68 inhabitants / km²
|main place||Mountains on Rügen|
Rügen is the largest in area and with around 77,000 inhabitants also the most populous island in Germany . It lies off the Baltic coast of Western Pomerania and belongs to the district of Western Pomerania-Rügen in the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania .
The "gate" to the island of Rügen is the Hanseatic city of Stralsund , Rügen is connected to the mainland by Rügen dam and Rügen bridge over the two kilometers wide Strelasund . The island has an area of 926 km² , a maximum length of 52 km (from south to north) and a maximum width of 41 km in the south. Due to the Ice Age , Rügen is very hilly and rich in water.
The coast is strongly structured by numerous sea bays and lagoons ( Bodden and Wieke ) as well as protruding peninsulas and headlands . In June 2011 UNESCO awarded the Jasmund National Park on Rügen, which is known for its huge beech population and white chalk cliffs, with the status of World Natural Heritage .
Of lying on Rügen central main town Bergen , the port city of Sassnitz , the princely residence of Putbus , the country town Garz and the seaside resorts Binz , Sellin , Göhren , Baabe , Thiessow , Breege and Altefähr . Rügen is a popular holiday destination primarily thanks to its diverse landscape and nature, the thatched and bath architecture with many architectural monuments , the growing number of restaurants and cultural offerings and the long, fine sandy beaches . The island recorded a good 6 million overnight stays in 2014, slightly fewer than the German island record holder Sylt . The traffic situation on Rügen is considered problematic for residents and vacationers, especially due to frequent traffic jams and a lack of alternatives such as bus, train, ferry and flight connections.
The Latin and historical name of the island of Rügen is Rugia . The adjective for something related to the island is rügisch , also rüganisch or Rügener . The islanders are called Rügener or Rüganer .
Rügen, together with the Danish island of Møn on the opposite side of the Baltic Sea from Rügen, once belonged to a larger plateau made of chalk limestone that had been pushed to the surface of the earth by tectonic movements. By far the largest part of this land mass has disappeared again through erosion and faults , the two islands with their characteristic chalk cliffs remained.
The northern part of the Greifswald Bodden , the Rügische Bodden , is a large bay in the south of Rügen. In front of the coast is the island of Vilm . At the western end of the bay extends the Zudar peninsula with the southernmost point of Rügen ( Palmer Ort ); at the east end, the again highly indented Mönchgut peninsula juts out into the sea. This peninsula ends in the east at Cape Nordperd near Göhren and in the south at Cape Südperd near Thiessow . In the west of the Mönchgut peninsula, a five-kilometer-long narrow headland, the Reddevitzer Höft, divides the two bays of Having and Hagensche Wiek .
The northeast of the island is complaints of the peninsula Jasmund formed with the core island " Muttland " by the Spit Schmale Heide between Binz- prora and Sassnitz- Mukran and a rail and road embankment at Lietzow is connected. The Schmale Heide separates the outer bay of the Prorer Wiek from the Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden . On the Jasmund peninsula there is the Piekberg ( ), the highest elevation and with the Königsstuhl , a 118 meter high chalk cliff of the Stubbenkammer , the most striking landmark on the island of Rügen. Another spit, the Schaabe , connects Jasmund with the Wittow peninsula in the north of Rügen. The Schaabe in turn separates the outer bay of the Tromper Wiek from the Great Jasmunder Bodden . The Wittow peninsula and the long and narrow Bug peninsula to the west are separated from the main part of Rügen by the Rassower Strom , the Breetzer Bodden and the Breeger Bodden . The Wittow peninsula closes to the north with Cape Arkona . The northernmost point of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania is just under a kilometer to the northwest at 54 ° 41 'N. Br. In front of this cliff ( Gellort ) lies the Siebenschneiderstein - the fourth largest boulder in Rügen - on the bank.
The north-west and west side of the island of Rügen is also strongly structured, but a little flatter. In front of it are the islands of Hiddensee and Ummanz and the smaller islands of Öhe , Liebitz and Heuwiese . Due to the removal of sand and accumulation of sand in the Baltic Sea, the fairways north and south of the island of Hiddensee have to be constantly dredged, otherwise Hiddensee and Rügen would “ grow together” within a few years.
The center of Rügen is only slightly hilly, the area is mainly characterized by agriculture . East of the city of Bergen on Rügen are reached ( Rugard with observation tower) and in the south-eastern hill country of Granitz . The soil on Rügen is very fertile and productive, especially on Wittow, the island's granary. There are also larger cabbage growing areas. Rügen is littered with many erratic boulders, of which the 22 largest are among the legally protected geotopes ( see also: erratic boulders around and on Rügen ).
The city of Bergen is the central place and middle center of Rügen . The basic centers are Binz , Garz , Putbus , Sagard , Samtens , Sassnitz and Sellin / Baabe . Other communities with over a thousand inhabitants (as of December 2013) are Altefähr near Stralsund , Dranske , Gingst , Poseritz and Wiek . The city of Stralsund acts as the regional center for the island of Rügen.
Many places on Rügen are of tourist importance, especially in the vicinity of attractions such as Cape Arkona ( Putgarten ), castles, cultural events ( Ralswiek ) and near the water. Traditional houses with thatched roofs as well as plastered, field stone and brick facades are often typical for rural places, while in the venerable seaside resorts, sophisticated spa architecture predominates.
Garz primary school
Prehistory and Teutons
Finds in the bay indicate settlement since the Stone Age . All over Rügen you can find many stone monuments, such as large stone graves and sacrificial stones , which have been preserved to this day. For the time around the birth of Christ, the residents of Rügen are counted as part of the East Germanic tribe of the Rugians , who settled roughly in the region of what later became Western Pomerania. Whether they give the island its name is controversial. During the Great Migration period , almost all Rugians moved south and founded an empire in Pannonia .
From the 7th century on, the West Slavic Ranen (Rujanen) established an empire on Rügen and the surrounding coast between Recknitz and Ryck , which the history of both the Baltic Sea region and the surrounding Obodritic (in the west) and Liutician (in the south) mainland for the next Decisive for centuries. The basis of the strong military position was formed by the Ranian fleet and the favorable geographical position. Denmark , which at that time was very successful in Britain and Scandinavia , was unable to effectively get over its ranic rivals in the Baltic Sea region or protect its coast from Ranic military campaigns until the 12th century. Numerous castles and temples were built in the Barth-Jasmund-Gristow triangle. The temple castle Arkona , consecrated to the god Svantovit , gained importance far beyond the borders of the Ranenreich. After the fall of Rethras, it became the main sanctuary of all pagan northwestern Slavs . The secular center of the Ranenreich was Charenza (possibly identical to today's Garzer or Venzer Burgwall); The main trading center was Ralswiek at the southernmost point of the Great Jasmunder Bodden .
Principality under Danish feudal sovereignty
The Danish King Waldemar I and his military leader and advisor, Bishop Absalon von Roskilde, destroyed the Svantovit temple in the ramparts at Cape Arkona in 1168 , thereby ending both the territorial and religious independence of the Ranen. The Ranenfürst Jaromar I († 1218) became a vassal of the Danish king, the islanders Christianized. In 1184, the Pomeranians, who had previously extended their domain to the Land of Gützkow and Demmin and thus became direct neighbors of the now Danish Principality of Rügen, tried to take Rügen for the empire on behalf of their liege lord, the Roman-German Emperor, but were defeated in the Greifswalder Bodden .
Under Danish rule, the principality of Rügen changed its face. Danish monasteries were founded (e.g. Bergen 1193 and Hilda , now Eldena, 1199). German colonists were brought into the country and soon made up the largest and most culturally formative part of the population. The Slavic cultural element disappeared, also for lack of own Slavic church structures, so that the Ranen in the following years in the German-influenced today people of Rügen aufgingen . In addition to the settlement of the country, the construction of monasteries and churches, new cities were also founded. In 1234 the Rügen prince Wizlaw I founded the city of Stralsund and in 1241 granted Greifswald market rights. The power of the cities grew rapidly and forced the Rügen princes to make concessions - for example, the Barther Fürstenburg was razed and Schadegast, the princely “twin” of the bourgeois Stralsund, was evacuated in favor of the latter.
In 1304 a storm flood known as " All Saints Flood 1304 " devastated the island. Furthermore, the headland between Mönchgut and Ruden , the existence of which has not been clearly proven, is said to have been flooded.
Rügen as part of Pomerania
After the death of the last Slav prince, Wizlaw III. In 1325 the land came to Pommern-Wolgast as a result of the hereditary fraternization closed in 1321 and was part of the property of a branched line (Barth) from 1368/72 to 1451. Combined with simultaneous Danish throne disputes, it came to the two Wars of the Rügischen Succession . After its conclusion, the former principality came to Pommern-Wolgast in 1354 and thus became part of the Holy Roman Empire . Finally, in 1478, Pommern-Wolgast was united with Pomerania-Stettin .
With this country it came to Sweden in 1648 through the Peace of Westphalia (→ Swedish-Pomerania ). In disputes with Brandenburg, Rügen was briefly snatched from the Swedes several times: In 1678 a Brandenburg-Danish army conquered the island during the Swedish-Brandenburg War (→ Invasion of Rügen (1678) ), but after the peace of Saint-Germain it returned in the following year Swedish ownership passed. Rügen was captured a second time in 1715 during the Great Northern War ; During this war, several sea battles took place in front of the island (→ Sea battle before Rügen (1712) , Sea battle near Jasmund (1715) ).
At the time of the coalition wars , Rügen was held by the French from 1807 to 1813 . In the Peace of Kiel of January 14, 1814, it first went from Sweden to Denmark and then fell through the Congress of Vienna in 1815 with New Western Pomerania to Prussia . Since 1818 the island belonged to the administrative district Stralsund and thus to the Prussian province of Pomerania .
With the founding of the town of Putbus , the first seaside resort in Pomerania and on Rügen was created as early as 1810, following the example of the founding of Heiligendamm in Mecklenburg in 1793. In the later 19th century, other seaside resorts were established, especially on the east coast - including Binz , Baabe , Göhren , Sassnitz and Sellin .
During the Second World War, many evacuees were on Rügen (including Kinderlandverschickung ); From 1945 onwards, numerous refugees and displaced persons came to Rügen. Some of them settled there permanently.
The island was the focus of the GDR government's infamous Rose Action to nationalize hotels, taxi and service companies on February 10, 1953. The reason is said to have been a visit by Walter Ulbricht to the island of Rügen, during which he found out about the many that still exist private hotels and guesthouses. Many of the hotel owners were condemned under the pretext of white-collar crime or acting as agents for the West in a fast-track trial, then expropriated and imprisoned . Many of the owners and small businesses were subsequently imprisoned in the Bützow-Dreibergen prison. The expropriated hotels and pensions were to be officially transferred to the FDGB (“Free German Trade Union Federation”). In fact, accommodation for the barracked people's police (KVP) was initially created. With the expropriation of the hotel operations, tourism on Rügen temporarily collapsed almost completely in 1953.
For almost four decades the island was one of the most important vacation areas in the GDR. In terms of accommodation for tourists, the FDGB actually gained a dominant position. In 1963 the FDGB-Feriendienst made 7519 places available, the German travel agency 2906 places and companies and organizations 5025 places available. There were also 12,245 places in children's holiday camps and a further 20,800 places for camping holidaymakers. The campsites were mostly near the beach. New overnight accommodation capacities were not created on a larger scale until the 1970s and 1980s.
According to a survey from 1976, Rügen had 384 villages. 13.7% of the island's total population lived in the 271 towns with fewer than 100 inhabitants. 71 places had a population between 100 and 250 inhabitants, 17 places between 250 and 500 inhabitants.
In 1990, Rügen became part of the state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and, together with the neighboring islands of Hiddensee and Ummanz, formed the district of Rügen . Since the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania district reform in 2011 , Rügen has been part of the Western Pomerania-Rügen district .
Rügen is one of the tourist strongholds in Germany. The island records about a quarter of all overnight stays in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. In 2014, the island was the most popular German holiday island with 5.89 million overnight stays.
Most guests visit Rügen between April and October; the main season is between June and August, but the calm atmosphere of winter is also appreciated. The most important holiday resorts for bathing and health tourism are Binz , Sellin and Göhren as well as Sassnitz as a state-approved resort. Rügen's unique natural and cultural landscape attracts tourists who explore the island by bike, on foot or by sailing boat. In addition to the classic sights such as Cape Arkona , the chalk cliffs , Prora , Granitz hunting lodge or the classicist buildings by Putbus , the Störtebeker Festival in Ralswiek has been very popular for several years . There is also an Ozeaneum and a natural history museum in Stralsund with a focus on the sea.
On the Jasmund peninsula is the Jasmund National Park , which includes the Stubnitz beech forest and the famous Rügen chalk cliffs. The Königsstuhl National Park Center is located directly at the Königsstuhl and offers information about the National Park in an exhibition with a multivision cinema.
The chalk is an important tourism and export good for Rügen. In the wellness area, around 70% of the arrangements are based on offers made with chalk. Chalk is also used in numerous exported wellness products. Because of its great economic importance, it is known as the white gold of Rügen .
Parts of the coast in the west of Rügen and the adjacent Bodden belong to the Vorpommersche Boddenlandschaft National Park , the focus of which is the Darß and Zingst peninsulas and the Hiddensee island.
The 2500 kilometer long German avenue begins on Rügen .
From the end of August to the beginning of October, up to 50,000 cranes take a rest on Rügen (Rügen-Bock region and on the island of Ummanz ) on their way south . This corresponds to about 75% of the entire Scandinavian bird population (with their conspecifics).
The railway network consists of the electrified standard gauge lines of Deutsche Bahn AG Stralsund– (Rügen dam) –Bergen – Sassnitz ( timetable KBS 195), Lietzow – Binz (KBS 197), the Bergen – Putbus – Lauterbach line operated by PRESS (KBS 198) with diesel multiple units as well as the narrow-gauge lines (750 mm) of the Rügen bathing railway ( Rasender Roland ): Lauterbach Mole – Putbus – Binz – Sellin – Göhren (KBS 199).
In addition to regional trains, there are also intercity connections from Binz via Bergen and Stralsund to Berlin , Hamburg , Frankfurt am Main , Stuttgart and the Ruhr area . The (partly seasonal) night train connections to Munich , Basel and the Ruhr area were discontinued with the timetable change on December 9, 2007, despite massive protests from the local hotel industry. Since 2010, however, a CityNightLine has been running to Zurich again on summer Saturdays .
Bus traffic on Rügen is operated by the Vorpommern-Rügen transport company. Bus traffic has been continuously expanded since 1996, and an integral regular schedule has been developed for it. Throughout the year the buses run at least every hour on the routes Königsstuhl – Sassnitz – Binz – Göhren – Klein Zicker , Sassnitz – Binz – Bergen, Schaprode – Bergen, Bergen / Sassnitz– Altenkirchen - Wiek - Dranske and Altenkirchen – Putgarten near Kap Arkona. Between the seaside resorts of Binz and Göhren, buses run every 15 minutes in the morning and in the afternoon and until midnight in the evening. At the main train station in Binz and in Bergen, but also at other stations, bus traffic is linked to rail traffic.
The foundation stone was laid on August 31, 2004 for a second Strelasund crossing , the Rügen Bridge. This bridge, which runs parallel to the Rügen dam, has a length of around 4.1 kilometers and a clearance for shipping of 42 m and was opened on October 20, 2007. In order to relieve the city of Stralsund, a bypass road from the south-west has been built in recent years . The federal highway 96 between Stralsund and Greifswald is also connected to the federal highway 20 via a feeder . The B 96 leads from Stralsund via Bergen to Sassnitz. A new route with bypasses has been implemented here since 2012 (B 96N), the first section Altefähr - Samtens was completed in 2014.
On the other hand, the important attractions of Cape Arkona , the Königsstuhl and the area around the Granitz hunting lodge , as well as the island of Hiddensee off Rügen's west coast, are car-free to protect the landscape . All of these goals can be achieved by public transport or non-internal combustion engine vehicles.
Rügen has a signposted network of cycle paths . The development status and the signage of this cycle path network are very different in its individual sections. It ranges from very good in the area of the Baltic seaside resorts to poor in the area between Garz and Zudar. There is a cycle path around the whole island. The Baltic Sea Cycle Route and the Hamburg – Rügen Long Distance Cycle Route lead to the island. During the season it is possible to take bicycles on the buses on some routes. In principle, this is possible on the railways.
Between the Zudar peninsula in the southeast of Rügen and Stahlbrode on the mainland (halfway between Stralsund and Greifswald), two car ferries from the White Fleet run every half hour. It is used as a congestion-free alternative to the Strelasund crossing .
From the Sassnitz ferry port in Mukran, there are ferry connections to the Danish island of Bornholm , to Trelleborg in Sweden , to the Baltic states to Klaipėda , to Baltijsk and to Saint Petersburg . Excursion steamers also operate between the seaside resorts on Rügen and Peenemünde and the seaside resorts with piers on the neighboring island of Usedom ; there is a connection to the Usedomer Bäderbahn (UBB).
The island of Hiddensee , which also belongs to the district of Vorpommern-Rügen, is connected to Rügen by regular service from the Schaprode ferry port , which is increasingly being integrated into the integral clock timetable on the island of Rügen. In addition, ships operate regular services from Stralsund as well as from Wiek and Breege to Hiddensee. There are boat connections from Lauterbach to Gager as well as between Sassnitz, Binz, Sellin and Göhren, as well as round trips, especially from Sassnitz but also from Lohme to the Königsstuhl.
The Rügen airport is located about eight kilometers from Bergen in Güttin . After the fall of the Wall , sightseeing flights over the island were offered for the first time at the former agricultural airfield. In May 1993 the first runway with an asphalt surface was inaugurated. Since then, charter flights to Berlin, Hamburg and other European cities have also been offered. A scheduled flight schedule like the one at the airports of Sylt and Usedom does not yet exist.
In Putbus , the Theater Vorpommern has a venue in the city theater . During the summer months, the Störtebeker Festival , Germany's most successful open-air theater series, takes place in Ralswiek . There is also the National Park Theater , an open-air stage at the Königsstuhl . In addition, the concert shells in the seaside resorts, various castles , barns, cottages , churches and other places serve seasonally as theaters and concert venues, for example for the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania Festival .
Rügen in literature
In September 1884 Theodor Fontane traveled to Rügen. His impressions found their way into the novel Effi Briest , in which Fontane literarily processes nature, place names and sights. Major von Crampas, who begins the love affair with Effi Briest, which is so momentous for her, bears the name of the former farming and fishing village of Crampas, which was merged with the fishing village of Saßnitz in 1906 to form the municipality of Saßnitz . The Herthasee also found its way into the novel.
Other literary visitors and writers of the island were Ludwig Gotthard Kosegarten , Wilhelm von Humboldt , Gerhart Hauptmann , Thomas Mann , Albert Einstein , Sigmund Freud , Joachim Ringelnatz , Hans Fallada , Günter Grass , FC Delius , Christoph Hein , Elizabeth von Arnim , Christopher Isherwood and Philipp Galen .
Rügen in film and television
Rügen is regularly the subject of film and television productions. The television series Ein Bayer auf Rügen , which was broadcast from 1993 to 1997, ensured the island's popularity rose steadily , especially in the western part of the Federal Republic of Germany, which was reunified in 1990 . The series Hallo Robbie, produced from 2001 to 2009, also plays . with the sea lion Robbie on Rügen, locations were among others Binz , Sassnitz , Gut Boldevitz and Südrügen. The lavish film production The Hunt for the Nibelung's Treasure from 2008 also takes place on the island, so the chalk cliffs in the Jasmund National Park are a central part of the plot.
Rügen was the setting for various other productions, including Insel des Lichts , The Silence after the Shot , Hiev up , Tambari , Reine Formsache , Nobody is an Island , Wunderkinder and Die Gustloff .
- Rügen Bridge Run
- Sand Sculpture Festival
From 16,000 tons of sand from Holland with sharp-edged grains, sand sculptures have been created annually by international artists on 5600 m² covered area since 2010, and these are kept as an exhibition for about 8 months.
Important people from Rügen
- Ernst Moritz Arndt (1769–1860), writer and member of parliament
- Wilhelm Malte I, Prince of Putbus (1783-1854), extensive building activity ( classicism ) under his rule
- Theodor Billroth (1829–1894), one of the most important surgeons of the 19th century
- Berthold Delbrück (1842–1922), linguist
- Hans Delbrück (1848–1929), historian and politician
- Franziska Tiburtius (1843–1927), doctor and fighter for women's studies
- Hans Langsdorff (1894–1939), naval officer and captain of the ironclad Admiral Graf Spee
- Ulrich Müther (1934–2007), architect, civil engineer, building contractor
- Matthäus von Normann (data unknown), lawyer, from 1554 to 1556 or 1558 Landvogt on Rügen, author of the Wendisch-Rügian land use
People related to the island
- Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Prince of Wahlstatt (1742–1819), Prussian Field Marshal General, spent his youth on Gut Venz
- Caspar David Friedrich (1774–1840), painter, visited Rügen several times to visit relatives and was mainly inspired by the chalk cliffs
- Ludwig Gotthard Kosegarten (1758–1818), theologian, pastor, professor and poet, famous pastor of the Altenkirchen parish church on Rügen
- Adalbert Kaba-Klein (1895–1962), Hungarian Jewish investor in the Binz Kurhaus (with Abraham Lemo, Armin and Eugen Reichard): Stolpersteine Binz
- Maximilian Kaller (1880–1947), Bishop of Warmia in East Prussia, took up his first pastor as a mission pastor of the St. Boniface parish on Rügen
- Hans-Jürgen Meyer , First Lieutenant in the German Wehrmacht, charged with defending the island of Rügen, negotiated the surrender of the island of Rügen to the Red Army without a fight.
- Angela Merkel has represented the island of Rügen in the German Bundestag since 1990 through her constituency of Vorpommern-Rügen - Vorpommern-Greifswald .
- Otto Spalding (1863–1945), architect of the Binzer Kurhaus
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- Passenger shipping on Rügen
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