coastal Research in the Duchy of Lauenburg and the Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research Kiel .


    The culture of Schleswig-Holstein is - due not least to the Danish and Frisian influences - quite diverse. It is shaped by historical and geographical factors such as the location between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea as well as the earlier rural culture. In the north of the country in particular, the Scandinavian influence can be seen in architecture and living culture.

    Schleswig-Holstein is a country with a rich literary tradition. This is represented by names such as Johann Heinrich Voß , Matthias Claudius , Friedrich Hebbel , Theodor Storm , Klaus Groth as well as Heinrich Mann and Thomas Mann . The latter brought the city of Lübeck to literary world fame with his novel Buddenbrooks . Since 1945, other Schleswig-Holstein authors wrote German literary history. These include the Nobel Prize for Literature Günter Grass , the Schleswig-Holstein honorary citizen Siegfried Lenz , the poet Sarah Kirsch and the writer Günter Kunert . The North Frisian literature is a specialty .

    In terms of music, the state is home to the Schleswig-Holstein Music Festival founded by Justus Frantz in 1986, one of the largest classical music festivals in Europe. Every year in July and August it presents around 130 concerts in front of over 100,000 visitors, spread over 30–50 venues across the country. In addition, the orchestra academy took place in the Landeskulturzentrum Salzau until 2011, as well as the master classes at the Lübeck University of Music and the Choir Academy, an internationally renowned promotion of talented young people from all over the world.

    The Eutin Festival (opera in the castle garden) was founded in 1951 on the occasion of the 125th anniversary of the death of Eutin- born composer Carl Maria von Weber . Based on performances of the Weber opera “ Der Freischütz ”, a series of events (three operas per year in 22-25 performances in the Eutin Palace Park) has developed, which annually attracts almost 50,000 visitors to Ostholstein .

    The annual Wacken Open Air , the world's largest metal festival , is internationally known . The Eutin Blues Festival has been taking place around Whitsun since 1989 with up to 15,000 visitors.

    In addition to a large number of smaller theaters, Schleswig-Holstein has three large multi-branch theaters : the Lübeck Theater , the Kiel Theater and the Schleswig-Holstein State Theater based in Schleswig. The annual Karl May Games in Bad Segeberg are well known .

    The spectrum of around 250 Schleswig-Holstein museums is broad: it ranges from the central state museums of the Gottorf Castle Foundation to the historic castles and large houses in the cities to a large number of local museums that are well worth seeing, which convey the past and uniqueness of the country and its people , such as the Carl Haeberlin Friesenmuseum in Wyk auf Föhr . In the museum of the Nolde Foundation Seebüll in Seebüll , works by the expressionist painter Emil Nolde can be seen in his former home. The Schleswig-Holstein open-air museum in Molfsee shows historical buildings from all over the country.

    In Kiel , eight collections and museums have joined forces to form the museums by the sea . These include the collection of antiques by Joachim Raeder in the Kunsthalle zu Kiel , the GEOMAR aquarium, the medical and pharmaceutical history collection , the Kiel city gallery , the Warleberger Hof and fish hall and the Kiel Zoological Museum .

    The Nordic Film Days Lübeck are one of the largest and most traditional film festivals in North Germany. You can see productions from Denmark , Sweden , Norway , Iceland and Finland as well as Estonia , Latvia and Lithuania .


    water sports

    The Windjammer Parade during Kiel Week is one of the world's largest sailing events.

    Due to the long coastline, water sports are just as popular as fishing , but above all Kiel is one of the world's sailing metropolises , recognized by the sailing competitions of the 1936 Summer Olympics and 1972 Summer Olympics . With the Kiel Week and the Travemünde Week , the country is the host of two of the largest and most traditional sailing competitions in the world. On the Flensburg Fjord , sailors traditionally hold the last sailing competitions of the year during the autumn Förde week . The oldest regatta in the country is likely to be the eel regatta , which was integrated into the Kiel Week as the opening regatta for a long time . A total of around 32,000 sailors are organized in 230 clubs in the country.

    Sylt and Fehmarn are considered Mecca for many windsurfers . The rowing has in Ratzeburg a National Training Center and an Olympic training center. Among other things, the successful Germany-eights from 1960 and 1968 were formed in Ratzeburg. Since around 2000 kitesurfing has been established on the east and west coasts. Numerous competitions in this sport take place in St. Peter-Ording .


    Schleswig-Holstein is home to two handball clubs that regularly play at the top of the Bundesliga , European and world handball : THW Kiel and SG Flensburg-Handewitt . They were able to underpin this claim in 2007 and 2014 with a purely Schleswig-Holstein Champions League final, which the Kiel “Zebras” won against their rivals from the Danish border in 2007, while SG Flensburg-Handewitt 2014 won Winner emerged from the final against THW Kiel. Bundesliga clubs in handball were at times also VfL Bad Schwartau (trading as VfL Lübeck-Schwartau since 2017 ), TSB Flensburg , SG Weiche-Handewitt and TSV Altenholz ; Handewitter SV from the former Weiche-Handewitt syndicate now forms SG Flensburg-Handewitt together with TSB Flensburg.


    The traditional clubs VfB Lübeck ( Regionalliga Nord , Lohmühle ) and Holstein Kiel ( 2nd Bundesliga , Holstein Stadium ), which was German football champion in 1912 , are known nationwide .

    Schleswig-Holstein is the only West German state that has never been represented by a club in the Bundesliga . Before founding the 1st league in 1963, Holstein Kiel (1947–1963) and VfB Lübeck (1947–1950, 1952–1954, 1957/58, 1959–1961 and 1962/63) played in the Oberliga Nord , the top division at the time. In addition to the two also played Itzehoer SV (1950/51), Heider SV (1956/57 and 1960/61), VfR Neumünster (1955-1963) and 1. FC Phoenix Lübeck (1957-1960) in the league and before that between 1933 and 1944 a total of 14 clubs in the Gauliga Nordmark and Gauliga Schleswig-Holstein were first class. The TSV Uetersen was 1950 champion of third-rate Hamburg Germania-season, rising to the Hamburg's amateur league, the championship was won in 1956/57. VfB Lübeck was promoted to the second division for a short time in 1995 and 2002 and reached the semi-finals of the DFB Cup in 2004 .

    American football

    With the Kiel Baltic Hurricanes from ASC Kiel , Schleswig-Holstein has a first division club in American football . The team plays in the GFL , the highest national league. On October 9, 2010, the Hurricanes faced the Berlin Adler in the final ( German Bowl ), which they won with 17:10. A year later they lost the final against the Schwäbisch Hall Unicorns with 44:48. In the following year, they made it to the final, which was lost again to Schwäbisch Hall. Since then it was mostly in the semi-finals, but qualification for the playoffs also succeeded in 2013, 2014 and 2015. Since the introduction of the Big6 European Football League as a replacement for the old Eurobowl, Kiel has participated in both editions of the EFL Bowl and won both editions.

    Other sports

    The sports club with the largest number of members in the Schleswig-Holstein State Sports Association is the Kieler MTV .

    At VfB Lübeck , table tennis is played alongside football and handball ; Both men and women were represented in the Bundesliga for a long time, the men won the European Cup ( ETTU Cup) once . Badminton is also played successfully under the umbrella of VfB Lübeck , where there is a federal youth training center. Lübeck , Kiel and Flensburg are traditional boxing venues .

    On the west coast in North Friesland and Dithmarschen which is Boßeln quite popular. Fistball strongholds are Kellinghusen , Schülp b. Nortorf and Gnutz . Ice hockey has been played in Timmendorfer Strand since the late 1980s . The club was particularly successful in the early 1990s and is currently the only active ice hockey club in Schleswig-Holstein (as of 2014).

    Speedway races take place annually in Brokstedt and on the Dithmarschen-Ring in Albersdorf (Holstein) . In Jübek , several World Championship finals and long-track World Championship Grand Prix races were held on the Egon-Müller-Ring. Other sports such as horse riding are also popular and have produced many top athletes.

    The volleyball men of Kieler TV play in the 2nd Bundesliga North .

    In 2019, Schleswig-Holstein was the first German federal state to provide political funding for e-sports . With the money made available, the first German state center for e-sports (LEZ) was founded.

    Regular events

    See also: Tourism in Schleswig-Holstein # Regular events (selection)

    Honorary citizen

    Seven people have so far become honorary citizens of Schleswig-Holstein :

    • Helmut Schmidt (1918–2015), 1998, former German Chancellor, member of the German Bundestag
    • Uwe Ronneburger (1920–2007), 2000, former deputy federal chairman and Schleswig-Holstein state chairman of the Free Democratic Party (FDP), member of the German Bundestag
    • Gerhard Stoltenberg (1928–2001), posthumously 2002, former Prime Minister of Schleswig-Holstein and former Federal Minister of Defense and Finance, member of the German Bundestag
    • Siegfried Lenz (1926–2014), 2004, well-known German author (many of his stories take place in Schleswig-Holstein), who lived in Tetenhusen near Rendsburg for part of the year .
    • Armin Mueller-Stahl (* 1930), 2010, actor who lives in Schleswig-Holstein and is involved with the Lübeck University of Music and various Schleswig-Holstein museums.
    • Heide Simonis (* 1943), 2014, former Prime Minister of Schleswig-Holstein (1993–2005)
    • Günther Fielmann (* 1939), 2016, entrepreneur for ophthalmic optics

    See also

    Portal: Schleswig-Holstein  - Overview of Wikipedia content on Schleswig-Holstein


    • Robert Bohn : History of Schleswig-Holstein. CH Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-50891-X .
    • Otto Brandt , Wilhelm Klüver: History of Schleswig-Holstein. 8th edition. Mühlau, Kiel 1981.
    • Johann Friedrich Camerer : Mixed historical-political news in letters from some strange areas of the duchies Schleßwig and Hollstein, their natural history and other rare antiquities. Flensburg / Leipzig 1758–1762. (Islands, west coast, north marshes, Uetersen with monastery, Eiderstedt, Stapelholm, Nordic history, Sylt, Tondern and the county of Rantzau, Rellingen, Seestermühe, Ulzburg, Leezen, Oldesloe and Helgoland)
    • Johann Friedrich Camerer: Six letters from some peculiarities of the Holstein regions. Meissner, Leipzig 1756. Pre- and early history Sylt, Schleswig, Rendsburg, Husum and the surrounding area, siege of the fortress Rendsburg, burial mound near Ostenfeld
    • Uwe Carstens: Party democracy in Schleswig-Holstein. In: Göttrik Wewer (Ed.): Democracy in Schleswig-Holstein. Historical aspects and current issues. Opladen 1998, ISBN 3-8100-2028-1 .
    • Uwe Carstens: The refugee problem in Schleswig-Holstein. Publication by the Schleswig-Holstein State Archives, Schleswig 1997, ISBN 3-931292-51-7 .
    • Uwe Danker and Sebastian Lehmann-Himmel: State politics with a past. Historical analysis of the personal and structural continuity in the Schleswig-Holstein legislature and executive after 1945. Carried out on behalf of the Schleswig-Holstein Landtag , Husum Druck- und Verlagsgesellschaft, Husum 2017, ISBN 978-3-89876-857-3 .
    • Uwe Danker, Astrid Schwabe: Schleswig-Holstein and National Socialism. Neumünster 2005, ISBN 3-529-02810-X .
    • Urs J. Diederichs Hrsg .: Schleswig-Holstein under the swastika. On behalf of d. Evang. Akad. North Elbe. Bad Segeberg / Hamburg 1984.
    • Bartholomäus Figatowski (Ed.): When the Biiken burn. Fantastic stories from Schleswig-Holstein. Verlag 71, Plön 2009, ISBN 978-3-928905-76-3 .
    • Bettina Goldberg: Away from the metropolises. The Jewish minority in Schleswig-Holstein. Wachholtz, Neumünster 2011, ISBN 978-3-529-06111-0 .
      • Review: Rainer Hering, in Transversal. Journal of Jewish Studies. Ed. Center for Jewish. Studies at the University of Graz . Issue 1, Volume 13, 2012, ISSN  1607-629X pp. 104-107.
    • Volker Griese : Schleswig-Holstein. Memories of History. Historical miniatures. Books on Demand, Norderstedt 2012, ISBN 978-3-8448-1283-1 .
    • Gregor Gumpert, Ewald Tucai (Ed.): Över't Land in Schleswig-Holstein. Low German texts with pictures by Klaus Fußmann. With audio book read by Sabine Kaack. 2nd Edition. Wachholtz, Neumünster 2012, ISBN 978-3-529-06112-7 .
    • Gregor Gumpert, Ewald Tucai (Ed.): Schleswig-Holstein. A literary portrait. Wachholtz, Neumünster 2010, ISBN 978-3-529-06122-6 .
    • Hippolyt Haas, Hermann Krumm , Fritz Stoltenberg: Schleswig-Holstein embraced the sea in words and pictures. Kiel 1896.
    • Hanswilhelm Haefs: Place names and place stories in Schleswig-Holstein. Norderstedt 2004, ISBN 3-8334-0509-0 .
    • Bernd Hoefer: Laws of the State of Schleswig-Holstein. 3. Edition. 2009, ISBN 978-3-936773-47-7 .
    • Jürgen H. Ibs, Eckart Dege, Henning Unverhau (eds.): Historical Atlas Schleswig-Holstein. Volumes I – III, Wachholtz, Neumünster.
    • Manfred Jessen-Klingenberg : Viewpoints on the recent history of Schleswig-Holstein. Edited by Reimer Hansen and Jörn-Peter Leppien . Schleswig-Holsteinischer Geschichtsverlag, Malente 1998, ISBN 3-933862-25-4 (Publications of the Advisory Board for History / Society for Politics and Education Schleswig-Holstein eV, Volume 20).
    • Wilhelm Knelangen , Friedhelm Boyken (Hrsg.): Politics and government in Schleswig-Holstein. Basics - political system - policy fields and problems , Wiesbaden 2019, ISBN 978-3-658-25747-7 .
    • Jutta Kürtz: Land on the water. Schleswig-Holstein. Over 200 stories for locals and vacationers. Wachholtz, Neumünster and Hamburg 2014, ISBN 978-3-529-05397-9 .
    • Ulrich Lange (Hrsg.): History of Schleswig-Holstein. Wachholtz, Neumünster 2003, ISBN 3-529-02440-6 .
    • Klaus-Joachim Lorenzen-Schmidt, Ortwin Pelc (Ed.): The new Schleswig-Holstein Lexicon. 2nd Edition. Wachholtz, Neumünster 2006, ISBN 3-529-02441-4 .
    • Eckardt Opitz (Ed.): Schleswig-Holstein. The country and its history - in pictures, texts and documents. Ellert & Richter, Hamburg 2002, ISBN 978-3-8319-0084-8 .
    • Thomas Riis: Up forever untagged. A catchphrase and its background. In: Thomas Stamm-Kuhlmann (Hrsg.): Geschistorbilder. Festschrift for Michael Salewski on his 65th birthday . Series: Historische Mitteilungen, Beiheft 47. Steiner, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-515-08252-2 , pp. 158–167.
    • Utz Schliesky, Jan Schlürmann , Daniel Günther (eds.): Schleswig-Holstein in Europe. Thought sketches for the future of a federal state. Wachholtz, Hamburg and Neumünster 2014, ISBN 978-3-529-02997-4 .
    • Kurt-Dietmar Schmidtke: The emergence of Schleswig-Holstein. 3. Edition. Wachholtz, Neumünster 1995, ISBN 3-529-05316-3 .
    • Jann M. Witt , Heiko Vosgerau (Ed.): Schleswig-Holstein from the origins to the present. A national history. Convent-Verlag, Hamburg 2002, ISBN 3-934613-39-X .

    Web links

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    Individual evidence

    1. Lönj Slaswik-Holstiinj is the name in the North Frisian dialect Bökingharder Frisian (mooring); on Sölring the state is called Lön Sleeswig-Holstiin, on Öömrang and Fering Lun Schleswig-Holstian.
    2. Historical catchphrase with reference to the Treaty of Ripen (1460), symbolizes the connection between Schleswig and Holstein
    3. ^ Standard Danish , Sydslesvigdansk and Sønderjysk
    4. Danish minority: approx. 50,000, Danish citizens: approx. 7,000, Germans who do not belong to the Danish minority (places close to the border; language learned in schools, adult education centers, universities): several thousand. According to a study by the University of Hamburg in 2015, the number of speakers could even be around 30,000 higher. According to this study, the number of members of the minority is around 79,000 in the northernmost country -
    5. a b These are the officially recognized languages, traditionally also Yiddish , Petuh , Missingsch and the languages ​​of the new minorities such as Turkish in particular (around 40,000, of which around 13,000 are German); Evidence for the figures given under languages ​​and dialects in Schleswig-Holstein
    6. § 82 b LVwG SH
    7. a b c Ordinance No. 46, dissolution of the provinces of the former Land of Prussia in the British Zone and their re-establishment as independent states (1946). In: August 23, 1946, accessed October 7, 2016 .
    8. North Statistics Office - Population of the municipalities in Schleswig-Holstein 4th quarter 2019 (XLSX file) (update based on the 2011 census) ( help on this ).
    9. Unemployment rates in July 2020 - countries and districts. In: Statistics from the Federal Employment Agency, accessed on August 11, 2020 .
    10. Gross domestic product of Schleswig-Holstein since 1970 on, accessed on January 9, 2018.
    11. Source: destatis, public debt as of December 31, 2015
    12. Probable distribution of seats in the new state parliament from June 6, 2017 ( Memento from June 8, 2017 in the Internet Archive )
    13. ^ AfD parliamentary group excludes state chairmen. In: December 4, 2018. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
    14. The division into landscapes is based on: Federal Republic of Germany, 1: 1,000,000, landscapes - names and delimitations, edited and published by the Institute for Applied Geodesy 1985, 2nd edition. 1994, reproduced on the Internet in the genealogy network
    16. Agriculture and Environment Schleswig-Holstein: Elbe River Landscape Biosphere Reserve ( Memento from July 18, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
    17. Number of residents of the federal states in Germany. Retrieved July 14, 2020 .
    18. Life expectancy in Germany by federal state and gender in 2015/2017. Retrieved October 22, 2019 .
    19. Birth rate - children per woman in Germany by federal state 2018. Accessed on July 14, 2020 .
    20. ^ Society for Schleswig-Holstein History (Hrsg.): Historical Atlas Schleswig-Holstein. From the Middle Ages to 1867 . Wachholtz, Neumünster 2004, ISBN 3-529-02447-3 , pp. 24 .
    22. ^ Statistical Yearbook Schleswig-Holstein 2013/2014
    23. Kurt Jürgensen : The Prussian solution to the Schleswig-Holstein question 1863-1867 . Ed .: Johannes Kunisch (=  research on Brandenburg and Prussian history . Supplement 1: Bismarck and his time ). Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1992, ISBN 3-428-07314-2 , pp. 57 .
    24. ^ Meyers Neues Lexikon (Mannheim 1979) and Meyers Enzyklopädisches Lexikon (Mannheim 1975) define the Jutes as North Germanic, while the atlas on the universal history of Oldenbourg / Westermann describes the Jutes as West Germanic; Brockhaus (Mannheim 2006), the Encyclopædia Britannica (Chicago 2005), the Duden Lexicon (1980) and the dtv Lexikon (Munich 1971) describe the Jutes more generally as a Germanic tribe in Jutland
    25. ^ History of the State of Schleswig-Holstein , accessed on December 6, 2015.
    26. ^ J. Habich, D. Lafrenz, H. Schulze, L. Wilde: Castles and manor complexes in Schleswig-Holstein. L&H Verlag, Hamburg 1998, p. 19.
    27. ^ Society for Schleswig-Holstein History: ( Memento from August 20, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) The Thirty Years War
    28. ^ Troels Fink: History of the Schleswig border region. Munksgaard, København 1958, p. 178.
    29. ^ Troels Fink: History of the Schleswig border region. Munksgaard, København 1958, p. 192 ff.
    30. Uwe Danker , Astrid Schwabe: Schleswig-Holstein and National Socialism. Neumünster 2005, p. 38.
    31. Uwe Danker, Astrid Schwabe: Schleswig-Holstein and National Socialism. Neumünster 2005, pp. 104-107.
    32. IZRG. Soviet prisoners of war in Schleswig-Holstein (1941-1945) , accessed on: May 2, 2020
    33. Uwe Danker, Astrid Schwabe: Schleswig-Holstein and National Socialism. Neumünster 2005, p. 139.
    34. Uwe Danker, Astrid Schwabe: Schleswig-Holstein and National Socialism. Neumünster 2005, p. 114.
    35. Uwe Danker, Astrid Schwabe: Schleswig-Holstein and National Socialism. Neumünster 2005, pp. 152/153.
    36. ^ Gerhard Paul : Zeitllauf: Flensburg comrades. In: The time . September 8, 2013, accessed April 21, 2019.
    37. Uwe Danker, Astrid Schwabe: Schleswig-Holstein and National Socialism. Neumünster 2005, pp. 175–178.
    38. LVerfG Schleswig-Holstein considers state election law to be unconstitutional and orders early new elections ( memento of January 19, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
    39. § 82a LVwG SH
    40. See Languages ​​and Dialects in Schleswig-Holstein , Section: Legal Relationship Between High and Low German
    41. In eight Jewish communities; Information on political education, issue 307: Jewish life in Germany, 2/2010, p. 69.
    42. Danish minority: approx. 50,000, Danish citizens: approx. 7,000, Germans who do not belong to the Danish minority (places close to the border; language learned in schools, adult education centers, universities): several thousand.
    43. ^ Evangelical Church in the Rhineland
    44. fowid: Church members in the provinces, 2001-2018
    45. Evangelical Church in Germany - Church membership numbers as of December 31, 2017 EKD, December 2018.
    46. Schleswig-Holstein: Religious and ideological communities that have the status of a corporation under public law at the state level . Retrieved June 25, 2020 .
    47. Schleswig-Holstein: Population in a regional comparison by religion (detailed) in%. Retrieved June 25, 2020 .
    48. a b Schleswig-Holstein post-migrant. Attitudes of the population of Schleswig-Holstein to Muslims in Germany. (PDF; p. 24) Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin: Berlin Institute for Empirical Integration and Migration Research, 2016, accessed on June 25, 2020 .
    49. ^ Epd: "North Church": North Elbian Synod for Merger Negotiations ( Memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
    50. ^ Religions in Germany: Membership Numbers
    51. Danish Church in South Schleswig / Dansk Kirke i Sydslesvig
    52. ^ Old Catholic parish of Nordstrand
    53. Population and Catholics by federal state 2018
    54. Population and Catholics by federal state 2017
    55. Christ Church Uetersen: The history of the Christ Church
    56. Schleswig-Holstein: Population in regional comparison by religion (detailed) - in absolute numbers. Retrieved June 25, 2020 .
    57. Statistics of the New Apostolic Church in North and East Germany as of December 31, 2017 , accessed on May 17, 2020
    58. ZWST : Member statistics of the Jewish communities and state associations in Germany for the year 2008 (excerpt)
    60. Schleswig-Holstein: State Constitutional Court ( Memento from January 28, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
    61. Our municipalities., accessed on March 7, 2020
    62. (PDF), Population in the communities of Schleswig-Holstein, update as of December 31, 2012 based on the 2011 census.
    63. ^ SSW proposal: These communities would merge. Large communities instead of offices., November 1, 2016, accessed November 1, 2016 .
    64. European elections 2019 in Schleswig-Holstein: All results and winners . In: world . May 27, 2019 ( [accessed August 30, 2019]).
    65. Section 3 (1) sentence 2
    66. Partner regions of the State of Schleswig-Holstein on the website of the state government ( Memento from August 6, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
    67. Overview of the Schleswig-Holstein offices ( Memento from September 4, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
    68. Schleswig-Holstein is fully committed to the expansion of wind power. The industry is happy, but the citizens are indignant. They rebel in many places.
    69. Positive handling development in German seaports. In: Ship & Harbor . Issue 4/2015, pp. 50–52.
    70. admin: Schleswig-Holstein - Figures on tourism. Retrieved July 14, 2020 .
    71. Sparkasse Tourism Barometer Schleswig-Holstein. Annual Report 2018. Retrieved July 14, 2020 .
    72. Higher taxes drive Scandinavians into frontier markets at, accessed on February 14, 2013.
    73. Wolfhart Fabarius: Digitization "Great opportunity for everyone" · Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein decide on joint projects · 2017 economic figures presented. In: Daily port report . May 30, 2018, p. 2.
    74. Regional gross domestic product (PPS per inhabitant in% of the EU28 average), according to NUTS 2 regions. Eurostat , 30 November 2016, accessed 1 December 2016 .
    75. ^ Statistics from the Federal Employment Agency
    76. census database
    77. a b c d Statistical Office for Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein: Statistics informed, No. 164/2018 (PDF), p. 2, accessed on January 16, 2019.
    78. Status of onshore wind energy expansion in Germany, as of June 30, 2016 ( memento of July 30, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). Website of the Deutsche Windguard. Retrieved July 31, 2016.
    79. ↑ Use of wind energy in Germany (PDF) Status: December 31, 2014. DEWI-Magazin 46. Accessed on July 31, 2016.
    80. Renewable energy from the country arrives, report dated August 30, 2013
    81. ^ Statistics Office North: Electricity generation in Schleswig-Holstein 2017
    82. ^ Report of the State Government of Schleswig-Holstein: Logistics Concept for Schleswig-Holstein. (PDF). In: Landtag printed matter 16/1406.
    83. Timo Jann: Increased handling in Schleswig-Holstein's ports . In: Daily port report from February 14, 2020, p. 3
    84. Frank Binder: Less handling in the northern ports · Volume of goods in Hamburg decreased by 5.3 percent · Volume in Schleswig-Holstein decreased by 3.6 percent. In: Daily port report . April 12, 2016, p. 3.
    85. Schleswig-Holstein in the 50s (=  Small Schleswig-Holstein Books ). Boyens, Heide 2006, ISBN 978-3-8042-1196-4 ( [accessed on May 29, 2020]).
    86. Frank Binder: Record result: the port of Kiel is booming · Growth spurt from SCA forest product terminal · Ferry operations and hinterland traffic are growing strongly. In: Daily port report , January 16, 2018, pp. 1 + 3
    87. Lübeck Airport: New Owner - New Hope (NDR)
    88. Statistical reports of the Statistical Office for Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein: The general education schools in Schleswig-Holstein - Multi-year overviews of the school years 1998/99 to 2007/2008: key data by district in the school year 2007/2008. (PDF; 189 kB), accessed on Aug. 6, 2009.
    89. INSM Education Monitor 2017 - Where are the federal states in the education check? Retrieved January 31, 2018 .
    90. Institute of the German Economy Cologne (ed.): INSM-Bildungsmonitor 2018: Participation, Prosperity and Digitization . Cologne 2018 ( [PDF]).
    91. a b Federal Statistical Office: Publication - Education, Research, Culture - Education Financial Report 2016. (PDF) Federal Statistical Office (Destatis), accessed on December 6, 2017 .
    92. ^ Schleswig-Holstein website: eSports. Retrieved September 24, 2019 .
    93. LEZ.SH. Retrieved September 24, 2019 .
    94. Games economy: Schleswig-Holstein is building a "state center for eSport". In: February 22, 2019, accessed September 24, 2019 .
    95. Schleswig-Holstein Kulturportal ( Memento from December 2, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
    96. Heide Simonis - Honorary Citizen of the State of Schleswig-Holstein - Website of the State of Schleswig-Holstein ( Memento from April 3, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
    97. Fielmann is the country's seventh honorary citizen

    Coordinates: 54 ° 28 '  N , 9 ° 31'  E