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coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the city of Fehmarn
Map of Germany, position of the city of Fehmarn highlighted

Coordinates: 54 ° 29 '  N , 11 ° 7'  E

Basic data
State : Schleswig-Holstein
Circle : Ostholstein
Height : 10 m above sea level NHN
Area : 185.48 km 2
Residents: 12,638 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density : 68 inhabitants per km 2
Postal code : 23769
Primaries : 04371, 04372
License plate : OH
Community key : 01 0 55 046

City administration address :
Am Markt 1
23769 Fehmarn
Website : www.stadtfehmarn.de
Mayor : Jörg Weber ( SPD )
Location of the city of Fehmarn in the Ostholstein district
Ahrensbök Altenkrempe Bad Schwartau Beschendorf Bosau Dahme (Holstein) Damlos Eutin Fehmarn Göhl Gremersdorf Grömitz Großenbrode Grube Harmsdorf Heiligenhafen Heringsdorf Kabelhorst Kasseedorf Kellenhusen Lensahn Malente Manhagen Neukirchen Neustadt in Holstein Oldenburg in Holstein Ratekau Riepsdorf Scharbeutz Schashagen Schönwalde am Bungsberg Sierksdorf Stockelsdorf Süsel Timmendorfer Strand Wangels Schleswig-Holsteinmap
About this picture
Fehmarn; View from the south-east in a north-westerly direction. The headland on the left edge of the picture belongs to the mainland, at this narrowest point the Fehmarnsund Bridge leads to the island. The Danish islands can be seen in the top right of the picture; Aerial photo 2007.

Fehmarn ( Danish Femern ) is a German Baltic Sea island and after Rügen and Usedom the third largest island in Germany . It belongs to the Ostholstein district in Schleswig-Holstein . On January 1, 2003, the city ​​of Fehmarn was formed through the merger of all the former communities on the island. The main town and administrative seat is in Burg on Fehmarn . The island is characterized by agriculture and tourism .


Geographical location

Fehmarn is 185 km² in size, has around 78 km of coastline and lies between the Bay of Kiel and Bay of Mecklenburg in the Baltic Sea . The island is through the Fehmarn bridge to the peninsula Wagrien connected. On Fehmarn, the most easterly point of Schleswig-Holstein is in Staberhuk and the most north-easterly point in Marienlicht. Mary's lamp also formed the northeasternmost point of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) from 1952 to 1973 and, from 1958, also the EEC .

Fehmarn has a number of different coastal landscapes: the north coast between Markelsdorfer Huk and Puttgarden is a dune landscape with spit hooks and beach lakes . The east coast is stony and has a cliff coast .

The southern beach at Burgtiefe and the Wulfener Hals are the southernmost and whitest sandy beaches on the island. Here the coastline is flat, just like in the west. The island is usually only a little above sea ​​level . The highest point is the Hinrichsberg (27.2 m), followed by the Wulfener Berg (26.5 m).

The largest town on the island with around 6,000 inhabitants is the former town of Burg , another 8,000 live in the other 42 towns on the island. After Burg, Landkirchen , which itself enjoyed town charter for several decades, and Petersdorf are the most important places on the island.

There are several small islands on or near Fehmarn:

  • Warder (about ten hectares) in the Orther roadstead
  • Kohlhoffinsel (about four hectares) in the Burger Binnensee
  • several smaller inland lake islands (up to about 1.5 ha) in the northern lake lowlands and near Wallnau

Fehmarn is the second largest city in Schleswig-Holstein in terms of area after Lübeck .

Community structure

On January 1, 2003, the town of Burg auf Fehmarn and the island's three rural communities merged. These three communities Bannesdorf auf Fehmarn , Landkirchen auf Fehmarn and Westfehmarn had been connected to each other as the Fehmarn Office . Since then, the entire island has formed the city of Fehmarn.


Local history museum at the Nikolai Church in Burg
St. Jürgen Chapel in Burg

Burg auf Fehmarn is the largest town with around 6000 inhabitants and at the same time the center of the city of Fehmarn. The center of the castle is the church of St. Nikolai , built around 1230, and the old cemetery at its foot, which is planted with old linden trees . The main street of Burgs is Breite Straße. Numerous shops line its sides, most of which are housed in old brick houses. To the west of Breite Straße is the cobblestone market square, where a market takes place every Wednesday . There is the town hall, built in 1901, with its red brick facade and its defiant turrets. Another brick building that is worth seeing is the Gothic St. Jürgen Chapel , which originally belonged to an infirmary. In the founding years , under the then mayor Lafrentz, new residential streets were built, for example in the southwest of the city at that time. In 1905, Burg was connected to the island railway . Burg has been a spa since the 1960s .

Burgstaaken was the city's own port, which silted up over time. In 1886 the port was repaired and the port basin was deepened. Today Burgstaaken is a landing stage for yachts and cutters . Burgstaaken offers visitors restaurants, various leisure activities, direct sales of fresh fish on the cutters and a visit to the Fehmarn fishing cooperative, often incorrectly referred to as a fishing cooperative.

Burgtiefe is the south beach of Fehmarn. Until the 1960s, a large spit in the southeast of the island, the expansion into a spa began. Reinhard Heydrich's widow , Lina Heydrich , lived here and ran a restaurant with an ox grill. Today the IFA Fehmarn Hotel & Ferien-Centrum stands here with its three high-rise buildings on the spit that can be seen from afar. The beach is subject to health tax and was given a new promenade in 2003. There you will find the FehMare bathing and wellness world, the Burgtiefe marina, several restaurants, some shops and various leisure activities.


Slavic foundations
Bannesdorf (farming village and parish), Dänschendorf , Gahlendorf, Gammendorf -Siedendorf, Gollendorf, Hinrichsdorf, Klausdorf , Kopendorf, Lemkendorf, Meeschendorf, Puttgarden , Püttsee, Sahrensdorf, Schlagsdorf, Sulsdorf, Vitzdorf
Desolations (location unknown)
Todaenthorp, Dargenthorp, Taessenmaersthorp, Villa Christiani, Rataemaersthorp, Utaesthorp
Colonist villages
In the course of the eastern colonization before 1230 ( Waldemarsches Erdbuch ), farming villages with two-sided, parallel opposite village square buildings with gable-sided, closely spaced buildings. Colonists were Dutch, Frisians, Westphalia and Holsteiners.
Albertsdorf , Altjellingsdorf, Avendorf, Blieschendorf, Bojendorf , Gammendorf-Hohendorf, Mummendorf, Niendorf, Ostermarkelsdorf, Petersdorf (farming village and parish), Sartjendorf, Teschendorf , Todendorf, Vadersdorf , Wenkendorf , Westermarkelsdorf, Wulfen
New foundations in the 14th century
Neujellingsdorf ( airfield or special landing site ), Strukkamp
Harbor settlements
Places created after 1329 in the immediate vicinity of the sea, with directionless village complexes, predominance of non-farming professions and without a field .

Lemkenhafen , Orth

  • Bisdorf , Presen and Staberdorf are either Slavic foundations or colonist villages .
  • Landkirchen is a church village without its own corridor and was built around the church, which was first mentioned in 1234.
  • Old part, Fehmarnsund, Flügge (see below Miscellaneous ), Gold, Katharinenhof , Marienuchter, Neue Tief, Westerbergen

(special descriptions of villages on Fehmarn near Horst Rohde)


The average temperature is 8.3 ° C, the average precipitation 571 mm. According to the German Weather Service (DWD) , Fehmarn was the sunniest region in Germany in 2008.

Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: wetterkontor.de
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Fehmarn
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 1.8 2.0 4.9 9.2 14.6 18.9 20.3 20.6 17.4 12.7 7.5 3.8 O 11.2
Min. Temperature (° C) −1.6 −1.7 0.3 3.0 7.2 11.3 13.4 13.4 11.1 7.6 3.7 0.3 O 5.7
Precipitation ( mm ) 43.7 29.9 35.3 40.9 46.6 47.3 68.3 49.3 52.5 45.5 60.4 51.4 Σ 571.1
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 1.4 2.4 3.5 5.9 7.7 8.8 7.8 7.6 5.4 3.5 1.9 1.3 O 4.8
Rainy days ( d ) 10 8th 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 11 10 Σ 111
Water temperature (° C) 3 2 2 5 9 13 17th 18th 15th 12 9 5 O 9.2
Humidity ( % ) 90 88 87 84 82 80 81 81 82 86 87 89 O 84.7
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Source: wetterkontor.de


Coastal beach in the south of Fehmarn
Swans on Fehmarn

The fauna largely corresponds to that of northern Germany. Rabbits, hares, deer, foxes and martens are common. However, some mammals cannot be found on Fehmarn: deer, wild boar, badger, squirrels and, until a few years ago, the mole. The Wallnau water bird reserve is located on Fehmarn . The approximately 300 hectare area on the west coast of the Baltic Sea island was established in 1975 as a breeding and shelter for migratory birds . A canal system enables the creation of optimal breeding conditions for over 80 bird species through controllable water levels in meadows, ditches and ponds.

The Kopendorfer Au, the only flowing water on the island , also flows here .

Nature reserves on Fehmarn

Fehmarn has the following nature reserves:

The “ Fehmarnbelt ” nature reserve is a marine reserve near Fehmarn .


The first traces of settlement on Fehmarn date from around 5000 BC. BC, when some fishermen, probably the successors of reindeer hunters, lived on the island, which at that time was still connected to the mainland. Around 2000 years later, the first arable farmers settled. The island was separated from the mainland around 4,300 years ago.

In the years from 400 to 900 AD it came to the settlement of Slavs ( Wagrier ). The island name also comes from the Slavic settlers. Fehmarn has the same etymological background as Pomerania ; the latter is derived from po mor and means "by the sea", Fehmarn from fe more , which means "in the sea".

First mention

The island is mentioned in writing for the first time in the Hamburg Church History of Adam of Bremen, which was written around 1075 . At that time it was settled by Slavs . Helmold von Bosau reported the same about 100 years later . In addition, there is a lack of written sources for the history of Fehmarn before the 13th century. It is believed that the island was Christianized from Denmark, as Fehmarn was ecclesiastically subordinate to the Diocese of Odense on Funen in the later Middle Ages (until the Reformation ) . The first churches in Burg, Petersdorf, Landkirchen and Bannesdorf were all built between 1200 and 1250. By 1200 at the latest, settler families from Holstein, Dithmarschen, Friesland, Lower Saxony and Denmark began to immigrate to Fehmarn. For some time, the culturally diverse old and new settlers seem to have lived side by side (the villages of Puttgarden, Dänschendorf, Gammendorf and Schlagsdorf still have two recognizable districts). The Slavic population eventually merged with the immigrant population and adopted their language.

Under Schleswig and Holstein rule

The island, which is now part of the Duchy of Schleswig , became a Danish fiefdom of the Counts of Holstein in 1326 and in the same year received a court constitution with twelve juries through a hand-held party by Count Johann des Mild , which lasted until 1867.

When the Danish King Erich der Pommer with 700 ships and 3000 mercenaries arrived off the west coast of Fehmarn on June 28, 1420 , he was beaten off with the help of Lübscher "Bombardis" with considerable losses. After the mockery by the Fehmarans, allegedly with the words “If de Koh can spin Boil, King Erich will win our land” (for example: “Only when the cow begins to spin silk can King Erich succeed in closing our land win ”), but on July 1st, 1420 he landed at the Fährschanze am Sunde. The native Fehmaraner and Vice-Rector of Kiel University , Christian Kortholt , gave the number of deaths in this battle as 4,000 in 1673 (1,500 Danes / Swedes and 2,500 islanders). Just four years later, however, the Holsteiner conquered the area, and Count Adolf VIII promoted a new settlement with predominantly Dithmarsch peasant families.

On May 3, 1580, Fehmarn received a blue feudal flag with the golden crown, which is still flagged in front of many island houses today. The crown appeared in the coat of arms as early as the middle of the 14th century. With the Conformatio Libertatis in 1617, the rights of the nobility were restricted and free peasantry was secured for the island. In 1636 the Danish king confirmed that Fehmarn belonged to the Duchy of Schleswig. During the Thirty Years War on June 29, 1644, the earliest Fehmarn church, the Peter and Paul Sacrifice and Thanksgiving Chapel on Puttgarden Beach, was destroyed by Swedish warships.

Under Danish rule: 1713–1864

In 1713, the Danish King Frederick IV (Denmark and Norway) occupied the parts of Schleswig that did not yet belong to him in the Great Northern War (1700–1721), including the island of Fehmarn. In 1720, in the Peace of Frederiksborg , the Danish king was granted undivided sovereign rights in the entire Duchy of Schleswig . On August 22, 1721, the Fehmarans also took the oath of homage to their new sovereign at Gottorf Castle . The Danish king was represented in his function as Duke of Schleswig (it was a personal union ) by a governor residing at Gottorf Castle . The local administrative authorities remained unchanged. The relatively independent landscape constitution for Fehmarn was thus preserved. There was no serfdom and a ban on the nobility, self-government in the parishes according to Fehmarn's land law, regional criminal courts of the parishes themselves over life and death. Burg had his Lübsches right . An 80-year period of peace followed. The ships could sail under the neutral Danebrog .

The Napoleonic era brought war against England on France's side for Denmark - it had to cede its entire fleet to England. However, there was no fighting on the island of Fehmarn. After the Peace of Kiel on January 14, 1814, the island remained with the entire Danish state .

In 1815 the first Fehmarnsche Tageblatt appeared under the name Fehmarnsche Korrespondenz . On October 28, 1832, the newly built lighthouse Marienuchter was put into service. It got its name from the Danish Queen Marie von Hessen-Kassel . She should with her husband, King Friedrich VI. (Denmark and Norway) , have been personally present at the inauguration. On the south side of the old tower is the royal Danish coat of arms.

For the death of the Danish King Christian VIII on January 20, 1848, the death bells on Fehmarn rang twice a day for three weeks for two hours. His death triggered the Schleswig-Holstein War (1848-1851), which was about breaking away from the Danish crown: the German-minded Schleswig-Holstein wanted to join the German Confederation. As a member of the Provisional Government of Schleswig-Holstein , War Minister Prince von Noer had entrusted the establishment of a Fehmarn coastal militia to the landowner of Katharinenhof, Baron von Leesen. On April 15, 1848, the latter arrested the Danish captain von Dircking-Holmfeld, who wanted to clarify whether there were still “Danish sympathies” on the island. A Danish sailor was shot dead during this arrest. When a few hundred Danish soldiers landed at Katharinenhof on July 17, 1850, Baron von Leesen fled.

The then Fehmarn bailiff Ludwig Friedrich Carl Wilhelm von Moltke (a brother of the Prussian field marshal ) was actually employed as a Danish civil servant, but had obviously also changed sides and in 1848, in accordance with the provisional government in Kiel, opposed a statute for arming the people in the Fehmarn region the Danes signed. The uprising did not ultimately lead to success for the Schleswig-Holsteiners; von Moltke was therefore dismissed from service in 1851.

In 1854, on January 27, the last execution according to the New Fehmarn Land Law took place on the Köppelberg near Petersdorf in front of more than 3000 spectators.

The new Danish November constitution of 1863 triggered the German-Danish War , which was waged against Denmark from February 1864 by Prussia and Austria on behalf of the German Confederation . On March 15, 1864, Prussian troops captured Fehmarn, killing two Danish and one Prussian soldier. On the same day the Fehmarans paid homage to Prince Frederick VIII of Schleswig-Holstein in a solemn manner in the Burger Market, believing that he would be their new duke. In the Peace of Vienna (1864) Christian IX. the duchies to Austria and Prussia. Like all of Schleswig, Fehmarn became a Prussian province in 1867.

This not only ended the 150-year Danish rule on the island of Fehmarn, but also the traditional Fehmarn self-government law.

Under Prussian rule

Niobe monument

In 1864, the rulership on Fehmarn had changed dramatically during the German-Danish War : In the morning hours of March 15, 1864, 160 Prussians under Captain Xaver Edmund Karl von Mellenthin stormed the island and surprised the Danes, who resided in the Hotel Wisser on Burger Marktplatz. while sleeping. After a brief firefight that cost three lives, Fehmarn was conquered. A fisherman named Friedrich Stüben from Heiligenhafen had brought the Prussians over the Fehmarnsund as a pilot and received a horse from Prussia and an honorary salary of ten marks .

Fehmarn initially came under the joint administration of Prussia and Austria on behalf of the German Confederation . In accordance with the provisions of the Gastein Treaty , Prussia took over sole administration in 1865. After the Austro-Prussian War , Fehmarn was annexed to Prussia in 1867 and has belonged to the province of Schleswig-Holstein ever since . The Prussian municipal constitution was introduced and Fehmarn was added to the Oldenburg in Holstein district.

In November 1872, a catastrophic storm surge surprised the islanders. A water level of 2.7 m above sea ​​level was measured in Orth . About a third of the island was flooded and many houses were destroyed.

In 1932 the sailing training ship Niobe sank off the coast of the “Green Brink”, which is commemorated by a memorial.

Of the original 40 rural communities , six remained after incorporation on April 1, 1937.

On May 7, 1945, the day the German Wehrmacht signed the total surrender , the first British troops reached Burger Marktplatz. Fehmarn became a British occupation against the will of Stalin through the engagement of Sir William Strand , Baron of Stonesfield. The British occupying forces set up a prisoner-of-war camp for German submarine drivers on the island .

From the post-war period until today

In 1946, after the end of World War II, Prussia was dissolved by the Allies; Fehmarn became part of the newly founded state of Schleswig-Holstein .

In 1970, between September 4th and 6th, the last concert of the musician Jimi Hendrix took place on Fehmarn . A memorial stone was later placed there. Regular revival festivals are still held here today .

On January 1, 2003, the amalgamation of the municipalities of Bannesdorf, Landkirchen and Westfehmarn with the town of Burg auf Fehmarn resulted in today's town of Fehmarn, which occupies the entire area of ​​the island.

Infrastructure history

Hotel complex on the south beach, summer 2017

From 1905 the island railway was built, which connected the former port of Fehmarnsund via Burg with Orth in the west. Planning for a Sound Bridge began as early as 1921. The groundbreaking ceremony for the Vogelfluglinie in 1941 represented a milestone in infrastructure development on Fehmarn , during which the construction of the Fehmarnsund Bridge began 19 years later . The bridge was inaugurated on April 30, 1963 by the then Federal Minister of Transport, Hans-Christoph Seebohm .

In 1978 Fehmarn was cut off from the outside world: during the snow catastrophe in Northern Germany in 1978 , the connection to the mainland was temporarily interrupted and the technical aid organization and the armed forces had to help.

According to the state treaty between Germany and Denmark, Fehmarn is to be connected to the Danish island of Lolland by a fixed Fehmarnbelt link .

Population development

year 1730 1803 1845 1885 1925 1961 2006 2012 2015 2016
Residents 6.313 7,626 8,590 10.150 10,360 12,161 13,036 12,369 12,467 12,552


Logo for public relations of the city of Fehmarn (2016)

Until the end of 2002 there were four communities on the island of Fehmarn (Bannesdorf, Burg, Landkirchen, Petersdorf). Pushed by some community representatives from the rural communities, a discussion about amalgamating the communities arose. Since the pros and cons ran across all parties, the municipalities decided to conduct a survey of the population. The high level of approval surprised everyone and thus led to the formation of the city of "Fehmarn" and thus Burg, which had enjoyed city charter since the 16th century, became a district of the city that encompasses the entire island. The island's only full-time mayor, Klaus Tscheuschner , was commissioned to carry out the merger .

When occasional fears arose that the new city with Klaus Tscheuschner, the then mayor of the city of Burg, as mayor of the entire island might be too focused on Burg, he decided not to run. The non-party Otto-Uwe Schmiedt († 2020) was elected as the first mayor of the city of Fehmarn, who was able to prevail against a joint candidate from the CDU and SPD, among other things. The town hall is located on the Burger Marktplatz.

City council

The city council has 23 seats. The meetings take place in the Senator Thomsen House in Burg.

Municipal election 2018
Gains and losses
compared to 2013
 % p
-7.5  % p
-1.8  % p
-8.0  % p
+ 12.9  % p
+ 2.9  % p
+1.4  % p
+ 0.1  % p

During the legislative period there were several changes in the parliamentary groups: Christiane Dittmer resigned from the FDP and joined the CDU parliamentary group as an independent city representative. Rainer Haselhorst switched from the CDU to the free voters. Gunnar Mehnert and Hans-Peter Thomsen left the SPD and founded the WUW parliamentary group (“We do something”). As of December 2014, the CDU had 7 seats, the SPD and FWV 6 seats each, the Greens and WUW 2 seats each.

Allocation of seats in the Fehmarn City Council since 2018
A total of 23 seats
Municipal elections 2008
  CDU   8 seats (−3)
  SPD 6 seats (−2)
  Free voters (FWV) 6 seats   (+2)
  GREEN 1 seat (+1)
  FDP 1 seat (+1)
  Citizens for Fehmarn 1 seat (+1)
Municipal elections 2003
  CDU   11 seats
  SPD 8 seats
  Free voters (FWV) 4 seats

During the legislative period, Hartmut Specht resigned from the SPD and was therefore non-attached.

Municipal elections 1998
  • Bannesdorf community: 6 SPD, 6 CDU, 1 Greens, 1 free voter
  • City of Burg: 9 SPD, 7 CDU, 1 Greens, 1 Free Voters, 1 Instead of Party
  • Landkirchen municipality: 10 SPD, 4 CDU, 3 free voters
  • Westfehmarn municipality: 7 SPD, 5 CDU, 1 free voter
  • Total: 32 SPD (50.8% of the seats), 22 CDU (34.9%), 2 Greens (3.2%), 6 Free voters (9.5%), 1 Instead of party (1.6% )

coat of arms

Blazon : "In silver over alternating silver and blue waves, a free-standing red castle made of bricks with a crenellated wall, closed golden gate and two blue-roofed tin towers, each with two arched windows, between which the red Holstein shield with the silver nettle leaf floats."

Golden crown in the blue sea

By resolution of the city council of March 11, 2004, the coat of arms of the newly formed city of Fehmarn is retroactive to January 1, 2004 that of the former city of Burg auf Fehmarn .

The "Golden Crown in the Blue Sea" waving in front of many houses became the feudal flag of the island of Fehmarn on May 3, 1580. It refers to the House of Oldenburg , which then as now forms the Danish royal family . Nowadays, however, it is no longer an official symbol of the island and was in the meantime even protected by trademark law after it was not allowed to be used as the coat of arms of the united city.

At the end of 2007 the city of Fehmarn achieved a great success. According to the Federal Patent Court in Munich , “The Golden Crown in the Blue Sea” may no longer be registered as a trademark , but is common property. This closed the file in favor of the Fehmarans.

Twin cities


The Christianization began with King Knud the Great , the Fehmarn in 1022 the Diocese of Odense on Funen imputed.

The majority of the citizens belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church , which is divided into four parishes with seats in Burg, Landkirchen, Bannesdorf and Petersdorf. There is also a Roman Catholic church in Burg .

Culture and sights

St. Nikolai Church in Burg

Churches on the island of Fehmarn


  • The preacher's widow's house from 1581, today the Peter Wiepert Heimatmuseum
  • Katharinenhof Museum
  • Lemkenhafen Mill and Agriculture Museum
  • E. L. Kirchner documentation
  • Galileo knowledge museum


  • Puttgarden ferry port
  • Burgstaaken (with museum submarine)
  • Fehmarnsund (former Sund ferry port, today a marina)
  • Orth
  • Lemkenhafen
  • Castle depth

More Attractions

Südermühle (1893) in Petersdorf
Memorial stone on the war quota near Landkirchen

Lighthouses on Fehmarn



  • Primary school of the city of Fehmarn in Burg, Mühlenstraße (249 students in 12 classes)
  • Landkirchen elementary school, Hauptstraße (127 students in 6 classes)
  • Inselschule Fehmarn (community school with upper secondary school level and support center share), Kantstraße in Burg (874 students in 39 classes / 47 supervised)
  • Montessori school (private primary and community school sponsored by Montessori gGmbH), Klaus-Groth-Straße in Burg (70 students in 4 classes)

Student numbers from the school year 2019/2020.

Other educational institutions

  • City library, Bahnhofstrasse
  • Volkshochschule Ostholstein-Nord (Heiligenhafen, Oldenburg, Fehmarn)

Since 2007 all secondary schools on Fehmarn have been merged to form the Fehmarn Island School. The island school is one of the first community schools in Germany, so that the school reform was also reported on at national level. For the 2010/2011 school year, an extension was built next to the old grammar school, so that all years can now be taught centrally. Older plans included building a separate building for each year. These plans were abandoned. The auditorium and the cafeteria are also located in the new school building. The subject rooms are located in the old grammar school, which can be reached through a passage. As a temporary solution, some classes were housed in mobile buildings before and during the construction of the new school building.


The “Fehmarn Rund” regatta is the largest catamaran regatta in Germany. The organizer is the city of Heiligenhafen.

From 1994 to 2010 the largest beach volleyball series in Germany, the Smart Beach Tour , made an annual tour stop on Fehmarn.

The international football tournament Fehmarn Cup has been taking place since 2004 . In 2007 64 teams took part.

A beach basketball tournament has been held annually in Burgtiefe as a small beach event since 2004 . The German championship in kitesurfing , former kitesurf trophy, today kitesurf masters, has established itself on the Baltic Sea island. Fehmarn is known to kite surfers as "Germany's Hawaii". The conditions around the island, especially in the Orther roadstead (with westerly winds) and at the Grünen Brink (with northeast winds), are considered ideal. There are more than ten possible surfing areas for kitesurfing and windsurfing . Until 2009 the Surf Festival took place at Wulfener Hals, where there was also a "Race around Fehmarn", where windsurfers competed against kiters and catamarans. The record was held by Bernd Flessner from 2009 to 2017 with 2 hours and 48 minutes . On August 25, 2017, this record was exceeded by kite surfer Florian Gruber with a time of 1 hour 43 minutes.

Every year at the end of June and the beginning of July there is a large horse show on the grounds of the Fehmarn Ring Riding Club on the Grüner Weg. Many well-known show jumping and dressage riders are at the start here. In addition, there are three smaller horse shows.


  • A cake is not pre-cut on Fehmarn. Instead, each person cuts a piece and passes the cake on. This also applies to the main course at larger festivals, which is served twice. So everyone gets exactly as much cake, meat, side dish and sauce as they want to eat.
  • The Scharwenzel card game , which is only played on Fehmarn, is also popular.
  • There used to be around 15 partnerships between the different clans. This tradition was probably brought by immigrants from Dithmarschen , where cousins ​​were common up until the ban in 1550. Today there is only the "cousin of Mackeprangen and Witten", which also included the former German President Karl Carstens , whose grandmother was born Mackeprang.
  • Also typical of Fehmarn are the Kröpel , a pastry that is only prepared for the wheat harvest, and the wreath cake , which is only baked for weddings. It is broken into small pieces by the bride and groom and given to the wedding guests for dessert.


The Lübeck – Puttgarden railway line (Vogelfluglinie) on Fehmarn (black) and the former KOE (gray)
Fehmarnsund Bridge from Fehmarnsund with a view to the southwest over the Sound to the mainland; Recorded in 2005

Connection to the mainland and Denmark

Fehmarn has been connected to mainland Germany by rail and road through the Fehmarnsund Bridge since 1963 (when the Vogelfluglinie opened ). Until then, ferries from Großenbrode were the only feeders to the island. The network arch bridge was built between 1960 and 1963 and is popularly known as a “ coat hanger ” because of its shape . There were already plans for a bridge over the Fehmarnsund during the German Empire and the Weimar Republic , but war and inflation prevented it from being realized.

Between Puttgarden and Rødby on the Danish island of Lolland run during the Vogelfluglinie Trajektfähren of Scandlines in heavy clock. A rail and road connection to Lolland as a replacement for the existing ferry connection has long been discussed. On June 29, 2007, Germany and Denmark decided to build the 19 kilometer long fixed link between Puttgarden and Rødby on Lolland, which has now also been approved by the parliaments. It is expected to cost 7.4 billion euros, which will mainly be borne by Denmark. For 15 years there had been speculation about the construction of a bridge or a tunnel from Puttgarden to Rødby, which would complete the European transit network and connect Scandinavia with mainland Europe via the Fehmarnbelt . So far, this plan of a fixed Fehmarnbelt crossing has not met with much approval from the population, as jobs at the Puttgarden ferry port would be lost, losses in tourism are expected and conservationists fear disadvantages for the local animal species.

On March 3, 2020, the Federal Ministry of Transport confirmed plans that the Fehmarnsund Bridge should be supplemented by a combined road and rail tunnel by 2028. The bridge is to be preserved and will be available for pedestrians, cyclists and slow traffic in the future.

Rail transport

Bird airline

The Puttgarden ferry station lost its long-distance connection with the suspension of ferry traffic on the Vogelfluglinie on December 14, 2019 and is only connected by the regional train of DB Regio Schleswig-Holstein (Puttgarden – Lübeck) every two hours.

Railway connection castle

The Fehmarn-Burg stop was opened on July 31, 2010 . It is located north of the former Burg (Fehmarn) railway station of the Inselbahn. Regional trains from Lübeck stop every two hours, and since December 2010 also Intercity (seasonally a pair of trains from Cologne ).

Former station of the Inselbahn Fehmarn in Landkirchen
Former route of the Fehmarn island railway near Landkirchen

Fehmarn island railway

Until the mid-1990s the wrong Fehmarn Island Railway Fehmarn , on 8 September 1905 as a small train Lütjenbrode-Orth of the circle Oldenburger railway was opened. It connected the Fehmarn villages Orth, Petersdorf, Landkirchen, Burg, Burgstaaken, Wulfen and Fehmarnsund via a ferry with Großenbrode, Lütjenbrode and Heiligenhafen on the mainland. The locomotives for the insular section of the route were stationed in Burg, so that mostly only the wagons needed to be transported on the ferry. After passenger traffic from Burg to Orth was abandoned on June 2, 1956 and to Fehmarnsund station on April 30, 1963, individual passenger trains ran to Burg station via the Vogelfluglinie until May 1984. On February 1, 1995, the last section between Burg and Landkirchen, on which goods traffic was still operated, was closed. The abandoned railway lines lay fallow for many years.

Road traffic

The European route 47 , which leads from Fehmarnsund across the island to the Puttgarden ferry port , is part of the Vogelfluglinie, i.e. European transit traffic.

Local public transport with buses is operated by the transport company Autokraft , a subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn .

Bicycle traffic

There are several national and international cycle routes on and over Fehmarn, e.g. B. the Baltic Sea Cycle Route , which runs around the Baltic Sea as part of the European EuroVelo route network.

Air traffic

In Neujellingsdorf there is the Fehmarn-Neujellingsdorf airfield .



Benefiting from the fact that Fehmarn is one of the sunniest places in Germany with around 2152 hours of sunshine a year (measured at the weather station in Wulfen in 2009), around 300,000 visitors come to the island every year, not counting day visitors.

The recreational facilities of the Burg auf Fehmarn spa are particularly popular during the holiday season , so that all sleeping places are usually fully booked. This is where the IFA holiday center is located. In addition, there are playgrounds , miniature golf courses , boules playing fields and other sports activities throughout the entire Burgtiefener complex . The FehMare wave and adventure pool was opened on February 28, 2009.

The holiday offer on Fehmarn has been greatly appreciated since the Fehmarnsund Bridge was built. This made it easier and faster for the inhabitants of the mainland to cross over to Fehmarn. The Fehmarans, who until then had a strong focus on agriculture, seized the opportunity and offered the city dwellers the previously unknown and now commercially important “ farm holiday ”.

The beaches on Fehmarn:

Driftwood on the Katharinenhofer natural beach
Meeschendorfer beach

Wind turbines

Wind turbines have been built on Fehmarn since 1991 . So far five wind farms have been built ; the "Fehmarn wind farm", with 34 wind turbines, was previously entered in the Guinness Book of Records as Germany's largest wind farm.

The construction of these plants was controversial among the island's residents, as they secure jobs and generate high business tax income, but also impair the previously agricultural environment of Fehmarn and thus possibly damage tourism. However, the vast majority of residents have a positive view of the facilities.

Since the mid-2000s, the wind farms have been subjected to repowering in order to reduce the number of individual systems while increasing the installed capacity and electricity yield. The number of 144 wind turbines is to be reduced to around 120 by installing larger and more powerful wheels. By August 2010, 112 wind turbines with a total output of 50  MW had been replaced by 74 new systems with a nominal output of 166 MW. The standard work capacity rose from 104 to 380  GWh annually, which corresponds to the electricity consumption of 109,000 households.

Around 30 kilometers northeast of Fehmarn is the Danish offshore wind farm Rødsand , which was the largest offshore wind farm in the world when it was built. Since there are also an above-average number of solar systems per capita and energy is also generated in biomass power plants , Fehmarn uses renewable energies to produce many times its own electricity consumption .


The newspaper Fehmarnsches Tageblatt and the free Fehmarn Magazin appear in Burg . There are also local editions of the Lübecker Nachrichten ( Ostholstein-Nord ) as well as the free newspapers of the reporter and Urlaub-Kurier .

In addition, the Ostholstein Presse internet portal , which is produced on Fehmarn and mainly reports on the island and Ostholstein, has existed since 2019 .

Well-known people on the island

People who have lived and worked on Fehmarn or are connected to the island through their families:

Surname known as Connection to Fehmarn
Jep Nissen Andersen Home poet was a primary school teacher on Fehmarn
Birger Schmidt Bearer of the Federal Cross of Merit grew up on Fehmarn
Jens-Uwe Beyer alias popnoname Musician grew up on Fehmarn
Jürgen Blin Heavyweight boxer (among others against Muhammad Ali ) born on Fehmarn
Helmut Frenz Bishop and human rights activist five years parish priest on Fehmarn
Christian Calenus Mathematician, physician, historian and poet. born on Fehmarn
David Gloxin Mayor and diplomat of the Hanseatic City of Lübeck born on Fehmarn
Klaus Groth Low German language writer wrote the " Quickborn " here
Axel Hager Beach volleyball player, bronze medalist in Sydney 2000 born on Fehmarn
Roger Handt Radio presenter of the WDR born on Fehmarn
Lina Heydrich Wife of the war criminal Reinhard Heydrich born on Fehmarn
Dora Heyenn 2008 - 2015 leader of the Left Party in the Hamburg Parliament born on Fehmarn
Gisela Hoffmann artist born on Fehmarn
Arwed Imiela Women murderer also known as "The Bluebeard", buried several of his victims here
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner Expressionist painter Ernst Ludwig Kirchner on Fehmarn
Christian Kortholt the Elder Protestant theologian born on Fehmarn
Gustav Kröhnke Civil engineer and land surveyor was the first to come up with the idea of ​​the Vogelfluglinie as the shortest connection between Scandinavia and Germany
Ronny Marcos Soccer player grew up on Fehmarn
Xaver Edmund Karl von Mellenthin Prussian officer occupied Fehmarn in 1864 during the German-Danish War
Wilhelm Mildenstein introduced the Low German service as a pastor
Ludwig von Moltke Danish bailiff on Fehmarn
Benedict Niese Classical philologist and ancient historian born on Fehmarn
Charlotte Niese Writer born on Fehmarn
Hans Hansen Palmus Home poet Village teacher in Vadersdorf
Irmgard Riessen actress born on Fehmarn
Amalie Schoppe poetess born on Fehmarn
Leonhard Selle organist Active on Fehmarn from 1843–1855
Diether Trede Soccer player and teacher born on Fehmarn
Peter Wiepert Local history explorer
Nick Wilder (actually Klaus Wilder) actor born on Fehmarn
Dirk Weetendorf former football professional and coach born on Fehmarn
Peter Witte Governor of Fehmarn and founder of the St. John's Prayer born on Fehmarn

Fehmarn has produced some successful riders, including Inga Czwalina as well as Hans-Thorben and Kai Rüder (World Champion Versatility 2009).

Memorial stone for Jimi Hendrix's last appearance at Flügge on Fehmarn



  • Zsuzsa Bink: Fehmarn. In: German Landscapes. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2003, ISBN 3-10-070404-5 .
  • Robert Bohn : History of Schleswig-Holstein. C. H. Beck, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-406-50891-X .
  • Claudia Czellnik: The big book about Fehmarn. The sunny island in the Baltic Sea. Edition Limosa, Clenze 2010, ISBN 978-3-86037-379-8 .
  • Karl-Wilhelm Klahn: short chronicle of the island of Fehmarn 1022-2001. Heiligenhafen
  • Jan Schröter : Fehmarn. An illustrated travel guide . Edition Temmen, ISBN 3-926958-87-1 .
  • Peter Schuster: Fehmarn. Wachholtz, ISBN 3-529-05519-0 .
  • J. Voß: Chronicle of the island of Fehmarn. Commissions-Verlag 1889, unaltered reprint 1978, Niederlechner bookstore, Burg / Fehmarn.
  • Anke Wolff: Fehmarn - where the world is most beautiful. Jung, Kiel 1999, ISBN 3-929596-79-2 .

Web links

Commons : Fehmarn  - album with pictures, videos and audio files
Wikivoyage: Fehmarn  - travel guide

Individual evidence

  1. North Statistics Office - Population of the municipalities in Schleswig-Holstein 4th quarter 2019 (XLSX file) (update based on the 2011 census) ( help on this ).
  2. Area changes from 01.01. until December 31, 2003. In: Community directory information system GV-ISys. Federal Statistical Office, July 1, 2007, accessed on December 1, 2017 .
  3. Territorial change agreement . Castle on Fehmarn October 11, 2002 ( Online [PDF; 21 kB ]).
  4. Horst Rohde: The Fehmarn house and his village , Karl-Wachholtz-Verlag, Neumünster 1984
  5. Peter Borkenhagen: The mammals of Schleswig-Holstein: Red list . Data status: November 2013. In: Series LLUR SH - Nature - RL 25 . 4th edition. Ministry for Energy Transition, Agriculture, Environment and Rural Areas of the State of Schleswig-Holstein (MELUR), 2014, ISBN 978-3-937937-76-2 ( schleswig-holstein.de ( memento from April 25, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) in the web archive archive.org [PDF; 2.5 MB ; accessed on July 21, 2017]).
  6. Fehmarn - in the middle of the sea. In: fehmarn.de. Retrieved August 11, 2017 .
  7. ^ J. Voss: Chronicle-like description of the island of Fehmarn. 1st chapter. Burg aF 1889, pp. 9–34. Kurt Düring: The settlement image of the island of Fehmarn. Stuttgart 1937, pp. 17-64.
  8. Wolfgang Prange: Beginnings of the Higher Jurisdiction in Schleswig-Holstein in the 16th Century in: Higher Jurisdiction in Schleswig-Holstein , Special Issue of the Schleswig-Holstein Advertisements , July 1988, p. 15
  9. Christian Kortholt: Femaria desolata, or: Historical description of what forms the island of Femern has been miserably destroyed by King Erichen for three and a half hundred years. 1673 ( digital copy (PDF) Royal Library Copenhagen)
  10. ↑ Zone boundary / history: where does Fehmarn belong? In: Der Spiegel . No. 48 , 1956 ( online ).
  11. fehmarnfestivalgroup.com ( Memento from December 6, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
  12. Fehmarnsches Tageblatt on December 21, 2014: Who will be next?
  13. Schleswig-Holstein's municipal coat of arms
  14. Reisecenter Fehmarn: Origin of the Fehmarn flag
  15. Fehmarnsches Tageblatt: "Goldene Krone" should belong to everyone again
  16. Marcus Christoph Burg: “Goldene Krone” should belong to everyone again. In: fehmarn24.de. December 27, 2007, accessed March 18, 2018 .
  17. ^ The parishes of the Ostholstein parish. In: Internet presence. Ostholstein Church District, accessed on April 4, 2020 .
  18. Statistical Office for Hamburg and Schleswig-Holstein: Directory of general education schools in Schleswig-Holstein 2019/2020
  19. Time
  20. Fehmarn-Party.de , accessed on March 8, 2012
  21. Report on the 2009 race , accessed on April 17, 2012
  22. Florian Gruber gets the Race around the Island record. In: http://kitesurfworldcup.de/ . Retrieved August 25, 2017 .
  23. Anyone who curses at a cousin feast has to pay for a ton of beer . In: Hamburger Abendblatt . No. 32 , February 7, 1980, p. 24 ( Memento of February 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive ( Memento of February 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) [accessed on May 5, 2018]).
  24. Fehmarnsund gets a tunnel NDR television, March 3, 2020
  25. Baltic Sea Cycle Route - Baltic Sea Schleswig Holstein. Retrieved May 6, 2017 .
  26. EuroVelo 10. In: eurovelo.com. Retrieved April 21, 2018 .
  27. repowering. Double the performance, triple the return . In: Renewable Energies. The magazine , August 29, 2010, accessed July 2, 2014
  28. ^ News for Fehmarn and Ostholstein. Retrieved January 14, 2020 (German).
  29. Federal Order of Merit for Educators. zdf.de
  30. Died: Helmut Frenz . In: Der Spiegel . No. 38 , 2011 ( online ).