|passage graves in Denmark|
|surface||1 242.86 km²|
|Highest elevation||Birket Bavnehøj
|Residents||58,759 (January 1, 2020)
47 inhabitants / km²
|Falster and Møn|
Lolland , old name Laaland ("water country" in reference to the numerous lakes and marsh waters of the island; from Old Norse lá ), is the third largest Danish island in the Baltic Sea in terms of area and the fifth largest in terms of population after Amager . It lies south of Zealand and west of Falster , is around 58 km long, 15-25 km wide and has an area of 1,243 km 2 . 58,759 people live on Lolland (as of January 1, 2020).
Lolland is part of Region Sjælland . Important cities are Maribo , Nakskov , Rødby and Rødbyhavn (the ferry port to Fehmarn on the Vogelfluglinie ). Until 1970 Lolland formed the Maribo Office with the neighboring island of Falster . Then it was merged with the Præstø Office to form Storstrøms Office . At the same time, the municipalities of Ravnsborg , Nakskov , Rudbjerg , Højreby , Maribo , Rødby , Holeby , Sakskøbing , Nysted and Nykøbing Falster were established on Lolland, the latter also extending to the island of Falster. On January 1, 2007, the municipalities on Lolland and Falster were reorganized. In the west of Lolland, the former municipalities of Nakskov, Ravnsborg, Rudbjerg, Rødby, Maribo, Holeby and Højreby became the Lolland municipality with today 41,105 inhabitants, the eastern Lolland municipalities of Sakskøbing and Nysted with Nykøbi ng Falster became 60,722 with four municipalities on Falster Guldborgsund Municipality , counting residents (as of January 1, 2020).
The highest point is at 25 m near the town of Horslunde in the north-west. The island is low; there are even areas in the south that are 2 meters below sea level . Almost the entire south coast had to be protected by dikes after the devastating storm surge of 1872 . With few exceptions, the coasts are difficult to access from the sea side due to the presence of shallows. The seas and shipping lanes around the island are the narrow Guldborgsund in the east, the Mecklenburg Bay and the Fehmarnbelt in the south, the Langelandsbelt in the west and finally the Smålandsfarvandet (Småland's fairway) in the north with the islands of Askø , Femø , Fejø and even smaller islands.
The fertile soil usually consists of rich loam mixed with humus with a marl underlay . There are few moors , but there are not insignificant forests. Of the land lakes, the fish-rich Maribo Lake in the middle of the island is the largest.
Lolland has been inhabited since the Middle Stone Age. Since the surrounding Belte were partly still on land at that time, you can find old settlement areas with flint tools on the coast . With the funnel beaker culture (TBK), agriculture and megalithic plant construction came to Lolland. The Kong Svends Høj (King Svens Hill) is the fourth largest passage grave in Denmark. Parallel to the Danish settlement, Slavs tried to settle on the island (and on Falster) in the early Middle Ages , of which Slavic place names with the suffix "itse"; Korselitse, Kramnitse, Kuditse, Tillitse are just as much evidence of this as the Hominde dam . Lolland was later left to various princes of the Danish royal family and during the dissolution of the Danish state under King Christoph II of Denmark (1320-1332), most of the island, including Falster, was in the hands of Count Johann III from Holstein . In the Fehmarnbelt off Lolland, a sea battle between the Danish and a Swedish-Dutch fleet took place on October 13, 1644, in which many Danish ships were lost.
In the 20th century, the population of Lolland initially increased, but then fell back to around the level at the turn of the previous century:
Lolland has some of the most important prehistoric monuments typical of Denmark. Larger collections can be found at Flintinge and in Frejlev Skov . In addition, the passage graves Glentehøj and Kong Svends Høj in the northwest are to be highlighted. Also worth mentioning are the rural churches of Ravnsborg where the Ravnsby Bakker (heights of Ravnsby) are among the most beautiful landscapes. There are also some rune stones , especially the Tillitse .
The museum for Christian Detlev von Reventlow in Pederstrup commemorates the Danish statesman and social reformer in its classicist manor house with landscaped park.
On the Maribo – Bandholm railway line, the Maribo – Bandholm museum railway runs according to schedule in summer with historic steam and diesel locomotives.
The Middelaldercentret Nykøbing is located in Sundby at Guldborgsund , where everyday life and handicrafts of that time are demonstrated in a reconstructed medieval settlement. As a visitor attraction during the holiday season, a knight's tournament with lances piercing and catapults and cannons are shot down.
Economy and Transport
Lolland is very important to traffic thanks to the bird flight over the Fehmarnbelt operated by Scandlines and by rail by Danske Statsbaner . It is planned to build a fixed over (or under) crossing of the Fehmarnbelt from Lolland to Fehmarn. From Rødby the European route E 47 leads to the Guldborgsund tunnel to Falster, where it joins the E 55 , which comes from Gedser , and together they run over the Farøbroerne to Copenhagen on Zealand. From Køge -West to Avedøre they run together with the E 20 , which then continues to the Öresund Bridge and to Malmö in Sweden . The E 47 continues to Helsingør and by ferry across the Öresund to Helsingborg in Sweden.
Although the island has some importance in the transit traffic between Central Europe and Scandinavia and it is directly connected to the greater Copenhagen area via fixed land connections , Lolland suffers from an extremely remote location. The general decline in agriculture has hit the relatively sparsely populated island hard. Compared to other Danish regions, tourism is less developed as Lolland does not have large beaches . The largest industrial enterprise on Lolland is the sugar factory in Nakskov , which is also the largest of its kind in Denmark.
With Rødsand I and II there are two large offshore wind farms , each with 72 and 90 wind turbines, with a total output of 373 megawatts , 10 km off the south coast of the island . They are visible from the coast and from international shipping traffic passing by, especially ferry traffic across the Baltic Sea.
Further systems are located on the immediately adjacent parts of the coast. The fact that one can make a significant contribution to the island's energy supply in this way is of great importance in view of its small population and the available coastline.
- Statistics banks -> Befolkning og valg -> BEF4: Folketal pr. January 1st demands på øer (Danish)
- Johann Jakob Egli : Nomina geographica. Language and factual explanation of 42,000 geographical names of all regions of the world. , Friedrich Brandstetter, 2nd ed. Leipzig 1893, p. 519
- Danmarks Statistics : Statistical Yearbook 2009 - Geography and climate, Table 3 Area and population. Regions and inhabited islands (English; PDF; 39 kB)
- Map of the previous municipal division (Danish)
- Statistics Banks -> Befolkning og valg -> BY1: Folketal January 1st efter byområde, alder og køn (Danish)
- translator2: Denmark - EuroVelo. Retrieved May 18, 2017 .
- Nysted Wind Farm ( Memento of the original from May 29, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.