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Spits in the Baltic Sea

A spit (from Middle High German  nare "isthmus" or Lithuanian neringa "stick in") or sand hook is a narrow strip of sand that separates the lagoon from the open sea. Spits are typical of tidal seas like the Baltic Sea . If a spit closes, the separated lagoon becomes a lagoon .


The formation of a spit requires a flat coastal fore, a sufficiently large sediment store and a low or no tidal range . If the tidal range is stronger, barrier islands arise, if the tidal range is higher than 4 m, sandbanks arise . A spit is created when a compensatory coastline is formed due to sediment drifting through currents parallel to the coast at places where the coastline turns inland opposite the current line . There, the sediment carried along by the current is initially deposited as a beach hook, which can continue to grow into a spit. The widely separated by the spit from the sea part is Haff or Bodden called and contains brackish water , since it is the one hand, increasingly ausgesüßt by freshwater input and on the other hand there is only limited water exchange with the open sea. The point at which tributaries break through the spit and flow into the open sea is called the deep . In a closed spit, the separated water is called a lagoon .

Often secondary dunes are formed on the spit .


Big spits are:

Curonian Lagoon.jpg Curonian Spit between the Baltic Sea and the Curonian Lagoon , north of the Samland peninsula , to Lithuania and Russia
Vistula Lagoon.jpg Fresh spit between the Baltic Sea and Fresh Lagoon , south of the Samland peninsula , to Poland and Russia
Hel peninsula landsat.jpg Hel Peninsula in the Gdańsk Bay ; earlier Puck Spit called
Venice Lagoon December 9 2001.jpg Islands of Lido , Pellestrina and Sottomarina between the Adriatic Sea and the Venice lagoon

Baltic region

Spits can be found in the Baltic Sea in the sluice mouth , in the Flensburg Fjord on the Holnis peninsula , on the Kiel Outer Fjord near Wendtorf , in the Hohwacht Bay , on Fehmarn ( Grüner Brink , Krummsteert ), between Fischland and Darß , Darß and Zingst , Zingst and Großer Werder , Kleine Werder and Bock , on Vilm ( Großer Haken ) and Altbessin and Neubessin on Hiddensee . Furthermore, in the area of ​​the North Sea, there are also smaller spit hooks on Sylter Ellenbogen and Amrumer Odde .


There are numerous spits on the Mediterranean coast of France; The numerous shallow coastal lakes (étangs) there are separated from the open sea (e.g. Étang de Canet-Saint-Nazaire , Étang de Leucate , Étang de Thau , Étang de l'Or , Étang de Vaccarès , Étang de Berre ) .


The so-called Mar Chica ("little sea") near the Moroccan city ​​of Nador is one of the largest lagoon lakes in Africa; it is separated from the Mediterranean by a spit of almost 20 km with only one opening.


A series of spits shape the north coast of the Sea of Azov . At 115 km, the longest is the Arabat Spit between the Crimean peninsula and the Kherson region on the Ukrainian mainland. To the east lie the Fedotowa Spit , the Berdjanska Spit and the Ejskaja Spit.


The south coast of the Gulf of Mexico is lined with numerous lagoon lakes with mostly palm-covered spits; the largest is the Laguna de Términos .

See also

Web links

Wiktionary: Spit  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Commons : Spits  - collection of images, videos and audio files


  1. The Baltic coast. From Haffs, spits and beach hooks . Scinexx.de. 20th June 2014.