Frankfurt am Main
|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Administrative region :||Darmstadt|
|Height :||112 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||248.31 km 2|
|Residents:||763,380 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||3,074 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||60306-60599, 65929-65936|
|Primaries :||069, 06101 , 06109|
|License plate :||F.|
|Community key :||06 4 12 000|
|LOCODE :||DE FRA|
16 districts ,
46 districts ,
124 city districts
City administration address :
60311 Frankfurt am Main
|Lord Mayor :||Peter Feldmann ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Frankfurt am Main in Hesse|
Frankfurt am Main ( largest city in Hesse and the fifth largest in Germany with 763,380 inhabitants (December 31, 2019) . It is independent and forms the center of the Frankfurt metropolitan area with more than 2.3 million inhabitants. Around 5.8 million people live in the entire Frankfurt / Rhine-Main metropolitan region .) is the
Frankfurt am Main has been one of Germany's major urban centers since the Middle Ages . First mentioned in a document in 794, it had been an imperial city since 1372 . By the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, most of the Roman-German kings were elected in Frankfurt am Main and, since 1562, were also crowned emperors . From 1815 on, the Free City of Frankfurt was a sovereign member state of the German Confederation . The Federal Assembly met here and in 1848/49 the first German parliament met with the National Assembly in the Paulskirche . After the German War in 1866 , Prussia annexed the Free City of Frankfurt . Due to the rapid industrialization , a population surge began. Since 1875 the city has had over 100,000 inhabitants, since 1928 more than 500,000, since 2013 more than 700,000. As a sign of commitment to European unification, Frankfurt calls since 1998. European city .
Today Frankfurt am Main is one of the most important international financial centers , an important industrial, service and exhibition center and is one of the world's cities . Frankfurt am Main is the seat of the European Central Bank , the Deutsche Bundesbank , the Frankfurt Stock Exchange , numerous financial institutions (including Deutsche Bank , Commerzbank , DZ Bank , KfW ), the supervisory authorities BaFin and EIOPA and Messe Frankfurt . The Frankfurt Book Fair and the Music Fair are considered to be the world's leading trade fairs in their fields, and the International Motor Show took place here until 2019. The city is also the seat of many national sports associations, including the German Olympic Sports Confederation , the German Football Association and the German Motor Sport Association .
Thanks to its central location, Frankfurt am Main is a European transport hub . The airport is one of the largest in the world , the main train station is a central railway junction and the Frankfurter Kreuz is the busiest road junction in Germany. In addition, DE-CIX in Frankfurt is the world's largest Internet node in terms of throughput .
A specialty for a European city is the constantly growing high-rise skyline of Frankfurt . Some striking skyscrapers are among the tallest in Europe . That is why Frankfurt am Main is sometimes ironically referred to as Mainhattan . Historic landmarks of the city are the old opera and the partly reconstructed ensemble of the old town with Römerberg including Römer town hall , Dom-Römer-Areal and Kaiserdom . More than 40 percent of the urban area are parks and landscape protection areas, including the Frankfurt Green Belt with the Frankfurt City Forest, which the city has owned since 1372 .
The city's cultural life is traditionally shaped by civic foundations , patronage and liberal private initiatives. This resulted in the Städtische Bühnen with the two sections Oper Frankfurt and Schauspiel Frankfurt , the Frankfurt Museumsufer , the Senckenberg Nature Museum , the Schirn Kunsthalle and the Museum of Modern Art , the Historical Museum and Goethe's birthplace in the old town , the Alte Oper and the English Theater , the zoo and the palm garden . The Goethe University, founded in 1914 by a community foundation as a royal university, is the fourth largest German university in terms of number of students. It produced several Leibniz and Nobel Prize winners . There are also seven other state, church and private universities in the city with a total of over 60,000 students.
Franconofurd or Francorum vadus is the name of the settlement on the cathedral hill in the first documents mentioned in 794 in Old Franconian and Latin . Both mean ford of the Franks and refer to a rock barrier in the subsoil of the Main , which made it possible to cross the river - which was then much wider than it is today - safely at this point, which is probably a little above today's Old Bridge . The ford was probably of no strategic importance in Roman times , as the Roman roads leading from Mogontiacum to the Limes and into the interior of Germania, such as Elisabethenstrasse , bypassed the cathedral hill and the swampy Main lowland.
After the Romans withdrew around 260, the cathedral hill was taken over by the Alemanni . Around 530 the Franks replaced the Alamanni in rule over the Untermaing area. The new rulers probably used the ford as an important traffic route, which is why their trading partners named it Frankenfurt .
“The origin of this place name should no longer remain unclear to you, dear reader. So now I want to tell you what I've heard about it from believable men. During the reign of Emperor Charlemagne, the son of King Pippin, war broke out between his ancestors and our ancestors (the Saxons). In this battle the Franks were defeated by ours. When they had to go back across the Main, ignorant of a ford, a doe walked over in front of them and showed them the way through God's mercy, as it were. They followed her and in good spirits reached the safe shore. After that the place is called Frankfurt. When the emperor saw himself overcome by the enemy on this campaign, he was the first to back off and said: 'I prefer people to revile me and say that I fled from here than I fell here. Because as long as I live, I can hope to avenge the severe disgrace inflicted on me. '"
In fact, Charlemagne never waged war against the Saxons in the main area. The story of the origin of the name of Sachsenhausen , as the alleged place where captured Saxons settled by the victorious emperor, is also a legend . It probably goes back to a fabulous intermingling with the historical fact that shortly after his departure in 794 he took to the field against rebellious Saxons in northern Germany.
Another founding myth of Frankfurt was popular until the 18th century, for example in Zedler's Universal Lexicon . Today he is hardly known: Helenos , a son of Priam , is said to have settled on the Main after his escape from the destroyed Troy and founded a city called Helenopolis . Frankfurt would therefore have the same mythical origins as Rome , whose legendary founders, Romulus and Remus , were descendants of fled Trojans. Around 130 AD, a certain Francus , a Duke of the Hogier , is said to have restored the old town of Helenopolis and named it Franckenfurt after his name . Other authors attributed the name Helenopolis to Empress Helena , the mother of Constantine the Great . The oldest known mention of the Helenopolis myth comes from the humanist Johannes Trithemius from the 15th century, other humanists followed much later. Helenopolis was often used as a synonym for Frankfurt up to the 18th century, for example as a place of printing in books, in numismatics and as a registration number for students.
The original form of the name Franconofurd developed in the Middle Ages to Frankenfort or Frankinfort , in modern times to Franckfort and Franckfurth . Since the beginning of the 19th century at the latest, the Frankfurt spelling has been consolidated. The name addition on the Main can already be found in the oldest documents, regularly since the 14th century. Colloquially, the official name is almost always shortened to Frankfurt , as long as there is no risk of confusion, especially with Frankfurt (Oder) . Name forms such as Frankfurt / Main or Frankfurt a. M. are often found, Frankfurt (Main) is common in rail transport . Well are the abbreviations Ffm or FFM in use, in addition also the IATA airport code FRA or vehicle registration number F .
The city is located on both sides of the Lower Main, south-east of the Taunus in southwest Germany, in the most important economic area in Germany. About a third of the urban area is designated as the Frankfurt Green Belt landscape protection area. This also includes the Frankfurt city forest , one of the largest city forests in Germany. The urban area extends over 23.4 kilometers in an east-west direction and over 23.3 kilometers in a north-south direction.
The city has its highest natural point at the Berger Warte on the Berger Ridge in the Seckbach district at 212.6 meters above sea level . Its lowest point is on the banks of the Main in Sindlingen at 88 meters above sea level. The city is located on the northernmost edge of the Upper Rhine Plain , which extends from Basel to the Rhine-Main area.
The focus of the area and the geographical center of today's urban area are in the Bockenheim district near the Westbahnhof , i.e. outside of the historic city center. This goes back to the incorporations to the west, accordingly the non-incorporated Offenbach is closer to the city center than many districts of Frankfurt.
Neighboring communities and districts
Frankfurt borders in the west on the Main-Taunus-Kreis (cities and communities Hattersheim am Main , Kriftel , Hofheim am Taunus , Kelkheim (Taunus) , Liederbach am Taunus , Sulzbach (Taunus) , Schwalbach am Taunus and Eschborn ), in the northwest on the Hochtaunuskreis (towns of Steinbach (Taunus) , Oberursel (Taunus) and Bad Homburg vor der Höhe ), in the north to the Wetteraukreis (towns of Karben and Bad Vilbel ), in the northeast to the Main-Kinzig-Kreis (municipality of Niederdorfelden and town of Maintal ), in the southeast to the city of Offenbach am Main , in the south to the Offenbach district (city of Neu-Isenburg ) and in the southwest to the Groß-Gerau district (cities of Mörfelden-Walldorf , Rüsselsheim am Main , Raunheim and Kelsterbach ).
Most of the Frankfurt urban area belongs to the western sub-Main level , in the east to the Hanau-Seligenstädter Senke , in the far north already to the Wetterau . Geologically, the four river terraces of the Main and Nidda , which have arisen since the younger Pliocene and the Pleistocene , are recognizable in the urban area . The highest terrace is made up of Taunus rocks and can only be found in the city area in the area of the Berger Ridge . On the upper terrace of 170 to 120 meters are the northern and northeastern parts of the city, which slope steeply to the northwest to the Nidda and to the south on the Bornheimer Hang and the Röderberg, as well as the south of Sachsenhausen with the Mühlberg and the Sachsenhausen mountain. The middle terrace is at an altitude of between 100 and 115 meters. It can be seen in the city, for example in the Kelsterbacher Terrasse and in the steep bank of the old town of Höchst. The lowest terrace between 95 and 90 meters was created in the Holocene . It accompanies the Main on both sides. The cathedral hill, the historical nucleus of the city, and the Carmelite hill lie on it. In some places in the urban area, for example in Bockenheim ( Basaltstraße ) and in the city forest on Schwarzsteinkautweg can be found in the underground layers of Vogelsberg - basalt from the Miocene whose thickness reaches up to 14 meters.
The oldest temperature measurements date from December 1695 and are recorded in the Chronicle of Achilles Augustus von Lersner . Continuous measurement series have existed since 1826, albeit for different stations. Today there are several stations of the German Meteorological Service in Frankfurt , including the one at the airport, whose measurement series go back to 1949.
Frankfurt and the Rhine-Main area are located at the northern end of the Upper Rhine Plain , which is climatically one of the warmest regions in Germany. The annual mean temperature of 10.6 ° C (long-term mean for the airport reference station in the reference period 1981-2010) is higher than that of other German metropolises ( Cologne 10.3 ° C, Berlin 9.5 ° C, Hamburg 9.4 ° C, Munich 8.6 ° C).
The climate in Frankfurt is therefore mild overall, with comparatively little rainfall. In the period from November to January there is an average of only one to two hours of sunshine during the day. In winter , the mean daily maximum temperature in January is around 4.2 ° C, the mean nighttime minimum temperature is −1.1 ° C. Snow averages about seven days in January; the snow depth is rarely more than ten centimeters and the snow usually does not stay long. Only in the Taunus, northwest of the city, is there more frequent snow in winter.
The summer is warm with highs around 25 ° C; 25 ° C to 30 ° C is measured on an average of 52 days and above 30 ° C on an average of 13 days. It is also slightly changeable with occasional showers or thunderstorms, but this is also the sunniest time with seven to eight hours a day. Especially in the city center it can get quite humid in summer.
The warmest months are June to August with an average of 17.8 to 20.0 ° C and the coldest December to February with an average of 1.6 to 2.5 ° C. The extreme values are -24.2 ° C in January 1850, -23.8 ° C in January 1940, +39.6 ° C in August 2015 and +40.2 ° C in July 2019.
The prevailing wind direction is west. Most precipitation falls in July with an average of 65 mm, the lowest in February with an average of 41 mm for the years 1981 to 2010.
|Frankfurt am Main|
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Frankfurt am Main
Source: German Weather Service ; wetterkontor.de, period from 1981 to 2010
Bioclimate and air quality
The clean air plan for Frankfurt drawn up by the state of Hesse dates from 2005 and was updated for the first time in 2011. According to the bioclimate map of the German Weather Service, Frankfurt is in a polluted agglomeration . From an air hygiene point of view, the often low wind speeds and, in connection with this, the frequency of times with unfavorable air exchange are characteristic. An essential part of the air pollution control plan was the establishment of a large part of the urban area extensive environmental zone on January 1, 2012. The air pollution control plan could not reduce the pollution of nitrogen oxides , above all nitrogen dioxide , below the limit values of the 39th BImSchV valid since 2010 until 2018 . “The main emitter in Frankfurt am Main is motor vehicle traffic, followed by shares from air traffic, industry and building heating. The predominant exceeding of the limit values is mainly caused by motor vehicle traffic. On busy roads, diesel-powered passenger cars are the main culprit, accounting for up to 80%. ”The limit value for nitrogen dioxide can therefore often not be complied with in the city of Frankfurt in areas with high traffic. The Wiesbaden Administrative Court therefore decided on September 5, 2018, “The clean air plan for Frankfurt submitted by the State of Hesse must contain a driving ban for diesel vehicles of the Euro 4 standard and older and for petrol vehicles of the Euro 1 and 2 standard from February 2019. A driving ban for Euro 5 diesel should apply from September 2019 ". The diesel driving ban would affect around 200,000 vehicles in the Frankfurt metropolitan area. City and state were able to bring an appeal to the Hessian Administrative Court in Kassel against the driving ban ruling and temporarily prevent a diesel driving ban. The second update of the clean air plan, which came into force on December 28, 2020, is linked to a comprehensive package of measures, including improved parking space management, the exchange of municipal vehicles, the establishment of bus and bicycle lanes and a speed limit of 40 km / h within the system ring. If the measures do not result in compliance with the limit values, traffic restrictions will be imposed on older diesel and gasoline vehicles in particularly polluted areas on July 1, 2021.
City districts, city districts and local districts
The city is statistically and administratively divided into 46 districts , which are numbered up to 47 (the number 23 is omitted, but also assigned to the Praunheim district for technical reasons ). These in turn consist of 124 city districts , 448 electoral districts and 6,130 blocks.
Politically, the city is divided into 16 local districts, each of which has a local council with a local mayor as chairman. The places that were incorporated in the 1970s still form their own local districts.
The largest district in terms of area and population is Sachsenhausen ; Nordend and Bockenheim follow according to the number of inhabitants . The few inhabitants of the Frankfurt Airport district are assigned to the Sachsenhausen-Süd district in the statistical yearbook. The smallest district by area is the old town .
|15th||24.176||Data in Sachsenhausen-Süd included|
|town Frankfurt am Main||248.31||758.574||382.246||376.328||531.182||227.392||30th||3055|
Until 1866, the city of Frankfurt am Main from consisted district with today's districts Old Town , downtown , Bahnhofsviertel , Gutleutviertel , Gallus , Westend , Nordend , Ostend , Riederwald and Sachsenhausen , including the Frankfurt city forest , and from the country district with the eight villages Bornheim , Hausen , Niederursel (half with the Grand Duchy of Hesse ), Bonames , Nieder-Erlenbach , Dortelweil , Oberrad and Niederrad . After the annexation of the Free City of Frankfurt by Prussia, its former territory formed the urban district of Frankfurt am Main .
From 1877 the municipalities of the urban district, and in 1910 also the district of Frankfurt formed in 1885 , were gradually incorporated into the city of Frankfurt . The last incorporation took place in 1977. Of the former Frankfurt villages, only Dortelweil is not part of the city again today.
In today's Frankfurt urban area there are also some desert areas , i.e. former settlements or villages that have been abandoned over time.
Old town and city center
As with other major German cities, Frankfurt's cityscape changed radically after the Second World War . This was due to the bomb damage from the air raids on Frankfurt am Main and the subsequent reconstruction, which often ignored the old city plan, to which the city owes a road network suitable for cars and a more suburban-looking old town development in the style of the 50s and 60s.
Little remained of one of the former largest contiguous old towns in Germany, which had never been devastated by war or large fires since the High Middle Ages . Of around 3,000 half-timbered houses , only two survived largely unscathed, the Wertheim am Fahrtor house and the Mainkai 40 house, which, like most of Frankfurt's half-timbered houses, used to have no visible framework, but is plastered. But street openings were created ( Braubachstrasse ) and entire quarters were demolished ( Judengasse ) from the middle of the 19th century until the First World War . In the center of the historic old town lies the Römerberg , one of the most famous city squares in Germany. The buildings lining the edge of the square are reconstructions or new constructions from the 1950s and 1980s.
The boundaries of the Frankfurt-Altstadt district correspond to the course of the old city wall of the 12th century, the so-called Staufen wall . This roughly corresponds to the streets Neue Mainzer Straße - Kaiserstraße - Roßmarkt - Zeil - Kurt-Schumacher-Straße . In the old town are also the Frankfurt Imperial Cathedral and the Paulskirche, known as the meeting place for the German National Assembly from 1848 . A graphic artist who depicted old Frankfurt in the 17th century in great detail in cityscapes was Matthäus Merian . For the exact photographic documentation of Frankfurt in the 19th century Carl Friedrich Mylius was very important.
Today's inner city , which was part of the old town as a new town from 1333 , underwent major changes in the early 19th century. The baroque city fortifications with their large bastions, which have encompassed the old and new towns since the 17th century , were razed and the ramparts were created as a ring-shaped park around the old town. The swampy fishing field was drained and built uniformly. The city planner Georg Hess drafted a statute that regulated how the new buildings should look. He demanded that the builders adhere to the classicism style . In this city quarter, which was also largely destroyed, only a few examples of Frankfurt classicism have survived, such as the new building of the Hospital zum Hl. Geist from 1835 and the Old City Library , which was built from 1820 to 1825 and partially destroyed in 1944 , which was rebuilt true to the original as the "Literaturhaus" in 2005 has been. In the Wallservitut was set in 1827 that converted into walking paths ramparts should not be built. This provision still applies today, even if the city has permitted individual exceptions ( Alte Oper , Schauspielhaus , the Hilton Hotel originally built as Stadtbad Mitte).
At the end of the 19th century, the Hauptwache became the center of the city. The Zeil became the main shopping street. The baroque Katharinenkirche , built between 1678 and 1681 at the entrance to the Zeil , today the largest Protestant church in Frankfurt, is closely associated with the Goethe family.
Repeated, radical structural changes shape the Frankfurt city center and give back previously inaccessible areas to public - but above all mercantile - use. For example, the MyZeil shopping center was opened on the Zeil shopping street in February 2009 on the former site of the main post office in Frankfurt am Main and the Telekom between Eschenheimer Tor and Zeil , flanked by two high-rise buildings with office and hotel use, as well as the one built between 1737 and 1741, historically speaking important and in 1944 destroyed Palais Thurn und Taxis reconstructed true to the original in a slightly reduced form. For the project called Palaisquartier , among other things, the telecommunications tower , one of the first Frankfurt tower blocks from 1956, was demolished. The building ensemble was completed in mid-2010. On the property directly to the north, the Rundschau-Haus of the Frankfurter Rundschau , built in 1953, was demolished to make way for residential and commercial buildings. The former Degussa site between Mainkai, Neuer Mainzer Strasse and Weißfrauenstrasse was completely redesigned in 2010–2018. In 2018, work began on building a new quarter over the former Deutsche Bank site on Roßmarkt, towered over by four high-rise buildings. Here, too, the Deutsche Bank high-rise, a first-generation Frankfurt high -rise, is falling victim to new developments. The project named Four is expected to be completed in 2023.
Another major change was the demolition of the Technical Town Hall in the old town center between the cathedral and the Römerberg in 2010 . From 2014 to 2018, as part of the Dom-Römer project, the historic floor plan with the streets of Markt and Hühnermarkt was rebuilt over 70 years after its destruction. Among the 35 new buildings are 15 reconstructions of former old town houses designated as creative replicas , including important urban planning buildings such as the Haus zur Goldenen Waage , the New Red House , the Goldene Lämmchen , part of the Rebstockhof and the Haus zum Esslinger . The archaeological garden with the excavations of a Roman settlement and the Carolingian royal palace was built over with the town hall on the market in order to protect the oldest traces of Frankfurt's settlement from the weather and keep them accessible.
Neoclassical and Gründerzeit districts
Since around 1830, the districts Westend , Nordend and Ostend have been built outside the ramparts . After the construction of the main railway station also emerged in the 1890s station district on the site of the three previously just west adjacent to the contact ring West railway stations .
In terms of residential areas , the three first-mentioned districts and Sachsenhausen south of the Main grew extremely rapidly, especially after the annexation by Prussia . Today just one percent of the population lives within the former city walls. Up until 1866, the development was rather haphazard with the so-called "gardening zone" outside the ramparts, which can still be seen today in the "crooked" streets and isolated garden houses from the classical era. After this area seemed to have been exhausted by constant densification, the development continued to develop along the wide arterial roads, all known as country roads, towards the suburbs. So on the Eschersheimer Landstrasse , the Eckenheimer Landstrasse , Friedberger Landstrasse or the Bockenheimer Landstrasse . In Prussian times, a chessboard-like street grid was developed on the drawing board, which, as is typical of the time, has been broken up by polygonal plazas in favor of special visual relationships, for example to church buildings. The Frankfurter Alleenring , built at the beginning of the 20th century under Lord Mayor Franz Adickes , borders this urban expansion as a ring road with a wide, green median strip. In large areas it follows the course of the old Frankfurter Landwehr .
Buildings were usually built in the manner of the closed block edge with four to five storeys - and the existing classicist villas were largely demolished and the large garden plots were parceled out. Exceptions were the villas of the Rothschild and Bethmann families (all destroyed in World War II) and the wooden house built in the 18th century to replace a moated castle, whose parks now offer residents of the surrounding districts welcome opportunities to relax. As a local peculiarity, a restrained late classicism dominated in many places until 1880 and even the subsequent architecture, which was built more in the “Wilhelmine” taste, never developed the representative splendor in the more commercially minded city, as it did in other cities that had grown strongly at that time, such as Wiesbaden, Leipzig or Berlin is known.
The districts of Bornheim and Bockenheim , incorporated in 1877 and 1895 , as well as Heddernheim, Eckenheim and Eschersheim, were integrated into the city, expanded and received a connection to the Frankfurt tram , but they have retained their own character as secondary centers to this day.
Typical for the time was the east-west divide in quality and demands of the development. While the newly built station district around 1900 was considered the noblest business district and the Westend as the noblest, upper-class residential area, the Nordend, Bornheim and Ostend were districts of the middle class. Ostend, like Fischerfeld, traditionally had a high proportion of the Jewish population and where many facilities of the Jewish community were concentrated, such as the hospital and the orphanage on the Röderberg. The large Orthodox synagogue on Friedberger Anlage , built between 1905 and 1907 (destroyed in 1938), like the wholesale market hall built in the 1920s, was a landmark of the district. The working class concentrated near the large factories around the main train station in the Gutleut and Gallus districts, as well as the Riederwald district that was created as part of the east port planning. As a result of the Nazi rule and the extensive bombing of World War II, these conditions changed fundamentally. The former residents of the West End were drawn to the Taunus suburbs, the largely destroyed Ostend hardly recovered for decades. A new civic awareness arose during the urban warfare of the 1960s and 1970s , when numerous Wilhelminian-style buildings were demolished, converted or replaced by high-rise office buildings to create office space in the Bahnhofsviertel and Westend. Nordend and Bornheim developed into centers of the burgeoning green movement. In the course of gentrification , these “trendy districts”, as well as the Ostend after the new building of the European Central Bank, have come into the focus of real estate investors and developers. As a result of the Europaviertel with the Skyline Plaza shopping center on the edge of the Gallusviertel , which is being built on the former freight yard area , corresponding developments are foreseeable in this former working-class district.
In addition to the ramparts, other green areas were built in the city from the 19th century, most of which go back to the parks of wealthy Frankfurt families. In the Nordend-Ost district, for example, there is the Bethmannpark with its Chinese Garden of Heavenly Peace . In the north end are the Holzhausenpark and the Günthersburgpark . Further to the west in the Westend district is Grüneburgpark , which includes a Greek Orthodox church and a Korean garden. The Palmengarten is an internationally renowned botanical garden that has existed since 1871 and cultivates around 2500 species of plants and houses attractions such as the Papageno Music Theater or the Palmen Express Park Railway . Right next door is the former botanical garden of the university , which was taken over by the palm garden after the botanical institute was relocated to the Riedberg. These three adjacent parks form the largest green space in Frankfurt close to the city center. The Ostpark in Ostend was the first Volkspark in Frankfurt in 1907 and was used as a recreation area for residents, such as B. the workers of the adjacent industrial areas designed.
The classic modern: The New Frankfurt
In 1925, the New Frankfurt was started as a comprehensive urban development program. In 1925, the Lord Mayor Ludwig Landmann appointed the architect Ernst May as town planning officer, who from then on managed all activities and surrounded himself with a staff of young architects, technicians, artists and designers in order to anchor the project in the city for the long term. In terms of urban planning, the incorporated villages were designed to grow together and the city was enriched with infrastructure projects and parks. In addition, groundbreaking technologies for construction and industrial design were tested and used. Well-known buildings include the wholesale market hall and the community house of the Palmengarten and settlements such as Praunheim , Römerstadt and Westhausen in the north, the Bornheimer Hang settlement in the east, the Hellerhof settlement and the home settlement in the south. Outstanding design achievements include the Frankfurt kitchen and the Futura font .
Höchst and the outer districts
At the beginning of the 20th century, the districts north of the city center were incorporated in several steps. Some of these districts had belonged to the Free City of Frankfurt until 1866 , others had never been connected to Frankfurt before. Around 1914 Frankfurt was one of the largest cities in Germany in terms of area.
The urban area continued to grow in 1928 through incorporations. The city of Höchst am Main enriched Frankfurt with an old town that is still very well preserved and has been a listed building since 1972. The oldest building in Frankfurt is also located there, the Justinuskirche . The latest incorporations took place in 1972 and 1977 in the northeast. Some of these districts have retained their rural character to this day (Kalbach, Harheim, Nieder-Eschbach and Nieder-Erlenbach; to the east, Bergen-Enkheim).
The Frankfurt green belt extends in a ring around the densely populated city center. It consists of three different landscapes, the Berger Ridge in the northeast of the city, the Niddatal along the entire course in the Frankfurt urban area in the west and north and the Frankfurt city forest in the south. The green belt covers over 8,000 hectares , which corresponds to about a third of the Frankfurt city area. It was founded in 1991 as one of the first green belt in the world with a municipal statute, the green belt Constitution, justified and is a member of since 1994 reported 10,850 hectares of protected landscape area green belts and green belts in the city of Frankfurt am Main . The landscape protection area is divided into two zones that are protected from development and changes in use. Zone I includes green spaces and gardens as well as sports, leisure and recreational facilities, Zone II forest and arable land, woody plants and fallow land, meadows, as well as floodplain and wetland areas. Parts of the green belt merge seamlessly into the even larger protected and recreational area of the Regional Park RheinMain . In Grüneburgpark , on Bornheimer Hang and in Ostpark as well as in the Sinai wilderness , foothills of the green belt stretch almost into the city center.
The Frankfurt city forest is one of the largest inner-city forests in Germany and covers the southern parts of Schwanheim , Niederrad , Sachsenhausen and Oberrad as well as the northern part of the airport district . The Niddapark , created in 1989 for the Federal Horticultural Show , the Lohrberg and Huthpark Volksparks , the Biegwald and the Niedwald , the Fechenheimer Mainbogen , the Sossenheimer Unterfeld and the Schwanheimer Unterfeld with the nature reserve Schwanheimer Düne are located in the Frankfurt green belt . Other nature reserves in the green belt are the Enkheimer Ried , the Seckbacher Ried , the Mühlbachtal von Bergen-Enkheim , the Harheimer Ried and the Riedwiesen .
From the Frankish ford to the end of the Holy Roman Empire
Frankfurt am Main was first mentioned on February 22nd, 794 in a certificate from Charlemagne for the Regensburg monastery of St. Emmeram . In the document written in Latin it says: "... actum super fluvium Moin in loco nuncupante Franconofurd" - "given (exhibited) on the river Main in a place called Frankfurt." A settlement of the cathedral hill has, however, been proven as early as the Neolithic period. Subsequently, a Roman military camp and, in Merovingian times, a Frankish royal court were probably built at the same location . In June 794, important church representatives from the empire gathered in the synod of Frankfurt in the Franconian royal palace .
In 843 Frankfurt became the most important royal palatinate in Eastern Franconia and the seat of diets . In 1220, Emperor Friedrich II abolished the post of Imperial Bailiff in Frankfurt. In place of this ministerial came the Reichsschultheiß appointed by the emperor as head of the otherwise self-governing citizenship. In the course of the 13th and 14th centuries, the city gained more and more privileges and regalia , for example the annual autumn fair in 1240 and the spring fair in 1330. In 1266, the town council, consisting of 42 patricians and professional craftsmen, was first mentioned. Since 1311 the council has elected two mayors as city leaders every year . With the acquisition of the mayor's office in 1372, Frankfurt achieved full sovereignty as an imperial city .
The Golden Bull of 1356 confirmed Frankfurt as the legitimate electoral city of the Roman kings , after most royal elections had taken place here since 1147. The imperial coronations also took place in Frankfurt from 1562 , most recently that of Habsburg Franz II in 1792. The coronation path, which led from the Imperial Cathedral of St. Bartholomew across the market to the Römer , was reconstructed between 2012 and 2018 as part of the Dom-Römer project . In 1742, Frankfurt became a residential city for almost three years. Since Emperor Charles VII, who came from the House of Wittelsbach , was unable to return to his home country, the Electorate of Bavaria , which was occupied by Habsburg troops, after his coronation , he was forced to live in Palais Barckhaus an der Zeil until October 1744 .
With the end of the Old Reich, Frankfurt's sovereignty as an imperial city also ended. On July 12, 1806 it fell under the rule of the Prince-Primate Karl Theodor von Dalberg , who united it with the Principality of Regensburg and the Principality of Aschaffenburg as well as the Imperial City of Wetzlar to form an independent state within the Confederation of the Rhine , the state of the Prince-Primate . In 1810, Dalberg ceded the Principality of Regensburg to Bavaria , received the Principality of Hanau and the Principality of Fulda and became Grand Duke of Frankfurt. In the short-lived Grand Duchy of Frankfurt , the city of Frankfurt formed a Mairie from 1810 to 1813 and was the capital of the Frankfurt department , which also included its former imperial towns as the Land District Fair of Frankfurt .
The Free City of Frankfurt
With the collapse of the Napoleonic system, Dalberg abdicated as Grand Duke of Frankfurt on October 28, 1813. His Grand Duchy was subordinated by the victorious Allies as the Generalgouvernement Frankfurt to the central administration department for the occupied territories. On December 14, 1813, the independence of the city and its territory was restored and its imperial city constitution was reinstated. The previous prefect Friedrich Maximilian von Günderrode took over the provisional management of the administration as the city schoolmaster.
At the Congress of Vienna , the Kingdom of Bavaria planned the annexation of Frankfurt, but on June 8, 1815, the Congress decided to restore Frankfurt as a Free City within the German Confederation . Along with Hamburg , Bremen and Lübeck, it was one of four free cities that could maintain their traditional urban freedom up to the modern age. The Free City of Frankfurt adopted a new constitution, the constitution amendment act , and the motto Strong in the Right . The Bundestag of the German Confederation set up in Frankfurt. In 1833 the Frankfurt Wachensturm , an attempt to trigger a general revolution in Germany, failed . In 1848 the March Revolution took place in the German states . The convened National Assembly met in the Paulskirche in Frankfurt and drafted the Paulskirche constitution, the first all-German and democratic constitution in Germany.
In 1863 the Frankfurt Fürstentag , an attempt to reform the German Confederation , ended unsuccessfully. In the German War of 1866, Frankfurt remained loyal to the country. Public opinion tended to be on the side of Austria and the emperor , although there had also been voices in Frankfurt for a long time that, for economic and foreign policy reasons , pleaded for voluntary affiliation with Prussia . On July 18, the city was during the main campaign of the Prussian main army occupied and with heavy contributions occupied. On October 2, Prussia annexed the city , which finally lost its independence; the urban district of Frankfurt was assigned to the administrative district of Wiesbaden in the province of Hessen-Nassau ; the payment of the contributions was later waived. In 1868 Prussia introduced the municipal constitution in Frankfurt with a lord mayor as head of the city. As a reconciling symbol , the Franco-German War in Frankfurt was officially ended with the Peace of Frankfurt in 1871 .
From the early days to its destruction in the Second World War
The annexation was advantageous for the economic development of the city into an industrial center with rapid population growth. Between 1877 and 1910, Frankfurt incorporated numerous surrounding towns in several stages and increased its area from 70 to 135 square kilometers. It finally became Germany's largest city in terms of area for a short time at the beginning of the 20th century . With the rapid population growth, the city expanded its public infrastructure, including numerous schools, several Main bridges, water supply, sewerage, a modern professional fire brigade , cattle and slaughterhouse, the market hall , trams, train stations and ports. After the industry first settled in Bockenheim, along the Mainzer Landstrasse and in Sachsenhausen, the Osthafen was built between 1909 and 1912 with an industrial area whose newly developed area was as large as the entire urban area north of the Main built at the end of the 19th century . In addition to the traditional Frankfurt branches, foundries and metal goods, type foundries and printing works, breweries, chemical factories and, after the International Electrotechnical Exhibition in 1891 , also an electrical industry emerged. In 1914, the university founded by Frankfurt citizens was opened.
During the First World War, Frankfurt was spared destruction, but suffered from a poor supply of food and other everyday necessities due to its location as a Prussian border town with a Hessian and Bavarian hinterland. As a result of the November Revolution of 1918, riots and intermittent street fighting broke out that lasted until the end of 1919.
In the 1920s, Frankfurt experienced a cultural boom, among other things through its theaters and the urban planning program of the New Frankfurt (known worldwide through the Frankfurt kitchen , the archetype of the modern fitted kitchen). In 1925, the first international workers' Olympics took place in the newly built Waldstadion .
In the era of National Socialism 11,134 were Jews from Frankfurt deported . Only 367 of them survived the Holocaust . During the Second World War , allied air raids on Frankfurt destroyed around 70 percent of the buildings, including almost all of the old and inner city . The medieval townscape, which was almost closed until 1944, was lost as the reconstruction in the 1950s was not based on the old structures. Large parts of the former old town are still characterized by the simple modernist functional buildings and traffic axes that were built at that time.
Since 1945: Development into a multicultural business metropolis
After the end of the war, the US armed forces set up their European headquarters in Frankfurt. Plans to give the extended urban area a special status as an independent district of Frankfurt , analogous to the District of Columbia , turned out to be impractical. In 1946 the city was assigned to the newly formed state of Greater Hesse . In 1947 the Economic Council of the Bizone , which was expanded into the Trizone in 1948 , took its seat in Frankfurt. In the election for the federal capital, Frankfurt was defeated on May 10, 1949 against Konrad Adenauer's favorite Bonn . A parliament building had already been built in Frankfurt. Since then it has housed the Hessischer Rundfunk .
Despite the defeat on the capital issue, the city developed again into an economic metropolis and the most important financial center in continental Europe during the period of the economic miracle . As a result of the division of Germany , Frankfurt took on metropolitan functions as the headquarters of companies, associations and federal institutions and in 1998 became the seat of the European Central Bank .
Information about the population development of Frankfurt is based on imprecise estimates until the 19th century, only from around 1810 on census results and official statistics. In the Middle Ages, Frankfurt was one of the medium-sized German cities with around 10,000 inhabitants . In the 17th century the population exceeded 20,000, in the middle of the 18th century 30,000 and around 1810 40,000. By the end of the Free City of Frankfurt in 1866, the city population rose to over 90,000, of which around 78,000 lived within the ramparts. Today around 7,000 people still live here.
In 1875 Frankfurt had 100,000 inhabitants. From around 1880 it was one of the ten largest cities in Germany. In 1910 it was ninth in Germany with 414,576 inhabitants and fourth among the major Prussian cities. By the beginning of World War II, the city's population had increased to 553,464.
During the Second World War, more than 4,800 civilians and 12,700 Frankfurt soldiers were killed, and almost 12,000 Jewish residents of Frankfurt (out of 30,000 previously) were murdered in the Holocaust . At the end of 1945, 358,000 people were still living in the city, in which around half of the apartments had been destroyed by the war.
In 1951 the number of inhabitants again exceeded the level of 1939 and in 1963 reached a temporary high of 691,257. Due to migration losses to the surrounding area, the number of inhabitants decreased to 592,411 by 1986, since then it has increased again to 763,380 (as of December 31, 2019). The population growth is a consequence of the economic dynamism of the city, the designation of new settlement and residential areas and the change in the age structure due to the influx of young families.
According to the regionalized population projection up to 2040 published in June 2015, the Citizens' Office for Statistics and Elections expects the strong population growth of recent years to continue. On February 18, 2019, Frankfurt had over 750,000 inhabitants for the first time. Around 764,000 inhabitants are expected in 2020, around 810,000 in 2030 and around 830,000 in 2040. According to a study by the Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW) , the average age in Frankfurt is falling the fastest in Germany due to the continued influx of mainly young people . In 2017 it was 40.6 years.
30 percent of the 758,574 residents registered in Frankfurt as their main residence on December 31, 2019, are not German citizens . Apart from a few surrounding municipalities, this is the highest proportion of foreigners of all Hessian municipalities . According to the report on integrity and diversity monitoring presented in June 2017 by the municipal office for multicultural affairs, 51.2 percent of Frankfurt's residents had a migration background in 2015 , of which, however, around a third did not immigrate themselves.
Religions and worldviews
Today all world religions are represented in Frankfurt . Until 2001, the majority of Frankfurt residents belonged to one of the Christian denominations . Due to the secularization and immigration of non-Christian population groups, the Christian population is falling steadily. The proportion of people with no religious affiliation is not shown separately in the urban population statistics.
The city has been traditionally Protestant since the Reformation , even though Catholic parish life never entirely died out. As a result of immigration and incorporation, the proportion of Catholics has gradually increased since the 18th century and has been larger than that of Protestants since 1995. In 2018, 20.3% of the population were Roman Catholic, 16.2% Protestant; 63.5% were non-denominational or belonged to other denominations or religions.
About 6,500 Frankfurters belong to the Frankfurt Jewish community . According to an estimate published in 2007, around 75,000 Muslims were living in Frankfurt at the end of 2006.
A small church already existed on the site of the cathedral in the 7th century . Since the end of the 12th century, numerous other churches and chapels have sprung up in quick succession , partly as foundations for Frankfurt citizens, partly as religious branches .
In 1533 the Free Imperial City introduced the Reformation. After the Augsburg Interim of 1548, the Catholic collegiate churches and monasteries in Frankfurt were returned to the Catholic Church in order to avoid the conflict with the Catholic Emperor and not to endanger the city's privileges (especially the masses and the imperial elections). The few remaining Catholics had freedom of belief since the Peace of Augsburg in 1555 , but were only able to acquire citizenship in exceptional cases until 1806. Persecuted Huguenots came from France and founded the first municipality of Réfugiés in Germany in 1554. Protestant religious refugees from England gave the English monument as a gift in 1558 to thank them for the hospitality of the city . The Reformed Church was only allowed to build its own churches in Frankfurt from 1786. In 1866 the Lutheran and Reformed congregations merged to form a regional church in Frankfurt .
In 1933, under state pressure, the Frankfurt regional church merged with the Protestant churches of Hesse-Darmstadt and Nassau to form the Evangelical Church in Nassau-Hesse, which in 1947 became the Evangelical Church in Hesse and Nassau (EKHN). Bergen-Enkheim , which was incorporated in 1976 , still belongs to the Protestant Church of Kurhessen-Waldeck . The Evangelical Church Congress has taken place in Frankfurt four times , namely in 1956 , 1975 , 1987 and 2001 . The 3rd Ecumenical Church Congress is to be held in Frankfurt in 2021 .
Up until 1917, the then 86,000 Catholics of Frankfurt formed a joint municipality, then several parishes gradually emerged . Most of the Catholic parishes belong to the Diocese of Limburg , only Bergen-Enkheim to the Diocese of Fulda and the districts of Harheim, Nieder-Erlenbach and Nieder-Eschbach, which were incorporated in 1972, to the Diocese of Mainz . The German Katholikentag has hosted the city three times, namely in 1863, 1882 and 1921.
In addition to the two major denominations, Orthodox churches , ancient oriental churches , free churches and other denominations are also represented in Frankfurt, including the Old Catholic Church , the New Apostolic Church and Jehovah's Witnesses .
A Jewish community is first mentioned in Frankfurt in 1150. Twice, in 1241 and 1349, Frankfurt's Jews were victims of pogroms in the Middle Ages . From 1462 to 1796 they had to live in a ghetto , the Judengasse . In 1806, Prince Primate Karl Theodor von Dalberg decreed equal rights for all Jews and Christians. In 1816, the Free City of Frankfurt partially restricted the civil rights of Jews in the constitution amendment act . It was not until 1864 that Frankfurt became the third German state to grant Jews unrestricted equal rights after Hamburg and Baden.
About 28,000 Jews lived in Frankfurt around 1930. Almost all of them were deported or expelled during the National Socialist era , and the four large synagogues were destroyed during the November pogroms in 1938 . 11,134 Frankfurt Jews were deported during the Holocaust . At the end of the war, only about 160 had survived in the city. Shortly after the end of the war, deported Eastern European Jews founded a new Jewish community . Today, with around 6,500 members, it is one of the largest communities in Germany. The Westend Synagogue is Frankfurt's largest synagogue .
The Nuur Mosque of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jamaat , built in Sachsenhausen in 1959, was the first mosque in Frankfurt and one of the first in Germany. There are now around 35 mosques of various Islamic faiths in Frankfurt.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) has its headquarters for the Central Europe area in Frankfurt am Main ( Eckenheim ). There are also two communities in Eckenheim and Höchst . The Frankfurt Temple in Friedrichsdorf was the first Mormon temple in what was then the Federal Republic of Germany in 1987.
The Scientology Church from the United States has had a branch in Frankfurt's Bahnhofsviertel since 1971. Outside Frankfurt in Hofheim - Langenhain , is since 1964 the only house of worship of the Bahai in Europe. The consecration hall of the Unitarian Free Religious Congregation with over 1000 members, founded in 1845 and recognized as a public corporation, is located in downtown Frankfurt .
Frankfurt am Main is currently administered by a coalition of CDU , SPD and Greens under Lord Mayor Peter Feldmann . In 2012 , the SPD candidate Feldmann won the runoff election on March 25, 2012, with 57.4 percent, an absolute majority against the CDU candidate, Hesse's Interior Minister Boris Rhein , who was ahead of Peter Feldmann in the first ballot on March 11, 2012. In March 2018 he was re -elected for a second term in a runoff election against the CDU candidate Bernadette Weyland .
Frankfurt is since the 2002 general elections in the constituencies 182 and 183 split. In the general election in 2017 won Matthias Zimmermann (CDU) and Bettina Wiesmann (CDU), the direct mandates. Nicola Beer (FDP, until 2019), Achim Kessler ( left ), Ulli Nissen (SPD) and Omid Nouripour (Greens) entered the German Bundestag via the state list .
At the invitation of the Hessian Prime Minister, who was President of the Bundesrat in 2014/2015 , the celebrations for the 25th Day of German Unity took place from October 2nd to 4th, 2015 in Frankfurt. More than 1.4 million visitors took part in the three-day citizens' festival, which was themed overcoming borders . The highlight of the 300 events was a light and sound production on the banks of the Main.
The city council, which meets in the Römer , is the municipal representative of the city of Frankfurt am Main. The citizens decide on the allocation of the 93 seats every five years in a general, direct, free, equal and secret ballot.
Parties that have at least three city councilors are entitled to form a parliamentary group. The representatives of smaller parties can join existing parliamentary groups or form cross-party parliamentary groups. The local election on March 6, 2016 produced the following results:
|Diagram showing the election results and the distribution of seats|
In the 2016 election, the previous black-green coalition with 36 seats clearly missed the necessary majority of 47 seats in the city council. Both partners suffered a significant loss of votes ( Greens minus 10.5%, CDU minus 6.4%). In addition to the first alternative for Germany , which entered the city council with 8.9%, the SPD , Die Linke and FDP were also able to increase their share of the votes. A total of 15 parties and voter groups were able to win seats.
At the beginning of April 2016, the city councilors of 'Die PARTTEI', the Free Voters and the Pirate Party united to form the faction 'THE FRAKTION'. Only a few days later the representatives of the 'European list for Frankfurt', 'Die Frankfurter' and 'Graue Panther' joined forces to form the 'Die FRANKFURTER' group. In mid-April 2016, the city councilor of ALFA joined the CDU parliamentary group.
coat of arms
|Blazon : "The city coat of arms shows the white (silver), erect, gold-crowned and gold-armored eagle with spread wings and fangs, with a blue tongue and blue claws on the red field."|
|Foundation of the coat of arms: The Frankfurt eagle goes back to the one-headed imperial eagle from the thirteenth century.|
City partnerships exist with the following cities:
- Lyon , France - since 1960
- Birmingham , United Kingdom - since 1966
- Milan , Italy - since 1970
- Guangzhou (Canton), People's Republic of China - since 1988
- Budapest , Hungary - since 1990
- Prague , Czech Republic - since 1990
- Granada , Nicaragua - since 1991
- Krakow , Poland - since 1991
- Eskişehir , Turkey - since 2013
- Philadelphia , United States - since 2015
Friendship contracts exist with the following cities:
- Cairo , Egypt - since 1979
- Tel Aviv-Jaffa , Israel - since 1980
- Toronto , Canada - since 1989
- Leipzig , Saxony, Germany - cooperation since 1990
- Dubai , United Arab Emirates - since 2005
- Yokohama , Japan - since 2011
City contacts in the form of cooperation agreements and letters of intent have existed with Daejeon since 2003 , with Shenzhen and Moscow since 2006 , with Istanbul and Incheon since 2013 , with Shanghai since 2015 and with Ho Chi Minh City since 2019 .
After a generous public building policy in the 1980s under the CDU Lord Mayors Walter Wallmann and Wolfram Brück, Frankfurt had increased the debt level from 840 million euros (1977) to 2.25 billion (1989). Under the red-green magistrate, the debt rose to a high of 3.4 billion by 1993. Frankfurt thus had at times the highest per capita debt among the large cities (excluding city states) in Germany. Since the requirements of the local authority forbade a further increase in net debt, the city began in 1994 with budget consolidation. The debt then fell significantly, among other things as a result of a drastic increase in trade tax, a moderate spending policy and at times very good economic development.
In 2006 Frankfurt was in sixth place among the fifteen largest German cities with a debt of around 2200 euros per inhabitant (Bremen around 17,000, Berlin around 16,000, Hamburg around 13,000, Cologne around 3800, Munich around 2700 euros per capita). Due to good tax revenues and high budget surpluses, the debt fell to 983 million euros by the end of 2010.
On June 13, 2008, the city published its opening balance sheet for January 1, 2007, with which the conversion to commercial accounting was initiated. The city of Frankfurt had assets of 12.52 billion euros, of which 11.8 billion were fixed assets . The city investigated properties including: 1,145 kilometers of road; 44,266 lots; about 1800 buildings; 58.6 kilometers of subway tracks; around 2500 plant species in the palm garden; about 4,500 animals from 580 species in the zoo; 4902 hectares of urban forest. The cathedral has the highest book value of all buildings at 58 million euros. City equity was 8.29 billion, which corresponds to an equity ratio of 66.2 percent. The liabilities were 1.8 billion, the provisions set up mainly to cover pension claims were 1.2 billion.
In 2007 and 2008 the city achieved annual surpluses of over 500 million euros each. As a result of the financial crisis, tax revenues fell by more than 400 million per year, which is why there were annual deficits between 180 and 320 million euros from 2009 to 2011. The 2013 budget forecast a cumulative deficit of 400 million by 2015, with increasing spending on education, infrastructure and housing. The city has therefore been forced to make considerable savings since 2012.
The main reason was the development of the trade tax as the most important tax source for the city of Frankfurt. In 2008 a record value of 1.64 billion euros was taken. This means that Frankfurt had the highest income from trade tax in Germany after Munich (1.9 billion euros), but Munich is almost twice as large as Frankfurt in terms of population. Cities of a similar size such as Stuttgart or Dortmund generate only about half or even a fifth of Frankfurt's income. In 2012 the city again achieved trade tax income of 1.51 billion euros, in 2013 of 1.44 billion euros, the deficits decreased to around 52 million euros and to 61 million euros for 2013. According to the 2014 annual financial statements presented in May 2015, trade tax income rose Due to the good economic situation, it even rose to 1.73 billion euros gross and was thus 187 million euros higher than expected. With a budget surplus of 158 million euros, 2014 was the first budget year since 2008 that did not end in a deficit. The increase in fixed assets by approx. 120 million euros was essentially due to investments in schools, local public transport and the co-financing of residential construction projects. 2015 and 2016 closed with surpluses of 176 and 114 million euros respectively. The result improved as a result of increasing tax income, while the consolidation measures resolved and implemented in 2012 had an impact. In 2017, there was a deficit of almost 200 million euros, which the city was mainly due to rising expenditure as a result of the strong population growth, for example for the construction and renovation of schools and public facilities, additional expenses for the accommodation of refugees and increased personnel and Reduced pension expenses. 2018 also closed with a deficit of almost 28 million euros.
Frankfurt is one of just under 30 municipalities in Hesse that receive significantly fewer grants due to the reorganization of municipal financial equalization introduced in 2016 . By 2019, Frankfurt was burdened with more than 530 million euros due to the new regulation. In December 2016, Frankfurt therefore appealed to the State Court of Hesse . The State Court of Justice dismissed the action in January 2019 as admissible but unfounded. The court came to the "finding that the applicant's special needs due to her metropolitan status, ie her specific task profile, could not be mapped from the data available to the legislature".
In the double budget for 2020/2021, the city expects deficits of 131 and 192 million euros and plans investments of 725 and 602 million euros. In addition to education and local transport, urban planning, including housing, is the largest investment area. 822 and 844 million euros are spent on social benefits, and 876 and 925 million euros on childcare, school administration duties, youth and adult education and the city library. Local public transport is subsidized with 211 and 234 million euros, the cultural sector with 207 and 211 million euros.
Economy and location factors
In 2016, Frankfurt am Main, within its city limits, achieved a gross domestic product of € 66.917 billion and thus ranked fourth in the ranking of German cities according to economic output and holds a share of 24.8% of the total economic output of Hesse. In the same year, GDP per capita was € 91,099 per capita (Hesse: € 43,496, Germany € 38,180). Frankfurt is the fifth richest independent city in Germany and the richest among the larger cities. The GDP per labor force is € 97,178. In 2016, around 688,600 people were employed in the city. The unemployment rate was 4.9% in December 2018, slightly above the Hesse average of 4.1%. Frankfurt is the center of the Rhine-Main metropolitan region, which is one of the most economically powerful regions in the country and has a GDP of more than € 250 billion.
According to a 2001 ranking by the University of Liverpool , Frankfurt can be considered the most productive city in Europe (in terms of gross domestic product per capita ) (ahead of Karlsruhe , Paris and Munich ). Today the city is one of the richest and most productive metropolises in Europe. This is also noticeable in the large number of international company representatives. In an annual study ( European Cities Monitor , 2010) by Cushman & Wakefield , Frankfurt has held third place as the best location for international corporations in Europe (after London and Paris) for over 20 years . Frankfurt is of central importance for the state of Hesse, 40 percent of the 4.24 billion euros in business tax income in Hesse comes from Frankfurt.
In a ranking of the most important financial centers worldwide, Frankfurt came in 10th place (as of 2018).
Working in Frankfurt
With 699,600 employees (2017), including around 622,000 employees subject to social insurance (2017), Frankfurt is the city with the highest job density and the most commuters in Germany. The number of daily commuters was 362,450 in 2017, while the number of out-commuters was 95,074. The number of people in employment has been growing for years, by over 55,000 since 2010. Between 2000 and 2005, the number of employees subject to social security contributions fell from 495,000 to 463,000, and has increased continuously since then.
Over 81,000 people work for around 500 companies at Frankfurt Airport , making it the largest local workplace in Germany. The largest single economic sector is the provision of financial and insurance services , which employs around 75,600 people. The transport and storage and professional, scientific and technical services sectors show the strongest absolute growth .
The mean gross wage of full-time employees subject to social security contributions in Frankfurt was 4,182 euros in 2017 and thus around 1,200 euros higher than in 2000. The individual sectors differ significantly: while in the hospitality industry and for simple services, the mean gross wage is 2,340 euros, A full-time employee in the IT industry earns 5,350 euros a month and in the finance industry 6,080 euros. The high average income of full-time employees contrasts with 46,367 only marginally employed and around 22,108 unemployed. The unemployment rate is 5.6%. In 2005 the number of unemployed was 35,637 (10.6%)
The high economic power of the city is reflected in the coffers of the surrounding cities and municipalities of the Speckgurtel mainly in the Vordertaunus , which benefit from the above-average tax payments of their commuters who earn in Frankfurt, which is why two of the five richest districts in Germany, namely the Hochtaunuskreis with Bad Homburg in front of the Höhe as the district town and the Main-Taunus district with Hofheim am Taunus as the district town.
A citizen survey by the city of Frankfurt in December 2010 showed that 66 percent of all Frankfurt citizens are generally satisfied or very satisfied with the city, only six percent said they were dissatisfied with the city. Since 1993, the proportion of satisfied people has risen by 22 percent, while the proportion of dissatisfied has decreased by eight percent. 84 percent of Frankfurt residents like to live in their city, 13 percent would prefer to live elsewhere. Satisfaction with public safety in Frankfurt is 37 percent (1993: only nine percent), 22 percent are dissatisfied (1993: 64 percent).
Of all German cities with a population of over 200,000, Frankfurt has for many years recorded the highest number of crimes related to the number of inhabitants. In 2013 this frequency was 16,292 offenses per 100,000 inhabitants. Since the city regularly took a top position in crime statistics, it was sometimes referred to in the media as the capital of crime and the most dangerous place in Germany . According to the police crime statistics published on April 24, 2017, Frankfurt was in fourth place for the first time in 2016 with 15,671 crimes per 100,000 inhabitants, behind Berlin, Leipzig and Hanover.
The Frankfurt Police Headquarters warned against using the frequency of all crimes for a comparison with other large cities, since the statistics only include those crimes that the police have known and dealt with. The police pointed out that due to the highest balance of commuters in Germany, around 260,000 additional people are in the city every day. In addition, there are visitors and tourists, around 1.5 to 2.5 million trade fair guests and around 53 million passengers annually who are also in the city. Around six percent of all criminal offenses are registered at the airport, including cargo theft, passport violations and violations of entry regulations and the Aviation Act. The high number of offenses discovered in Frankfurt is a consequence of the high density of controls in the city area.
The city authorities and committees also tried to find a different interpretation in their own publications on crime statistics. In a differentiated analysis according to crime groups, Frankfurt was only at the top of the statistics for drug offenses and residency offenses, and in the top group for fraud, simple theft and creepy transport . Credit card and account fraud is registered at the headquarters of the banks, regardless of the actual crime scene. The high number of drug-related offenses and illegal journeys discovered (around 6.7 percent of all cases registered in Germany) was a result of the intensive controls at the airport and at the traffic hubs in the city center. For security-related offenses, i.e. violent crimes such as murder and manslaughter, rape and sexual assault, robbery and bodily harm, Frankfurt was in the middle of the statistics.
A study by the University of Greifswald from April 2011 on the subjective feeling of security of the population of Frankfurt am Main showed that 84% of the citizens surveyed feel safe or very safe from crime during the day; at night it is still 71%.
Hardly any other German city has so many leading international companies from a wide variety of industries, including chemical companies , advertising agencies , software companies and call centers . The headquarters of the Management Board division Passenger Transport with DB Regio AG and DB Fernverkehr AG, Group Development and other important departments of Deutsche Bahn and the subsidiary DB Netz AG are located in the DB headquarters in Gallus. The fur trade center around Niddastraße was the main trading place for fur and fur clothing in Germany for several decades after the Second World War and was one of the three most important markets in the industry worldwide. With a turnover of 536 million, the 356 German tobacco shops and fur clothing companies located here contributed almost 10 percent to the city's national product. At the time, 65 percent of all fur products freely traded around the world took some form of route via Frankfurt am Main. For years, Hoechst AG made Frankfurt the “pharmacy of the world”. The Industrial Park is one of the three largest sites of chemical and pharmaceutical industry in Europe. The German headquarters of large food companies such as Nestlé and Ferrero as well as the headquarters of the largest brewery group in Germany, the Radeberger Group, are also located in Frankfurt . With KPMG , one of the four largest auditing firms has its European headquarters in Frankfurt. PricewaterhouseCoopers has its German headquarters in Frankfurt, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu a branch and Ernst & Young a branch beyond the city limits in Eschborn . Some of the largest management consultancies and international law firms are also represented in Frankfurt.
Frankfurt am Main is the seat of the European Central Bank and the Deutsche Bundesbank . The city is an important financial center and stock exchange and, according to various rankings, is one of the most important financial centers worldwide . For example, the GaWC (Globalization and World Cities Research Network) classified Frankfurt as the only German city due to its economic importance as an “ Alpha World City ”. This means that Frankfurt, along with 16 other cities, belongs to the third category of world cities.
The four largest German banks are located in Frankfurt: Deutsche Bank , Commerzbank , KfW and DZ Bank (as of 2015). Deutsche Bank and Commerzbank operate as universal banks and have branches around the world. The main task of Kfw is to promote medium- sized companies and start-ups , while DZ Bank is a central institution in the cooperative financial sector . As subsidiaries of DZ Bank, Union Investment , DVB Bank and Reisebank are also based in Frankfurt, and Frankfurter Volksbank, the second largest Volksbank in Germany, has its headquarters here.
The largest German direct bank, ING-DiBa , is also based in Frankfurt. In addition, some major private banks have their headquarters or their German headquarters in Frankfurt, such as SEB AG , Bankhaus Metzler , Hauck & Aufhäuser , Delbrück Bethmann Maffei , BHF-Bank and Corealcredit Bank . From the circle of sustainability banks, Triodos Bank is represented with its German branch and the GLS Community Bank with a branch in Frankfurt.
At the end of 2010, 154 foreign banks had their German headquarters in Frankfurt, and another 40 had an office.
With the trading platforms Frankfurter Wertpapierbörse and XETRA operated by Deutsche Börse AG, Frankfurt is the second largest stock market in Europe and handles the lion's share of German securities trading . In addition, the German headquarters of the three major rating agencies Standard & Poor’s , Moody’s and Fitch Ratings are located in Frankfurt.
According to a study by Comdirect, the city was third among the fintech locations in Germany in 2017, behind Berlin and Munich together with Hamburg. At the end of 2017 there were 84 fintech startups in Frankfurt. Because of the high rents and the competition for qualified junior staff, Frankfurt is considered a difficult place for fintechs. Frankfurt-based fintechs include the digital insurance manager CLARK and the digital asset manager Moneyfarm .
The supervisory bodies located here also belong to the Frankfurt financial center. From 1950 to 2000 the Federal Audit Office had its seat in Frankfurt. Today, the Federal Financial Supervisory Authority (BaFin), the Federal Financial Market Stabilization Authority and two institutions of the European Financial Supervision System , the European Supervisory Authority for Insurance and Company Pensions (EIOPA) and the European Committee for Systemic Risks , the early detection, prevention and combating of systemic risks , reside here Takes risks within the EU financial market. Since the end of 2014, there has also been a single banking supervisory mechanism for the 150 largest banks in the euro zone.
Construction and real estate industry
According to the construction and real estate study by the Frankfurt am Main Chamber of Commerce, there were 14,589 construction and real estate companies in their district in 2012. In Frankfurt alone there were 31,265 employees in the industry. In 1999 the industry employed over 36,000 people. The largest companies include DTZ Zadelhoff, Jones LangLaSalle, BNP Paribas Real Estate, Bilfinger Berger , Hochtief , Porr Germany, Techem , Nassauische Heimstätte , ABG Frankfurt Holding , Wayss & Freytag , Wisag , Ed. Züblin and Albert Speer & Partner. The turnover in the construction and real estate industry in 2011 was over 8 billion euros. Since 2002 it has increased by 7.8 percent.
The 600 meter long Zeil in the city center is the most famous and best-selling shopping street in Frankfurt. With up to 13,120 passers-by per hour, in 2012 it was the most frequented of 170 German shopping streets for the first time. The Zeil 2009 took second place in a nationwide comparison of rental prices for retail space. A shopkeeper paid up to 265 euros per square meter here. In February 2009 the new MyZeil shopping center opened in the Palaisquartier .
While the shops located on the Zeil are in the cheap to medium price category, the nearby Goethestrasse is known for its luxury brands. Compared to other so-called luxury miles such as Düsseldorf's Königsallee , in 2012 it was by far in 5th place with 1,520 pedestrians per hour. Other important retail locations in Frankfurt are the Nordwestzentrum in Nordweststadt, one of the largest shopping centers in Germany, the Hessen-Center in the Bergen district -Enkheim and the Main-Taunus-Zentrum in Sulzbach , located directly on the city limits .
In addition, there are various shopping streets in the districts, such as Berger Strasse in Nordend and Bornheim, Schweizer Strasse in Sachsenhausen, Leipziger Strasse in Bockenheim, Königsteiner Strasse in Höchst or Oeder Weg , which extends from the city center to Nordend extends.
The Skyline Plaza , which opened in August 2013, represents another retail location . As a shopping and congress center, which was built on the site of the former main freight station in the Europaviertel , the Skyline Plaza offers space for 180 shops.
Frankfurt is the seat of numerous German and European headquarters of foreign automobile groups such as Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (with Fiat , Alfa Romeo and Jeep ), Honda and Kia . In addition to Opel in Rüsselsheim am Main , Jaguar in Schwalbach am Taunus also resides outside the city gates . Škoda and Seat have their German headquarters in Weiterstadt , around 30 kilometers away . The Japanese manufacturer Mazda operates a design center in Oberursel (Taunus) . Hyundai's European sales headquarters are in Offenbach am Main .
The supplier industry is also well represented. From the former Frankfurt companies TEVES and VDO, Continental AG maintains production, administration and development locations in Frankfurt, Eschborn, Schwalbach am Taunus, Karben , Babenhausen (Hesse) and Friedberg (Hesse) . The automobile manufacturers and suppliers in the region have joined forces in the Automotive Cluster Rhein Main Neckar .
IT and telecommunications company
Frankfurt is the seat of numerous companies in the IT and telecommunications industry. These include large group-affiliated companies such as T-Systems , Finanz Informatik , DB Systel , Fujitsu and Lufthansa Systems . The telecommunications service providers Colt and Level 3 as well as the telecommunications supplier Avaya have their German headquarters here. The central registration for Germany-related domain names takes place at the Frankfurt-based DENIC . The International Network Management Center (INMC) at the Europaturm coordinates and secures the operation of the global voice and data network of Deutsche Telekom . The companies Deck13 , Keen Games and Crytek are renowned developers of computer games , and Konami Europe is also based here. Nintendo of Europe, the European headquarters of the world's largest video game developer Nintendo, is also based in Frankfurt with a large part of its departments Headquarters moved here from Großostheim, not far away, in Lower Franconia . The Games Academy , which specializes in training game developers, has had a branch in Frankfurt since 2007.
A particularly high concentration of IT companies can be found in former industrial areas along Hanauer Landstrasse , Mainzer Landstrasse and Gutleutstrasse. In the greater Frankfurt area, IT companies can be found primarily in Bad Homburg vor der Höhe , Eschborn , Kronberg im Taunus , Langen (Hesse) , Neu-Isenburg and Schwalbach am Taunus . Frankfurt is part of the Rhein-Main-Neckar IT cluster .
Associations such as the Association of the Chemical Industry (VCI), the Central Association of the Electrical and Electronics Industry ( ZVEI), the Association of the Photo Industry , the Association of German Mechanical and Plant Engineering (VDMA), and the Association of Electrical, Electronics and Information Technology (VDE) the associated electrotechnical standards commission (DKE in DIN and VDE), the Association of German Chefs , the Design Association Council for Forming , the Federal Association of the German Mail Order Trade and the German Institute for Internal Auditing (DIIR) settled in Frankfurt. The Association of the Automotive Industry (VDA) was based in Frankfurt from 1946 to 2010 and hosted the International Motor Show (IAA) here every two years until 2019 . In addition, the Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels , which organizes the Frankfurt Book Fair , is based in Frankfurt. The DECHEMA Society for Chemical Technology and Biotechnology e. V. a non-profit scientific and technical society, awards numerous scientific prizes and organizes Achema , the world's largest trade fair for chemical engineering, environmental protection and biotechnology , every three years together with Messe Frankfurt .
There are the headquarters of the Frankfurt German Trade Union Federation (DGB) affiliated unions IG Metall , IG Bauen-Agrar-Umwelt and the Education and Science Union (GEW). There is also the headquarters of the German Train Drivers Union in Frankfurt.
Trade fairs have been held in Frankfurt am Main since the Middle Ages. In 1240, Emperor Friedrich II granted the city the trade fair privilege, under whose protection the annual autumn trade fair developed into a hub for European long-distance trade. In 1330 the spring fair was added. With Leipzig German, the second major exhibition venue in the Holy Roman Empire, Frankfurt was by a highway, the Via Regia connected. After a period of decline since the 18th century, the city was able to revive the old trade fair tradition after the Second World War.
The Frankfurt Book Fair , Achema and Ambiente take place at Messe Frankfurt . The most traditional trade fair, called Tendence for several years , has lost a lot of its importance in recent years. The International Motor Show took place here from 1951 to 2019 .
Younger economic development
A study group of economists annually examines the world's major business centers on behalf of Mastercard . Frankfurt am Main came seventh in 2007, far ahead of all other German locations, as these are more nationally than globally oriented. The importance of globalization for the economic development of the city is also evident in the extensive structural change that the Frankfurt economy has been exposed to in recent decades.
From 1988 five, and between 1990 and 1996 even six of 30 DAX companies were based in Frankfurt, including three banks (Commerzbank AG, Deutsche Bank AG, Dresdner Bank AG) and three industrial groups (Degussa AG, Hoechst AG and Metallgesellschaft). In mid-2007 there were only three DAX companies in Frankfurt, two banks (Commerzbank and Deutsche Bank) and one service company ( Deutsche Börse ). In the 1980s, structural change first affected the traditionally very strong metal and electronics industry in Frankfurt. Companies such as Hartmann & Braun , Vereinigte Deutsche Metallwerke , Demag , Naxos-Union , Adlerwerke , Tenovis or VDO closed their Frankfurt plants or relocated their headquarters, mostly after mergers or takeovers. The former second largest German electronics company AEG was taken over by Daimler-Benz in 1982 after a settlement and liquidated in 1996 after years of economic decline. The Degussa moved its headquarters in 2001 to Dusseldorf and is now part of Essen Evonik Corporation. The metal company renamed the GEA Group in 2005 and moved to Bochum.
Although Frankfurt is one of the largest locations for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry in Europe, none of the large corporations is based in Frankfurt anymore. In the 1970s and 1980s, Hoechst AG was at times the largest chemical and pharmaceutical company in the world in terms of sales. In 1997 it split up into several companies which today belong to international groups such as Bayer , Celanese , Clariant and Sanofi . In the Höchst industrial park , one of the three largest chemical sites in Europe with around 22,000 employees, over 350 million euros are invested annually. On September 26, 2011, Ticona’s new production facility was opened in Höchst. They had to be relocated because the earlier plant stood in the way of the expansion of Frankfurt Airport. Fraport had acquired the former Ticona factory premises in Kelsterbach for an amount of 650 million euros.
The Cassella AG in Fechenheim , once one of the largest manufacturers of dyes and daughter of Hoechst, fell in 1997 in the division of Hoechst at Clariant. The former Cassella plant on the Mainkur still exists as the headquarters of Allessa GmbH. The company's name contains an ananym from Cassella. Another large medium-sized company in the pharmaceutical industry in Frankfurt is Merz Pharma .
As a result of reunification in 2000, Deutsche Bahn moved its corporate headquarters to Berlin for political reasons . The group development department and other central departments as well as the subsidiaries DB Netz and DB Systel will remain based in Frankfurt.
The high trade tax, high office rents and high land prices in Frankfurt caused companies to move to the suburbs in front of the city gates until the 1990s . Thus, the established German bank 's new data center in the 1990s in Eschborn, the BHF-Bank its data center in 1997 in Offenbach. In the meantime, however, it has been observed that companies are weighting the image advantage more heavily than the lower trade tax rates. Mattel moved its German headquarters back to the city.
According to the current economic survey by the Frankfurt am Main Chamber of Commerce , the economy in the IHK district continues to expect positive development. The business climate index was 129 points in autumn 2017. In the Future Atlas 2016, the independent city of Frankfurt am Main was ranked 10th out of 402 rural districts and independent cities in Germany, making it one of the regions with “top future opportunities” with particular strengths in innovation and the labor market.
Despite the structural change, Frankfurt maintained its position among the major German cities in terms of gross domestic product per capita and employed person in the years 2002 to 2007, as well as in terms of quality of life and attractiveness to immigrants (as shown above). The decline in traditional industries was offset on the one hand by growth in the service sector, including companies such as Fraport and Deutsche Börse , and on the other hand by the relocation of the German or European headquarters of major foreign companies, such as the automotive and IT industries. The city tries to avoid a one-sided focus on the financial sector and supports, for example, the expansion of Frankfurt as a research location for biotechnology. Frankfurt has therefore retained its strong position when it comes to criteria such as population growth, unemployment rate or gross domestic product per inhabitant and employed person. The disposable income is among the highest in Germany. Private purchasing power is even higher in the neighboring Hochtaunus district and in the Main-Taunus district. Nevertheless, Frankfurt also has an above-average purchasing power index of 114.5 (as of 2018) .
Tourism is of decisive and growing importance for Frankfurt. In 2015, Frankfurt had more than 5.1 million visitors and almost 8.7 million overnight stays in 265 accommodation providers. Almost 57 percent of the overnight guests came from within Germany. In terms of the number of overnight stays, the city was ranked fourth among the most popular city travel destinations behind Berlin, Munich and Hamburg, third among foreign overnight guests and first in terms of travel from Asian countries. Since 1990, the number of beds in the accommodation industry has increased from 19,373 to 45,333. Most of the overnight stays are recorded in September and October, the fewest in December and January. The average length of stay is 1.7 nights. About 70 percent of the overnight stays are for business reasons; For example, in 2015 there were over 1.7 million overnight stays in connection with the 73,163 congresses and meetings in Frankfurt.
Transport and infrastructure
Thanks to its central location, the city of Frankfurt am Main is one of the most important transport hubs in Europe. This is where rail, road, inland waterway and air traffic meet. According to a study by Marsh & McLennan Companies (2009), Frankfurt has the eighth best infrastructure of all cities in the world (in terms of air traffic, local public transport and traffic congestion, among other things) and is ahead of world cities such as London, Paris, Sydney, Tokyo and New York. In Germany, only Munich (2nd place) and Düsseldorf (6th place) do better.
The International Aviation Exhibition took place in Frankfurt in 1909 and was an important milestone in the international development of commercial aviation . In the same year the world's first airline ( DELAG ) was founded here. By airmail at the Rhine and Main , 1912, the commercial began airmail by air in Germany.
Frankfurt am Main Airport, which opened in 1936, is the largest commercial airport in Germany and the fourth largest in Europe. In terms of freight volume, Frankfurt Airport ranks first in Europe. In 2018, 69.5 million passengers and 2.1 million tons of cargo were carried.
Frankfurt-Hahn Airport , which emerged from a former military base in 1993, is also named after Frankfurt, although it is located about 120 kilometers west of the city in Lautzenhausen ( Rhineland-Palatinate ). It is mainly served by low-cost airlines and carried around 2 million passengers in 2018.
The Frankfurt-Egelsbach airfield is also not in the Frankfurt city area, but 17 kilometers south in Egelsbach . Two former airfields in Frankfurt are now part of the Frankfurt green belt: Rebstock airfield was used from 1912 to 1945, and Maurice Rose Airfield from 1951 to 1992 as an American military airfield.
The A 5 ( Hattenbacher Dreieck - Basel ) and A 3 ( Arnhem - Linz ) motorways cross at the Frankfurter Kreuz near the airport . With around 320,000 vehicles per day, it is the most frequented motorway junction in Germany.
Other motorways connected to Frankfurt are the A 66 , which leads in the west to Wiesbaden and in the east to Fulda , the short A 648 as an important feeder to the exhibition center and the city center, and the A 661 , which runs north-south from Oberursel to Egelsbach runs. The A 5 in the west, the A 661 in the northeast and the A 3 in the south surround Frankfurt as a motorway ring . This motorway ring limits the environmental zone established on October 1st, 2008 .
There are 1145 kilometers of roads in municipal ownership. With 715 cars per 1000 inhabitants, Frankfurt has the highest car density of all major German cities. The city region is well developed for motorized individual traffic thanks to numerous city highways (partly as federal motorway, partly as motorway-like federal or state roads ).
The Cityring is a double ring road around downtown Frankfurt along the Frankfurt ramparts, which were demolished from 1806 to 1812 . The Inner Ring follows the former city wall from the 14th century and runs as a one-way street in a west-east direction. The outer ring, also known as the plant ring , is essentially a one-way street in an east-west direction. Its winding course traces the bastions built in the 17th century . The Theatertunnel and Berliner Straße in east-west direction and Kurt-Schumacher-Straße and Konrad-Adenauer-Straße in north-south direction serve for through traffic in the city center .
The outer ring road is the beginning of the 20th century resulting Alleenring . It runs roughly along the medieval Frankfurter Landwehr on the border of the Free Imperial City of Frankfurt. Many radial arterial roads begin at the former city gates, including Mainzer Landstrasse , Bockenheimer Landstrasse , Eschersheimer Landstrasse , Friedberger Landstrasse , Hanauer Landstrasse and Darmstädter Landstrasse . Frankfurt's longest street is the Homburger Landstrasse beginning at Friedberger Warte , the most important arterial road to and from the north before the A 661 was built.
With the liberalization of long-distance bus traffic in Germany at the beginning of 2013, the volume of traffic at the stops south of the main train station increased significantly. The City of Frankfurt therefore had the Frankfurt am Main long-distance bus station, completed in 2019, built on a former large car park in the Mannheimer Straße, Stuttgarter Straße and Pforzheimer Straße area , at which there are 14 bays and a customer center of a bus company. Another long-distance bus stop is at the airport, Terminal 2.
The Taunus Railway to Wiesbaden, which opened in 1839, was one of the first railway lines in Germany . In 1880 the main train station replaced the three former western train stations . It is one of the busiest passenger stations in Europe. The German railway described him as the most important transportation hub for rail transport in Germany. With 13 lines, it is the most important junction in the national ICE network.
With around 450,000 passengers and visitors per day, it ranks first in Germany together with Munich Central Station and Hamburg Central Station . In terms of its area, it is one of the largest train stations in Europe, together with Leipzig Central Station and Zurich Central Station . Frankfurt's longest train route was the Basel - Moscow train, which was discontinued in 2013 . The new ICE line to Cologne has been in operation since 2002, reducing the travel time between the two cities to 75 minutes. There is also a high-speed line to Paris as part of the Rhealys project. Passengers can travel between Frankfurt Central Station and Gare de l'Est in Paris in less than four hours .
With the airport long-distance train station, there is another train station in the city of great importance, especially in the high-speed network. Together with the Südbahnhof , it will relieve the main station, which is operating at capacity limits. The Frankfurt Stadion station is 570 train movements on the day of the busiest rail hub in Germany.
The importance of freight transport by rail has declined sharply: In 1996, Deutsche Bahn gave up the main freight station in Gallus . Its approximately 70 hectares are now partially used by the adjacent Frankfurt trade fair ; The new Europaviertel district is also being built on the site . With the Ostbahnhof , only a smaller marshalling yard is in operation today .
Local public transport
The most important public transport operator from Frankfurt to the region is the Rhein-Main S-Bahn . Of the nine S-Bahn lines, eight use the seven-station city tunnels through the city center. The Frankfurt U-Bahn was opened in 1968 as the “third U-Bahn in Germany after Berlin and Hamburg, and the 35th U-Bahn in the world”. With different construction standards for tunnel routes in the city center and above-ground routes in the outdoor area, the Frankfurt subway meets the criteria of a light rail . With 9 lines today on three main routes, it is the most important inner-city transport company, ahead of the city trams , city buses and several suburban and regional trains. At the main station , Hauptwache , Konstablerwache and Südbahnhof stations , the S-Bahn and U-Bahn form common underground rapid transit hubs.
The largest transport company for local transport in the city is Verkehrsgesellschaft Frankfurt (VGF). The local public transport company traffiQ takes over the coordination and ordering of the local public transport offer. It is a partner of the Rhein-Main-Verkehrsverbund (RMV), which is responsible for regional traffic and a uniform tariff system.
In 1994, the 3.8 kilometer long fully automatic driverless elevated SkyLine train was built at Frankfurt Airport . It connects the two terminals and is to be expanded with a new connection between the long-distance train station and the future Terminal 3.
The history of Frankfurt is closely linked to the importance of the Main and Rhine for trade. The Romans used Main and Nidda for transport between the Civitas Taunensium and Moguntiacum as early as ancient times . Mainkai is the oldest port in the city . In the Middle Ages, a daily market ship ran between Frankfurt and Mainz from the 12th century, and from 1602 on several times a week between Frankfurt and Hanau. With the construction of the railways, the traffic on the Main decreased drastically, also because of its increasing siltation. From 1883 to 1886 the lower reaches of the Main were canalized with five barrages and made navigable all year round for large barges with a load capacity of up to 1000 tons. Since then, Frankfurt has been connected to the industrial regions on the Rhine and Ruhr and the North Sea ports of Rotterdam and Antwerp via the Rhine. From 1886 to 1936, chain shipping on the Main was operated on the section above Frankfurt, which was not yet regulated by congestion . After the gradual expansion, the Main has been navigable upstream to Bamberg since 1962. Since 1992 Frankfurt has been connected to the Danube and south-eastern Central Europe via the Main-Danube Canal . The Main is a federal waterway of class Vb and pushed convoys navigable to 185 meters in length.
The handling of goods in the Frankfurt ports has been declining for a long time due to the decline in bulk goods such as coal, gravel and scrap. The Höchst Harbor was shut down in 1982, and the Westhafen was converted into a residential and office district from 1993 to 2004. Today the Osthafen , the Gutleutstrasse river port and the port of the Höchst industrial park are still in operation.
Frankfurt is also an important location for the Internet . Among other things, the largest German Internet node DE-CIX and DENIC , the domain registration office for the top-level domain “de”, are located here. In terms of total average data traffic, DE-CIX is number one worldwide.
In Frankfurt am Main there are 16 hospitals with around 6,000 beds for inpatient treatment. The oldest are the Hospital of the Holy Spirit , first mentioned in 1267 , which originally only accepted strangers, pilgrims, servants and the destitute, and the Bürgerhospital , founded in 1771 , which also treated Frankfurt citizens for the first time. In 1835, Johann Theobald Christ decreed in his will to build a children's hospital and a maternity hospital out of his assets. In 1873 , Louise von Rothschild donated the Clementine Children's Hospital in memory of her daughter who died at the age of 20 . In 1974 it merged with the Christ Foundation to form the Clementine Children's Hospital Dr. Christ Foundation .
The university hospital, founded in 1914, is the largest hospital in Frankfurt. The only city-owned hospital is the Frankfurt Höchst Clinic . Several large hospitals have emerged from diaconal institutions of the Protestant and Catholic Churches. The Frankfurt Diakonie-Kliniken with the Markus Hospital in Bockenheim and the Bethanien Hospital in Bornheim have been run by the Frankfurt-based Agaplesion gAG since 2002 . The Sachsenhausen Hospital was founded in 1895 by Carl von Noorden and Eduard Lampé to care for diabetics . It has been sponsored by the German Community Diakonie Association since 1932.
The St. Elisabethen Hospital in Bockenheim belongs to the Dernbacher group Katharina Kasper , the St. Katharinen Hospital in Bornheim is an institution of the Katharina Sisters . The professional association accident clinic in Seckbach, which opened in 1962, is a traumatological focus center for the Rhine-Main area and the location of the rescue helicopter Christoph 2 . The Maingau clinics in the Nordend and the Red Cross in the Ostend were founded by the Sisterhood of the Red Cross .
With the construction of the Nordweststadt and its surroundings, a hospital became necessary in the north of Frankfurt. For this purpose, the Hospital of the Holy Spirit Foundation built the Northwest Hospital in Praunheim in 1963 .
At the beginning of the 21st century there were still around 7,500 hospital beds in Frankfurt. In the course of the health reform , the capacity has since been reduced by a fifth. In addition, several hospitals were closed or converted into day clinics , medical care centers or geriatric care facilities , including the Brothers Hospital in Ostend, the Mühlberg Hospital in Sachsenhausen, the Deaconess Hospital and the St. Marien Hospital in Nordend.
In 1828 Johann Friedrich Knoblauch and Johann Georg Remigius Schiele founded the Frankfurt gas works on Mainzer Landstrasse . Rapeseed oil was initially used as the raw material for the production of luminous gas , American resin from 1829, and wood from 1855. In 1844, the Imperial Continental Gas Association , which had previously been the licensor of the Frankfurt Gas Authority, received a concession for its own gas factory in Ostend , which used hard coal as a raw material. The English gas company supplied the inner city and Sachsenhausen, the gas station the outer city. In 1863, their operations were relocated to Gutleutstrasse and converted to hard coal as the raw material. The two companies only merged in 1909. In 1910, Peter Behrens built the gas works east as one of the first projects in the construction of the east port . When the gas supply was switched to natural gas , the gas works and the coking plant were shut down in 1969 and the gasometer was torn down.
After the success of the International Electrotechnical Exhibition in 1891 , the city of Frankfurt decided to set up a central electricity supply with single-phase alternating current . The Elektrical Centralanstalt in Gutleutstrasse went into operation in 1894 as one of the first heating power plants in Germany. In 1926, the city gave the island mode on and joined the resulting three-phase - Verbundnetz the Prussian power plant Oberweser AG on. The 1928 eingemeindeten neighborhoods in Frankfurt's West already belonged to the coverage area of the main power plants in maximum, so meeting in Frankfurt today, the supply networks of Mainova and Süwag and transmission networks of TenneT TSO and Amprion together. Tennet TSO operates the Frankfurt-Nord substation for 220 kV at Berger Warte in Seckbach and Frankfurt-Südwest for 380 kV in Griesheim. The western parts of the city and the Höchst industrial park are supplied by Amprion's Kelsterbach substation and Kriftel substation .
From 1928, the city's power plants also generated district heating . After the Second World War, generation capacities increased due to the construction of new power plants. Heat supply the northwestern city of Niederrad business district that emerged Müllheizkraftwerk Frankfurt and the thermal power station Niederrad. The Höchst industrial park is supplied by its own thermal power station. In 1998 Stadtwerke Frankfurt am Main and Maingas AG merged to form Mainova.
In the Middle Ages and early modern times, the streets were only exceptionally illuminated. Only in the event of external and internal threat from enemies, riot or fire and at large celebrations, for example on the occasion of imperial coronations, torches or lanterns were lit and attached to the house facades. There were first attempts at permanent street lighting in the 17th century, but there was not yet any strong public interest. It was not until Frankfurt was under French occupation during the Seven Years' War that the royal lieutenant, Count Thoranc , had permanent lanterns fired with rapeseed oil installed over a number of crossroads in 1761 and 1762. Despite their low light intensity, they led to a significant improvement in road safety and a decrease in night-time street crime. By 1783 there were already 604 lanterns in Frankfurt and Sachsenhausen. The high costs made the introduction of a new indirect tax, the light money, necessary. To save costs, the nocturnal burning time was based on the season and the phases of the moon.
In 1828, the construction of the first gas station made the introduction of gas lighting possible, but initially only on private initiative. From October 1845, the English gas company provided 670 gas lanterns for public street lighting in the city center. By 1886 the number of gas lights had risen to over 4000. From 1880 experiments with electric street lighting began.
At the beginning of the 21st century, Frankfurt had the highest number in Germany after Berlin and Düsseldorf with around 60,000 electric street lamps and around 5500 gas lights. Due to the high operating costs and the difficult supply of spare parts, the city council decided in 2014 to replace the remaining gas lanterns with LED lights within ten years. Around 1400 lights are to be converted in such a way that the external appearance is retained.
In addition to surface water and private wells in houses and courtyards, public draw wells in alleys and squares have been used for water supply since the 13th century . A fountain roll was kept for each well, i.e. a list of all the neighboring wells who were allowed to use the well and who were required to maintain it, as well as the annual fees to be paid for this (well fee ) . Until modern times, the inflow of groundwater from the wells was sufficient . In 1607 the first aqueduct was built from Friedberger Feld in today's Nordend to Friedberger Tor to supply around 30 public fountains with water. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, most of the draw wells were gradually replaced by more effective pump wells . They were safer and more hygienic - the draw wells were repeatedly contaminated by animal carcasses and accidents with water-scooping children - and had a higher delivery rate of up to 40 liters per minute. This made it easier to fight fires , to which all citizens were obliged in an emergency. Fountains from this time with the typical fountain column made of red Main sandstone , iron handle and sandstone basins can still be found in many parts of the city.
In the 19th century, the rapid population growth and the increasing demands on drinking water hygiene required a constant expansion of the water supply. Since 1834 a second aqueduct ran from the Knoblauchsfeld in the north end into the city, since 1859 a third from the Seehofquelle in Sachsenhausen. Starting in 1859, a pumping station at the Alte Brücke supplied the Sachsenhausen gardeners with irrigation water from the Main. In 1873 the first long-distance water pipeline from Vogelsberg to the new elevated tank in the water park on Friedberger Landstrasse went into operation. From there the water was fed into the municipal drinking water network, to which more and more households were connected. In 1876 springs in the Spessart were also connected to the long-distance water pipeline. Between 1884 and 1955, several waterworks were also built in the Frankfurt city forest .
Today around 17 percent of Frankfurt's drinking water is pumped in the urban area, 36 percent comes from the Hessian Ried . Almost half of the water comes from the Vogelsberg, the Spessart and the Kinzigtal . The approximately 145 urban wells in the urban area no longer have any function for the water supply. Many of them are under monument protection.
The origins of the Frankfurt sewer system lie in the natural waters - former oxbow lakes of the Main and smaller streams - as well as in the wet ditches of the Staufen wall in the area of the old town. From the middle of the 12th century, they were gradually vaulted with brick walls and used as sewers. The main canal ran roughly along today's Börnestrasse, Holzgraben, Kleiner and Großer Hirschgraben. The Braubach, which silted up in the Middle Ages, was also canalized from 1468 and used to drain the old town. In addition to these ring-shaped main canals, up to 23 collecting canals were gradually built, so-called antauchen , which ran at right angles to the main bank and there poured into the river. Due to their low gradient, the mostly unpaved floor and the changing cross-section, they tended to become silted up and clogged all the time. The houses adjoining an Antauche had the right of suffrage and were allowed to discharge faeces and sewage. Houses without direct access to a submersible had to collect their faeces in underground septic tanks and have them regularly removed.
At the end of the 18th century it was recognized that the immersion, as a constant source of infection, endangered general health and also contaminated the groundwater , from which the municipal wells obtained part of their water. In 1809 the building statute of city architect Johann Georg Christian Hess forbade the discharge of sewage into the Antauchen. In the future, every house should have a brick cesspool. With the population growth in the course of the 19th century, this system reached its limits. In 1854, a commission of experts developed the first plans for the construction of a modern alluvial sewer system based on the Hamburg model, but construction only began in 1867 after the Prussian annexation. Under the direction of the engineer William Lindley and his son William Heerlein Lindley , a 237-kilometer-long canal network was built until 1899, encompassing all of the districts of the time, which is still largely in operation today. The main canals in Frankfurt and Sachsenhausen ran about four to five meters below street level with a slight gradient parallel to the Main, the secondary canals at right angles to it and with a greater gradient. The network was divided into an upper and a lower system on both banks of the Main. While the upper one ran completely over the highest assumed Main flood, the receiving waters of the lower system only emptied west of the Niederräder Bridge , where the flood level was 2.80 meters below that of the Old Bridge . With the exception of a particularly low-lying area of the old town, the entire network managed without a lifting system.
After just a few years, complaints from residents down the Main about the unreasonable pollution of the river by the urban sewage discharged increased. There was no space for a discharge into Rieselfelder , so the city decided to build a mechanical sewage treatment plant based on the English model. The Niederrad sewage treatment plant, built on the Niederräder Ufer under Lindley's management from 1883 to 1887, was the first of its kind in Germany. It was able to clean 18,000 cubic meters of wastewater every day. From 1902 to 1904 the plant was expanded to 45,000 cubic meters a day. The annual costs for wastewater treatment in 1910 amounted to around 40 pfennigs per inhabitant. 1956 to 1965 a new sewage treatment plant was built in Niederrad and expanded to include a biological treatment stage. The old, listed building is still used today for rainwater treatment. Another plant for purifying wastewater from the western parts of the city was built in Sindlingen in the early 1960s. Both plants were modernized in 1985/86 and a dewatering and incineration plant for the sewage sludge was built in Sindlingen . The two Frankfurt sewage treatment plants are designed for a capacity of around 2 million population equivalents. Around 340,000 inhabitants in the surrounding communities from Offenbach to Hattersheim and from Königstein to Kelsterbach are connected to the Frankfurt sewage treatment plants.
The sewer network is around 1,600 kilometers long and transports around 300,000 cubic meters of wastewater daily in dry weather. With a book value of approx. 345 million and 194 million euros, the sewer network and sewage treatment plants are among the largest items in the city's fixed assets.
Up until the middle of the 19th century, homeowners in Frankfurt were responsible for removing household waste. In 1855, the city granted several farmers and hauliers a concession to collect rubbish and clean rubbish from the streets and squares for an annual fee of 1500 guilders . In 1873 the city had to take over the garbage collection on its own because the recycling of the waste no longer generated enough income for the concessionaires. The municipal garbage disposal collected and sorted the waste, sold the ingredients suitable as fertilizers to the farms and dumped the residues in waste disposal sites on the outskirts of the city. Around 1900 the annual waste volume amounted to 75,000 cubic meters; by 1912 it had increased to more than 120,000 cubic meters. In addition, there were around 75,000 cubic meters of sewage sludge that accumulated annually in the Niederrad sewage treatment plant .
The landfills not only took up valuable land, but also led to more and more complaints due to odor nuisance. In 1902 the city therefore decided to build a waste incineration plant based on the English model. The new plant was built next to the Niederrad sewage treatment plant and went into operation in 1909. It was designed for a daily capacity of 100 tons of household waste and 50 tons of partially dewatered sewage sludge, which were burned at temperatures of 800 to 1200 degrees Celsius. The hot flue gases were used to dry the sewage sludge and to generate steam. Two turbo generators, each with an output of 360 kilowatts, were operated with the steam.
After the First World War , the calorific value of the household waste generated in Frankfurt dropped dramatically, so that the plant had to be shut down around 1920. Since then, Frankfurt household waste has been stored in an open landfill in the Frankfurt city forest near the city limits of Offenbach. This landfill was known in Frankfurt under the name Monte Scherbelino . It remained in operation until 1968 and collected a total of over 12 million cubic meters of waste. Since then, the Frankfurt household waste, which went into operation in 1968 and has since been modernized and expanded several times, has been disposed of in the Nordweststadt waste-to- energy plant . Since 2010, it has been able to thermally recycle over 525,000 tons of household waste annually, supplying over 30,000 households with district heating and generating up to 49 megawatts of electricity.
Government institutions and organizations
The Deutsche Bundesbank has had its headquarters in Frankfurt since 1957 , just like the Bank of the German States, which existed from 1948 to 1957 . The European Central Bank , responsible for the monetary policy of the nineteen EU countries in the euro zone , has been based here since 1998 . Since 2004, Frankfurt has been the seat of the European Insurance Supervisory Authority (from 2004 to 2011) CEIOPS , since then EIOPA , and since the end of 2014 also the central European banking authority . Besides, who KfW and the German International Finance Corporation -Büro (as part of the World Bank Group ) based there. Federal authorities based in Frankfurt are the Federal Financial Supervisory Authority , the Federal Financial Market Stabilization Authority and the Federal Agency for Cartography and Geodesy . The Federal Office of Economics and Export Control is located in the suburb of Eschborn. A number of authorities, including the Federal Audit Office , moved to Bonn as a result of the Berlin / Bonn Act .
The German Library was founded in Frankfurt in 1946 and is now part of the German National Library . The jurisdiction is represented by the Higher Regional Court Frankfurt am Main , the Hessian Regional Labor Court , the Regional Court Frankfurt am Main , the Social Court Frankfurt am Main , the Labor Court Frankfurt am Main , the Administrative Court Frankfurt am Main and the District Court Frankfurt am Main . Until its dissolution at the end of 2003, Frankfurt was also the seat of the Federal Disciplinary Court .
The Frankfurt am Main Police Headquarters is one of the seven Hessian police headquarters. Municipal security and order tasks are assigned to the Frankfurt am Main city police (auxiliary police within the meaning of Section 99 HSOG). Frankfurt is the seat of the Oberfinanzdirektion Hessen. In Frankfurt there is also a Hessian office for care and social affairs. The Frankfurt Fire Brigade, founded in 1874, operates 12 guards from the professional fire brigade and 28 guards from the volunteer fire brigades .
Frankfurt is also the seat of 108 consulates . Only New York has more foreign representations without being the capital of a state. The American Consulate General in Nordend is the largest diplomatic representation in Frankfurt and the world's largest consulate of the United States of America with more than a thousand employees .
Newspapers, publishers and other publication media
Frankfurt, one of the oldest newspaper cities in the world, is home to two national daily newspapers . The liberal-conservative Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung maintains an editorial and publishing house on Mainzer Landstrasse in Gallus . The left-liberal Frankfurter Rundschau has had both in Sachsenhausen since July 2005 . In addition, the Börsen-Zeitung and the Handelsblatt appear in Frankfurt . An established local newspaper with a large regional editorial team is the Frankfurter Neue Presse , published by the Frankfurter Societät in the immediate vicinity of the FAZ. In Frankfurt, the Russian-language weekly MK-Deutschland is published as a subsidiary of the Russian daily Moskowski Komsomolez .
In addition to the daily newspapers, there are also several reputable magazines in the Frankfurt region. The city magazine Journal Frankfurt has been published since 1990. The editorial office is located in Gallus near the main train station. Öko-Test Verlag in Bockenheim has specialized in “ecological magazines” , including the test magazine of the same name. The editorial team of the satire magazine Titanic is also located in Bockenheim . The leading journals in Germany for Works ( labor law in operation ) and staff councils (The Staff) appear in the since 1997 in the district of Frankfurt Heddernheim based publishing house Bund .
Frankfurt am Main has a long history as an important publishing location for books. Soon after the invention of printing , the Frankfurt trade fair became an important trading and transhipment point for books. In 1511 Beatus Murner set up the first print shop in Frankfurt in the Barefoot Monastery . In 1530 Christian Egenolff became the first publishing house printer in the city. Frankfurt remained the most important trade fair and publishing location for books in Germany until the late 17th century. The censorship of the Imperial Book Commission caused many publishers and printers to move to Leipzig . The tradition of the Frankfurt Book Fair only revived after the Second World War. From 1949 to 2012, the Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels was located in Großer Hirschgraben next to the Goethe House . The building complex was demolished in 2015 and the area will be the location of the German Romantic Museum . The Börsenverein has its new headquarters in Braubachstrasse . The Suhrkamp Verlag , formerly associated with the city , relocated to Berlin in 2012.
Radio, film and television
Frankfurt's oldest radio broadcaster was the private Südwestdeutsche Rundfunkdienst AG founded in 1924 . Today the successor company, the public broadcasting company Hessischer Rundfunk with its " Funkhaus am Dornbusch " is one of the most important radio and television facilities . This is also where the ARD star points are located , which distribute the community programs (for example Das Erste ) to the individual broadcasters via a high-performance network. The US soldier broadcaster AFN also had its headquarters in Frankfurt from August 1945. As part of the troop reduction, the AFN location in Frankfurt was also given up: Since October 2004, the American Forces Network has been broadcasting its Europe program from Mannheim. The US media group Bloomberg TV has its Germany studio on Neue Mainzer Strasse in downtown Frankfurt. There is also the regional studio of the RTL Group . Pure radio stations also broadcast from Frankfurt, such as Antenne Frankfurt , which now use the frequencies from the former Energy Rhein-Main radio station . Another private but not commercial radio station Radio X . His studio is not far from Leipziger Strasse. The oldest and largest private radio station in the region, Hit Radio FFH , was founded in Frankfurt in 1989. Since 2001 it has been based in the city of Bad Vilbel, which borders on Frankfurt . Furthermore, the broadcasting center of the youth scene and music channel IM1 -TV is located in Frankfurt . The German headquarters of the home entertainment and cinema company 20th Century Fox is located on Darmstädter Landstrasse . The German cinema department of Universal Pictures is also located in Frankfurt . Radio Bob has a branch in Frankfurt for marketing in parts of the rooms of the Frankfurter Rundschau.
The news agencies Reuters Germany (in the Messeturm ) and Associated Press Germany are also based in Frankfurt . The image center of the German Press Agency is also located in Frankfurt. The Mertonviertel is the seat of the joint venture between Protestant journalism and the Evangelischer Pressedienst news agency and the Protestant magazine Chrismon .
Some of the largest libraries in Germany are located in Frankfurt. The German National Library is the central archive library for all media works in the German language and the national bibliographic center of Germany. Its Frankfurt seat emerged from the German Library , which existed from 1947 to 1990 . The Johann Christian Senckenberg University Library, founded in 2005, brings together the collections of numerous municipal and academic libraries, including the 15th century city library , the Senckenberg library founded in 1763 and the Freiherr Carl von Rothschild public library founded in 1887 . The HeBIS library information system is also located at the university library .
The municipal libraries of Frankfurt are combined in the Frankfurt am Main city library . It goes back to the association founded in 1845 for the distribution of useful folk and youth publications and the free library and reading hall founded in 1894 . Today the city library has three central libraries, four library centers, a mobile library with over 30 stops and 12 district libraries. The city library also coordinates 111 school libraries in the city. Since 2009, there have been public bookcases in many parts of the city that are accessible around the clock and enable literature to be exchanged, borrowed and given away free of charge.
Education and Research
There are two universities , two art colleges and several technical colleges in Frankfurt am Main . The most famous and oldest university in the city is the Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, founded in 1914, with its four main locations Bockenheim , Westend , Riedberg and Uni-Klinik Niederrad .
The Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences , founded in 1971 from various predecessor institutions - Frankfurt University of Applied Sciences since 2014 - offers over 50 courses with a focus on applied engineering and economics as well as in the social and health sectors. All departments are located on the Nibelungenplatz / Kleiststrasse campus in Nordend .
The Philosophical-Theological University of Sankt Georgen is the oldest private scientific university in Frankfurt. It is supported by the German Province of the Jesuits and has been based in the Sachsenhausen district since 1926. There are also several private universities in Frankfurt. The Frankfurt School of Finance & Management emerged from the Bankakademie and the Hochschule für Bankwirtschaft and is located in the north end of Frankfurt with its campus. Since 2001 the FOM University of Economics & Management (FOM) has been running a study center in Westend. The Provadis School of International Management and Technology, founded in 2003, is located in the Höchst industrial park . The International School of Management has had a study site in Sachsenhausen since 2007 .
In the artistic field, Frankfurt has the State University of Fine Arts - Städelschule , founded in 1817 by Johann Friedrich Städel , which later came into the possession of the city and in 1942 was elevated to the state art college of the fine arts. The other well-known art school is the private foundation Dr. Hoch's Conservatory - music academy emerged college for music and performing arts .
General education schools
The Frankfurt school system is based on the city's school development plan, the current update of which for 2018–2024 was approved by the municipal authorities in May 2020. In 2018/19 there were 149 publicly funded general education schools that were attended by almost 70,000 students. Due to the strong population growth, an increase of around 6 percent to 74,000 students is expected by 2024, especially in high schools and integrated comprehensive schools.
The old-language Lessing grammar school and the Goethe grammar school both go back to the municipal Latin school founded in 1520 for the education of the bourgeois sons . The Heinrich-von-Gagern-Gymnasium , which is also old-language , was founded in 1888 under the name Kaiser-Friedrichs-Gymnasium to relieve the urban Lessing-Gymnasium. Other urban high schools such as the model school founded in 1803 and the Wöhlerschule were also created on the initiative of Frankfurt citizens. The oldest grammar school in Höchst is the Leibniz School , which dates back to a Realschule founded in 1817. The high school Riedberg , which opened in 2009, was the first new high school to be founded since 1914. An upper-level high school founded in Riedberg in 2013 moved to Bockenheim in 2017. In the medium term, it is to be located in the Gallus district. The Adorno-Gymnasium , which was founded in 2015 and initially temporarily housed in Höchst, moved to a new temporary facility on the Westend university campus in 2019. In the long term, it will be located on Miquelallee / Eschersheimer Landstrasse. Other start-ups in recent years were the North Gymnasium in Westhausen and the Römerhof Gymnasium in Bockenheim, which started operations in the 2018/19 school year. In total, the school development plan provides for the construction of eleven additional schools by 2024, eight of which are elementary schools, a six-class high school in the south of Frankfurt, an integrated comprehensive school and a cooperative comprehensive school.
In addition to the 19 municipal grammar schools, there are twelve privately owned grammar schools and one European school . The philanthropist was from its inception in 1804 until by the Nazis forced closure in 1942, the existing longest and largest with 1,000 students temporarily Jewish school in Germany. The building now houses the IE Lichtigfeld School of the Frankfurt Jewish Community .
At secondary schools in Frankfurt there are 15 urban integrated comprehensive schools , three cooperative comprehensive schools , 14 secondary schools and nine secondary schools. The Ernst Reuter School , founded in the early 1960s, is one of the first integrated comprehensive schools , and the Hessenkolleg Frankfurt is one of the oldest institutions of the second educational path in Hesse. The Otto Hahn School in Nieder-Eschbach, founded in 1969 , is a cooperative comprehensive school with over 1,300 students and is one of the largest schools in the city.
Of the 26 secondary vocational schools in Frankfurt, 16 are run by the city and 10 are privately run. These include the Mediacampus Frankfurt of the Börsenverein des Deutschen Buchhandels and the Academy of Visual Arts .
Other educational and research institutions
There are also the Max Planck Institutes for European Legal History (MPIER), Biophysics and Brain Research in the city . The city of Frankfurt is also a “corporate sponsoring member” of the Max Planck Society. The Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies , an interdisciplinary institution for theoretical basic research in physics, chemistry, biology, neurology and computer science , is closely connected to the university .
The Leibniz Institute for Research and Information in Education (DIPF), based in Bockenheim, is a research and service institution in the field of educational research . The tasks of the DIPF include the conception, development and evaluation of all questionnaires to be used in PISA 2015. The DIPF is also responsible for the biennial national education report " Education in Germany ".
The Frankfurt Adult Education Center is organized as an in-house operation of the city of Frankfurt and has its headquarters in Frankfurt's Ostend.
The Catholic adult education - Landesarbeitsgemeinschaft Hessen , the Diözesanbildungswerk Limburg, and the Bildungswerke Frankfurt, Main-Taunus and Hochtaunus have their seat in the house at the cathedral .
The Evangelical Academy Frankfurt , created in 2012 from a merger of the Evangelical City Academy Römer9 and the Evangelical Academy Arnoldshain , is located opposite the Historical Museum on the Römerberg.
Awards given by the city
- Honorary citizenship (highest city distinction, see list of honorary citizens of Frankfurt am Main )
- Entry in the Golden Book of the City of Frankfurt am Main
- Honorary plaque of the city of Frankfurt am Main (since 1952, awarded annually to up to five people)
- Citizens Medal of the City of Frankfurt am Main (awarded annually to up to five people since 2002)
- Frankfurt Founder Prize (since 2001)
- Goethe plaque of the city of Frankfurt am Main (annually since 1947 to personalities from cultural life)
- Goethe Prize of the City of Frankfurt am Main (since 1927, initially annually, now every three years on Goethe's birthday, 50,000 euros)
- Ignatz Bubis Prize (every three years since 2001)
- Integration award of the city of Frankfurt am Main (annually to persons or institutions, 15,000 euros)
- International high-rise award (annually, financed by Deka-Bank, 50,000 euros)
- Max Beckmann Prize (every three years for a birthday, to promote and recognize outstanding achievements in the fields of painting, graphics, sculpture and architecture - 50,000 euros)
- Otto Hahn Prize (every two years, for outstanding achievements in chemistry, physics or applied engineering, 50,000 euros)
- Roman plaque of the city of Frankfurt am Main (for volunteers, three levels: 10, 15 and 20 years)
- Sports badge (for title winners and volunteers in this field)
- Theodor W. Adorno Prize (since 1977, every three years, for outstanding achievements in the fields of philosophy, music, theater and film - 50,000 euros)
- Tony Sender Prize (every two years, to promote equality, 10,000 euros)
- Walter Möller badge (every two years, groups, citizens' groups, etc., 10,000 euros)
- Walter Kolb Memorial Prize (annually for an outstanding dissertation, 2500 euros)
- Johann Philipp von Bethmann Study Prize (annually for outstanding projects to research the history of Frankfurt)
Sights and natural monuments
Four of the city's most important attractions are located close to each other in Frankfurt's old town : Kaiserdom, Römerberg, Paulskirche and Goethe House.
The catholic imperial cathedral St. Bartholomäus with its distinctive late Gothic west tower was the election and coronation site of the German emperors. The market ran from the cathedral to the Römer , along which the coronation path of the newly crowned emperors led to the celebrations on the square in front of the town hall. In front of the cathedral is the archaeological garden with excavations of the oldest traces of Frankfurt's settlement from Roman and Carolingian times. As part of the Dom-Römer project, it was built over with the town house on the market to protect it from the weather. The multi-storey houses on the market and around the chicken market, with their overhangs and high, steep roofs and gables, give a good impression of the former cityscape. The new buildings also include 15 reconstructions of destroyed old town houses.
The Römerberg is the central square of the old town with the town hall ( Römer ) from the 14th century, the early Gothic Old Nikolaikirche and the row of houses on the east side of the square, which was reconstructed after being destroyed in the war. The title wins of the regional clubs (Eintracht Frankfurt, Frankfurt Lions) as well as the soccer world championships are celebrated together with the fans on the town hall balcony of the Römer.
The Paulskirche was built from 1789 to 1833 instead of the medieval Barefoot Church, which was demolished in 1786, and served as Frankfurt's main Protestant church until 1944. The National Assembly met in the classicistic rotunda designed by the architect Johann Georg Christian Hess in 1848/49 . The Paul Place is a lively town square with outdoor cafes.
The Neue Kräme lies between Römerberg and Liebfrauenberg . The Liebfrauenberg, built in the 14th century , the Liebfrauenbrunnen from 1770 and the Zum Paradies / Grimmvogel house from 1775 , one of the few remaining baroque buildings in Frankfurt, are located on Liebfrauenberg .
The Kleinmarkthalle , a new building from 1954 after the war destruction in 1944, is the culinary center of the city. Over 150 market stalls offer all kinds of food every working day. The Goethe House , the birthplace of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , is located in the Großer Hirschgraben in the western old town . The Kornmarkt , now a quiet side street, was one of the city's main arteries in the Middle Ages.
Remains of the medieval Staufen wall can still be found in the east of the old town on Fahrgasse . Further to the east is the Battonnstrasse Jewish cemetery, first mentioned in 1180 . Small memorial stones with the names of 11,957 Jewish citizens of Frankfurt who were murdered during the National Socialist era are embedded in the plaster of the cemetery wall.
Main bank and Main bridges
The two banks of the Main are increasingly developing into the most attractive urban space in Frankfurt. Projects such as the development of the museum bank , the redesign of the waterfront, the construction of a new residential and commercial area in the former Frankfurt Westhafen or the architecturally sophisticated Main Bridges all contribute to this . The Old Bridge (first mentioned in a document in 1222) was considered the most important building in the city for centuries. The Portikus exhibition hall has been located on Maininsel since 2006 . The Eiserne Steg , a pedestrian bridge opened in 1869, is one of the city's landmarks. The Saalhof and the Catholic St. Leonhard Church on the northern bridgehead are two architectural monuments whose origins go back to the Staufer period.
The view from one of the eastern inner-city main bridges to the old town and skyline is often used in the media as an illustration for articles from Frankfurt. In recent years, two large beach clubs have emerged on the north and south banks of the Main in the east of the city center . The Gerbermühle , which went down in literary history as a meeting point between Goethe and Marianne von Willemer , is now a popular excursion destination.
The Schwanheimer Düne nature reserve is one of the few inland dunes in Europe and is located near the Main in the west of the Schwanheim district. It covers 58.5 hectares and is home to many rare and endangered animal and plant species.
The endowment churches are a specialty of Frankfurt . The city has owned all nine churches in the city center and the Dreikönigskirche in Sachsenhausen since 1802 and has been obliged to maintain them by a state church treaty since 1830. Four times a year, on the high feasts of the church year, the traditional Frankfurt city bells take place in the city churches .
The Sachsenhausen district on the south side of the Main, first mentioned in 1192, is also called Dribbdebach (dribbe = over, across the river) in Frankfurt dialect , in contrast to the inner city of Hibbdebach (this side of the river). Since the Middle Ages mainly fishermen, farm workers and craftsmen have lived here, whose coarse language and manners were proverbial. In the 18th and 19th centuries, wealthy citizens also increasingly settled here. Sachsenhausen's old town became a popular nightlife and pub district. But the decline in visitors after the discontinuation of the American military sites made Alt-Sachsenhausen troublesome. Vacancy and decay have not been overlooked since then. However, there are still some traditional and sometimes very old cider bars. For some time now, the city has been trying to get the district going again. The aim is to establish small shops and studios in addition to pubs in order to liven up the district more strongly during the day.
The dominant building on the Sachsenhausen bank of the Main is the Dreikönigskirche, built between 1875 and 1881 . The museums on the banks of the museum lie along the Main . One of the largest flea markets in Germany takes place here every second Saturday.
The old buildings in northern Sachsenhausen around Schweizer Platz are a popular residential area with a balanced mix of retail and gastronomy. In addition to well-known cider bars such as Wagner and the Gemalten Haus, there are modern cocktail bars.
Further to the south are residential areas such as the Lerchesberg , which was built in the 1960s. In the 1990s, the Deutschherrnviertel was built on the former slaughterhouse to the east of Sachsenhausen's old town , and has now become a popular residential area. The landmark of the new district is the Main Plaza skyscraper .
The Goetheturm , which burned down in 2017 in the city forest, one of the tallest wooden structures in Germany, and the Henninger Tower , a former grain silo and known for the bike race around the Henninger Tower and the revolving restaurant in the tower basket , were also located in the Sachsenhausen area . The original Henninger Tower, opened in 1961, was demolished in 2013 and replaced from 2014 to 2017 by a 140 meter high residential high-rise, which looks similar to the original.
Central station and station district
The main train station , opened in 1888, is one of the largest of its kind in Europe in terms of the number of long-distance trains and the number of passengers. The huge five-aisled platform hall, the supporting structure and roof of which were recently completely restored, the reception building preserved in the same style and the unmanageable tangle of aboveground and underground facilities make up an impressive building that is a sight in itself.
The Bahnhofsviertel is a melting pot of cultures. There are shops and restaurants of all kinds from different cultures. The Bahnhofsviertel lives 24 hours a day, not only because of the red light district , which mainly extends around Taunusstrasse . The district can also be seen as a prime example of the urban contrasts that an international transport hub brings with it. Beggars, alcoholics and junkies are just as present there alongside the streams of employed commuters as bankers, international trade fair guests and day tourists. The Kaiserstraße , which the visitor can see directly from the main entrance of the main station, is an urban boulevard on which wealth and misery, multicultural retail, modern high-rise banks can be observed in close proximity to red-light businesses in old buildings from the Wilhelminian era.
Frankfurt is one of the few cities in Europe with a distinctive skyline and is therefore sometimes referred to as Mainhattan - a reference to Manhattan in New York City . There are a particularly large number of high-rise buildings in the so-called banking district , where the western inner city , the eastern train station district and the southern West End meet. The oldest high-rise buildings in Frankfurt are the Mousonturm, built between 1923 and 1926, and the IG Farben administration building, today the main building of the university. The first high-rise buildings over 50 meters high were built in the 1950s, and skyscrapers over 150 meters high since the mid-1970s .
Since 1953, the land-use planning in Frankfurt has also dealt with the regulation of high-rise construction. In 1998 the first high-rise master plan was drawn up, which was updated in 2008. It stipulates where and how high-rise buildings may be built. The aim is to skyscrapers in groups (platoons) in the financial district, the European district and the Mainzer Landstrasse between Opera Square to arrange and Republic Square, but were and individual exceptions, such as the towers of the Palais Quartier in downtown or the new construction of the European Central Bank in Ostend.
The number of new buildings has increased steadily since the 1950s. The junior house built in 1951 reached a height of 35 meters, the AEG high-rise opened in 1953 45 meters. In 1956, the telecommunications tower at Hauptwache was the tallest building in the city at 69 meters. The Hotel InterContinental Frankfurt (67 m) and the Zurich-Haus (68 m) reached similar heights in the early 1960s . With the exception of the junior house and the hotel, all of these buildings have now been torn down and replaced by taller new buildings. In 1961, the Henninger Tower in Sachsenhausen was the first building in Frankfurt to tower over the west tower of the Kaiserdom (95 m) with its height of 120 meters. Other high-rise buildings from the 1960s include a. the BHF-Bank-Hochhaus (82 meters) and the Rhein-Main-Center (84 m).
In 1972 the AfE tower of the Goethe University was the tallest building in the city at 116 meters, and in 1974 City-Haus I reached a height of 142 meters. The first skyscrapers were the Plaza Büro Center , which opened in 1976, at 159 meters, and the Dresdner Bank Silver Tower, built in 1978, at 166 meters, at that time the tallest building in Germany. With the Eurotower and the Helaba high-rise , the high-rise buildings in the city center were densified. The buildings erected in the 1980s did not exceed the previous heights. The best-known buildings from this period are the 155 m high twin towers of Deutsche Bank , which were completed in 1984 and are popularly known as debit and credit .
In the 1990s, the second generation of high-rise buildings set new records: in 1991, the Messeturm was the tallest building in Europe with a height of 257 meters , and in 1997 the Commerzbank Tower reached 259 meters. Two other buildings also exceeded the 200-meter mark during this time: Westendstrasse 1 and Main Tower . Today the Main Tower is the only skyscraper in Frankfurt with a publicly accessible viewing platform on the roof, there is also a restaurant on the 25th floor of the Japan Center and a bar on the 22nd floor of the Eurotheum . During the Skyscraper Festival , which is held at irregular intervals (most recently in June 2013), other high-rise buildings are also open to the public.
In the 21st century, more high-rises were built in Frankfurt, including Tower 185 , Opernturm , Skyper , Gallileo , Nextower and Westhafen Tower . In 2013 there were 14 buildings in Frankfurt with a height of over 150 m, including the ten tallest buildings in Germany .
The building Squaire to the airport train station is 660 m long, 65 m wide and 45 m high. With a total area of 140,000 m² on nine floors, it is the largest office building in Germany. The tallest building in the city has been the Europaturm ( called Ginnheimer Asparagus by the Frankfurters ), a telecommunications tower of the Telekom, with a height of 337.5 m. The Europaturm has visitor areas, but these have been closed since 1999 due to a lack of economic efficiency.
The increasing demand for real estate, the planned exit of Great Britain from the EU and the favorable economic development in Germany led to a new "boom" in high-rise construction from 2015 onwards. In addition to the 185 meter high new building of the European Central Bank , high-rise projects such as the Omniturm , the Maintor area and the development of the former Deutsche Bank area with four high-rise buildings between 120 and 228 meters embody this development. The new generation of Frankfurt skyscrapers is often characterized by the combination of residential, hotel and office space in one building. Germany's tallest residential tower is being built with the 172-meter-high Grand Tower .
Museums and galleries
The city offers a diverse cultural program. This includes the unique museum landscape with over 60 large and small museums and exhibition halls, which are mainly located on both sides of the Main. The Frankfurter Grüngürtel- Mainufer concept designed by Till Behrens as early as 1968 , which served as a template for the Museumsufer , was implemented by politics since the early 1980s and is still being pursued today.
The Museumsufer on the Sachsenhausen Main side includes well-known houses such as the Städel , the Liebieghaus , the Museum for Communication (formerly: Post Museum), the German Architecture Museum (DAM), the German Film Museum , the Museum of World Cultures and the Museum of Applied Arts (formerly: Museum of Applied Arts ). The Museumsuferfest takes place here every year .
The art museums and galleries include the Städel (paintings), the Liebieghaus (sculptures), the Museum of Modern Art (MMK), the Schirn Kunsthalle , the German Architecture Museum (DAM), the German Film Museum and the Museum of Applied Arts. The Ernst May Museum specializes in Frankfurt design and the architecture of the 1920s.
Historical museums are the Historical Museum (city history) and the Jewish Museum , between the art and historical museum is the Archaeological Museum in the Carmelite Monastery and the Cathedral Museum in Frankfurt , which combines historical and contemporary art. The German Romantic Museum is to be built in the Großer Hirschgraben next to the Goethe House by 2018 .
Technology museums , the Museum of Communication, which are Frankfurt Feldbahnmuseum , the Transport Museum Frankfurt , the EXPERIMINTA , the museum train of the association Historic Railway and Technical Collection Hochhut . In the north end is the EXPLORA , a museum for optical and other illusions. Many anaglyph images , stereo image pairs , SIRDs , holograms and other forms of optical perception can be tried out there. This exhibition is currently closed for reasons of age, but a successor is being sought.
A natural science museum is the world-famous Senckenberg Nature Museum , in which, among other things, fossil finds from the World Heritage Site Messel Pit can be seen, and an ethnological museum is the Museum of World Cultures.
The art scene can be found in the Frankfurter Kunstverein across from the Schirn, the Städelschule (State University of Fine Arts, the Städelschule), private art galleries and a number of alternative exhibition spaces. The galleries show art from ancient art through various specialist areas to the present day . Many of the alternative exhibition spaces are run by artists or young art scholars, including a. the exhibition hall in Sachsenhausen or the exhibition room EULENGASSE 65 in Bornheim .
Opera, concert halls and stages
Frankfurt has a lively theater scene. The municipal theaters unite several branches under one roof: The Frankfurt Opera is a world-renowned theater and has received the Opera House of the Year award several times (most recently in 2015) . The Schauspiel Frankfurt made a name for itself especially in the 1960s - through Harry Buckwitz - and in the 1970s and 1980s under the direction of Peter Palitzsch with its co-determination model . Two other branches of the city's theaters, the Frankfurt Ballet and the Theater am Turm (TAT), had to close in 2004, but a dance company has again existed as a private ensemble under the name The Forsythe Company since 2005 .
The Alte Oper , opened in 1881, was destroyed in World War II and reopened as a concert hall in 1981. The Alte Oper has a very beautiful concert hall and is nowadays of great importance as an important music center in Europe. Other well-known concert halls are the Jahrhunderthalle in Unterliederbach , the festival hall in Bockenheim and the broadcasting hall of the Hessischer Rundfunk.
The comedy on Neue Mainzer Strasse and the Fritz Rémond Theater in the Zoo-Gesellschaftshaus are the two famous boulevard theaters in Frankfurt. The Volkstheater Frankfurt used until its closure at the end of the 2012/13 season alongside classic pieces dialect and vernacular adaptations of classics and contemporary dramas. Actor Michael Quast's Fliegende Volksbühne pursues a similar concept . The English Theater is the largest English-speaking stage on the continent.
The largest and nationally best known stage for modern art of representation (performance, dance, etc.) in Frankfurt is the Künstlerhaus Mousonturm in the north end . The long-established Gallus Theater in the former Adlerwerke in the Gallus , the Landungsbrücken Frankfurt as a platform for modern spoken theater in the Gutleutviertel and the cellar theater in Frankfurt act as a venue for theater groups and ensembles from the independent scene .
Independent theaters with permanent venues are The Dramatic Stage in Café Excess in Bockenheim , Michael Herls Stalburg Theater in Nordend , Theater Willy Praml in Naxoshalle in Ostend , the Independent Drama Ensemble in Bockenheim, the Frankfurt Authors Theater in the Bread Factory in Hausen and the Old Bridge Theater in Sachsenhausen .
In the area of variety, cabaret and cabaret, Johnny Klinkes Tigerpalast , the KÄS , Die Schmiere (since 1950 the self-proclaimed “worst theater in the world”) in the Carmelite Monastery and the New Theater in the Höchst district .
The Theaterhaus Frankfurt hosts numerous children's theater ensembles such as B. the "Green Sauce" and counts next to the children and youth theater center in the north-west city and the Papageno music theater in the Palmengarten to the lively Frankfurt children and youth theater scene. A special children's theater existed from 1975 to 2005 with the snap-mouth puppet theater .
In Frankfurt have two large symphonic orchestra their home, which was founded in 1808 in Frankfurt Opera and Museum Orchestra of the city's stages and the Frankfurt Radio Symphony Orchestra . The Ensemble Modern and the Junge Deutsche Philharmonie are also based in Frankfurt. Well-known choirs are the Cäcilienchor Frankfurt , founded in 1818 , the Frankfurter Singakademie and the Frankfurter Kantorei .
Also Tré Cool from Green Day , the rappers Moses Pelham , Azad , Vega , the metal band Tankard , the hard rock band Böhse Onkelz , the techno DJs Sven Väth and Chris Liebing and the Eurodance group SNAP! come from Frankfurt. Mark Spoon, who died in 2006, was also a native of Frankfurt.
Since the end of the 2000s, a new, flourishing and both commercially and critically very successful German rap scene has developed in Frankfurt and Offenbach. Well-known representatives are Haftbefehl , the duo Celo & Abdi , as well as Capo , SadiQ and Schwesta Ewa .
Frankfurt in the film
The 1958 film Das Mädchen Rosemarie deals with the life story of the prostitute Rosemarie Nitribitt , whose murder was a spectacular criminal case in the early Federal Republic. Frankfurt is one of the locations in the Elvis Presley film Café Europa ( GI Blues ) from 1960. The city is celebrated in the song Frankfurt Special . In 1978 Rainer Werner Fassbinder shot the film In a year with 13 moons , which can also be seen as the director's personal settlement with the city. The 1984 thriller Downward takes place in a Frankfurt office tower , the exterior shots were shot in the Silver Tower . A scene from the 1999 film The Great Bagarozy is set on Holbeinsteg . Matthias Schweighöfer's comedy What a Man from 2010 tells the story of a young Frankfurt teacher who is abandoned by his girlfriend. Im Labyrinth des Schweigens (2014) is set in Frankfurt in the 1950s and deals with the history of the Auschwitz trials .
Numerous television series are also set in Frankfurt, including 68 episodes of Tatort , Die Kommissarin , Ein Fall für Zwei and the follow-up series Ein Fall für Zwei (2014) , as well as several crime films about Commissioner Marthaler, a fictional character by Jan Seghers .
The Frankfurt Book Fair, which has been taking place since the 15th century, is not only an economic (as the world's largest book fair ), but also an important cultural event. During the annual fair, numerous accompanying events take place in Frankfurt, the highlight being the awarding of the Peace Prize of the German Book Trade in the Paulskirche.
Frankfurt in literature
Apart from chronicles and topographies, such as that of Baldemar von Petterweil from the first half of the 14th century, the early literary testimonies about Frankfurt are mainly travel descriptions, as the city attracted many foreigners as a trade fair and financial center and as the location of the imperial coronations. In Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice , Shylock complains in act three: A diamond away will cost me two thousand ducats at Frankfurt! Thomas Coryat also described Frankfurt in detail in his travelogue published in 1611 and was one of the founders of the Grand Tour . The tradition of these gentlemen's journeys also included the publication of travel experiences in book form. Well-known authors of travel reports from Frankfurt in the 18th and 19th centuries are Victor Hugo , Hector Berlioz , Mark Twain , and more recently, for example, Ricarda Huch and Rudolf G. Binding . Also to be emphasized are autobiographical writings, especially from my life. Poetry and Truth , Goethe's autobiographical work, in which he described in detail the life in the imperial city during his childhood and youth.
The first works of fiction that chose Frankfurt as the setting date from the 19th century . In Johanna Spyri's Heidi novel , the rich city of Frankfurt, with its bourgeois life dominated by conventions, formed the antithesis to the simple, nature-loving life in the Swiss mountains. In Heinrich Heine's fragmentary story The Rabbi von Bacharach , he describes the hustle and bustle in the city and in the lively Judengasse. Turgenew 's novella Spring Waves , written in Baden-Baden in 1871, is set in a confectionery shop in Frankfurt in 1840. Other novels and stories tie in with historical events that took place in Frankfurt, for example the novel Der Jude by Karl Spindler . The story A drama in the air by Jules Verne was linked to a historical balloon ascent, the novel The Veil in the Main by Alexandre Dumas the Elder. Ä. is a crime story that takes place at the time of the Prussian occupation of the Free City of Frankfurt. The case Maurizius of Jakob Wassermann treats a historic criminal case.
A series of dramatic works, mainly comedies , which are set in Frankfurt and the surrounding area, was also created in the 19th century . The old bourgeois captain and The Landpartie nach Königstein by Carl Malß , The King's Lieutenant by Karl Gutzkow , an episode about Count François de Thoranc taken from poetry and truth , the Lokalschwank Alt-Frankfurt by Adolf Stoltze and the Rothschild play The Five Frankfurter deserve special mention by Carl Rössler .
As part of the Frankfurt reads a book initiative , a novel set in Frankfurt has been read publicly in numerous events since 2010. The books read so far were Kaiserhofstraße 12 by Valentin Senger , Abaffel by Wilhelm Genazino , Streets of Yesterday by Silvia Tennenbaum , Gorse by Siegfried Kracauer , Die Vollidioten by Eckhard Henscheid , greetings and kisses to all. The story of the family of Anne Frank by Mirjam Pressler , Frankfurt banned by Dieter David Seuthe, Benjamin and his fathers by Herbert Heckmann , The Seventh Cross by Anna Seghers and Westend by Martin Mosebach . The novel Rosemarie - The German Wonder's Favorite Child by Erich Kuby was selected for 2020 .
The novels of the Frankfurt tetralogy by the writer Martin Mosebach - The Bed , Westend , A Long Night and The Moon and the Girl - thematize important stages from the post-war period to the turn of the millennium and use the example of the protagonists to describe the changes in the bourgeois urban areas as well of its inhabitants during the 20th century.
Frankfurt am Main is the setting for a number of current crime novels . Frank Demant had the life artist and former tram driver Simon Schweitzer identified in twelve novels in a series until 2018, especially in Frankfurt-Sachsenhausen. In six novels by Udo Scheu, public prosecutor Schultz , detective inspector Schreiner and journalist Dennis Hauschild were at the center of the plot. The writer Matthias Altenburg published six novels about Commissioner Robert Marthaler under the pseudonym Jan Seghers .
The Frankfurt city dialect in its original form is one of the Rhine-Franconian dialects. Up until the 20th century, Frankfurt was a southern Hessian language island in the Central Hessian dialect area . Until at least the 1980s, one could clearly distinguish between older residents whether they came from the original core city or, for example, from the northern, incorporated districts. There are also numerous reports that the residents of the old town could hear from the sound of the language whether someone came from Bornheim or from Bockenheim .
As in many other large cities, the Frankfurt dialect mixed with neighboring variants and, due to the more intensive use of radio and television since the 1950s, also with Standard German , mainly as a result of the population shifts after the complete destruction of Frankfurt's old town in the Second World War Regiolekt was created, which is often referred to as Neuhessian or self- deprecatingly as RMV -Hessian .
The traditional rock club, Batschkapp in Eschersheim, opened in 1976 , has been located in the industrial area on Gwinnerstrasse since the end of 2014. The Jazzkeller Frankfurt has existed since 1952. The gully , founded in 1972, existed until 2011. A popular discotheque in the style of New York Studio 54 was Dorian Gray , which operated from 1978 to 2000 . The King Kamehameha Club existed from 1999 to 2013 on a former brewery site on Hanauer Landstrasse . The big temples of the techno movement, the Omen , the U60311 in the city center and the Cocoon Club have meanwhile been closed or changed profoundly.
Frankfurt am Main is home to numerous well-known sports clubs:
- Eintracht Frankfurt ( soccer men, soccer Bundesliga )
- FSV Frankfurt ( soccer men, Regionalliga Südwest )
- Rot-Weiss Frankfurt (Soccer Men, Association League Hessen South )
- 1. FFC Frankfurt (soccer women, Bundesliga , until season 2020/21, since the women's soccer department of Eintracht Frankfurt)
- Fraport Skyliners ( basketball , Bundesliga )
- United Volleys Rhein-Main ( volleyball , Bundesliga )
- Löwen Frankfurt ( ice hockey , DEL2 )
- Frankfurt Universe ( American Football , GFL )
- Frankfurt Pirates (American Football, Regionalliga Mitte)
- Turngemeinde Bornheim (popular sport , largest sports club in Hesse )
- FTG 1847 Frankfurt with over 98 sports offers
- TSG Northwest 1898 Frankfurt / M. e. V.
- SC 1880 Frankfurt (hockey, rugby, tennis and lacrosse)
- Frankfurt Flyers (trampoline sport, 1st Bundesliga)
- Frankfurter Rudergesellschaft Germania 1869 (one of the largest and oldest German rowing clubs )
- Frankfurt am Main section of the German Alpine Club ( mountain sports and sport climbing ), the second largest (Alpine) sports club in Hesse after the Darmstadt-Starkenburg section
Significant, annual sporting events are
- Frankfurt City Triathlon (Triathlon in August)
- Frankfurt Marathon (city marathon in October)
- Around the financial center Eschborn-Frankfurt (1961–2008: Around the Henninger Tower ) (road bike race)
- Ironman Germany (Triathlon)
- JPMorgan Chase Corporate Challenge (Firmenlauf)
- Frankfurt City Half Marathon (in March)
- Hessen dances (largest dance sport tournament in the world)
The main sports venues in the city are
- The Commerzbank-Arena (soccer - Bundesliga), originally Waldstadion, under the name "FIFA WM-Stadion Frankfurt am Main" one of the venues of the soccer world championship 2006 and the soccer world championship of women 2011
- The PSD Bank Arena on Bornheimer Hang (Soccer - Regional League)
- The stadium at Brentanobad (football, women's Bundesliga)
- The Fraport Arena (basketball and volleyball league) until 2011 under the official name Ballsporthalle known
- The ice rink Frankfurt (ice hockey - DEL2)
Frankfurt is also the seat of the most important German sports associations, u. a .:
- German Olympic Sports Confederation (DOSB), former
- German Football Association (DFB)
- German Gymnastics Federation (DTB)
- German Motor Sport Association (DMSB)
- German Bandy Association (DBB)
Former sports venues were
- The Niederrad racecourse (horse racing)
Long-distance cycle paths and long-distance hiking trails
Several cycle paths meet on the banks of the Main in Frankfurt : The Hessian long-distance cycle path R3 (Rhein-Main-Kinzig cycle path) leads along the Rhine, Main and Kinzig via Fulda to Tann in the Rhön under the motto In the footsteps of the late rider . The Main Cycle Path leads from the sources of the White and Red Main to Mainz where it flows into the Rhine. The D-Route 5 (Saar-Mosel-Main) is a cycle path over a distance of 1021 kilometers from Saarbrücken via Trier, Koblenz, Mainz, Frankfurt am Main, Würzburg and Bayreuth to the Czech border.
The European long-distance hiking trail E1 crosses the urban area from northwest to south. Coming from the Taunus, the route leads through the north-west town , the Volkspark Niddatal , the Grüneburgpark , the Westend, the ramparts in the city center, Sachsenhausen and the city forest .
Since 2010, a branch of the German Way of St. James from the Fulda to the Main has been running over the Berger Ridge and below the Bornheimer slope . This is based on the course of the historic Via Regia from Leipzig to Frankfurt am Main ( Des Reiches Straße ). It leads over 116 kilometers from Fulda to Frankfurt and is part of the European network of pilgrims' routes to Santiago de Compostela . The Frankfurt section runs past the Heilig-Kreuz-Kirche (today the Meditation Church Center for Christian Meditation and Spirituality of the Limburg Diocese ) over the Ostpark , the new building of the European Central Bank on the site of the former wholesale market hall on the banks of the Main to the Eiserner Steg , from there on the left Mainuferweg in the direction of Mainz and then on to Trier .
Since 2017, Frankfurt has been a stage on the Luther Trail 1521 from Worms to Wartburg near Eisenach. On his trip to the Reichstag to the Reichstag in Worms, Luther stayed twice in Frankfurt on the way there and back.
The Museumsuferfest, which has been held annually in August since 1988, with its mixture of music and culture, is the largest folk festival in the Rhine-Main area . In 2007, around 3.5 million visitors came over three days.
On the “ Wäldchestag” , the Tuesday after Whitsun, many visitors come to a folk festival in the Frankfurt city forest . Up until the 1990s, most of Frankfurt's shops were closed in the afternoon on this day and employees were free from 12 noon. That is why the Wäldchestag was jokingly referred to as Frankfurt's national holiday.
Another traditional folk festival is the Dippemess , which attracts around 2 million visitors twice a year for three weeks in spring and for ten days in autumn. The Dippemess goes back to a market for household goods of all kinds, especially ceramic bowls (Dippe), which has been handed down since the Middle Ages .
The Frankfurt Christmas Market , first mentioned in a document in 1393, takes place annually during Advent. Today, with around 3 million visitors, it is one of the largest Christmas markets in Germany. Over 200 stands extend from the Mainkai via Römerberg , Paulsplatz Neue Kräme , Liebfrauenberg to the Zeil .
From 2003 to 2008 the Parade of Cultures took place annually in the summer , a demonstration for a peaceful coexistence of people from different cultures. The last parade in 2008 was attended by around 1,700 active people and 100,000 spectators. The Down Sportsman Festival , an event at which several hundred people with Down syndrome (trisomy 21) can compete in various competitive sports , has also been held in Frankfurt since 2003 .
Other regular events are the Mainfest , the Christopher Street Day (CSD), the Rose and Lights Festival in the Palmengarten , the Opernplatzfest , the Rheingau Wine Market in the Freßgass and the Stöffchefest on the Römerberg.
The night of the museums in April with around 40,000 visitors and the night of the clubs are also popular .
In addition to the festivals mentioned, there are also district festivals such as the Höchst Castle Festival , the Berger Street Festival in Bornheim , the Swiss Street Festival in Sachsenhausen , the carnival procession in Heddernheim ( Klaa Paris ), which dates back to 1839, or the annual Lohrberg Festival initiated by Mayor Walter Kolb in 1951 , Frankfurt's athletic mountain sports festival for children and young people.
The so-called Skyscraper Festival takes place at irregular intervals , most recently in May 2013 after a six-year break. 18 high-rise buildings in the city center were open to the public and attracted 1.2 million visitors.
The Sound of Frankfurt music festival, organized annually from 1994 to 2004 , attracted up to 500,000 mostly young visitors.
As between many neighboring cities, there has always been a good neighborly rivalry between Frankfurt and Offenbach am Main , which is expressed, among other things, in numerous jokes about the residents of the other city. Krieh die Kränk, Offebach is a traditional cursing of the Frankfurters for the Offenbachers, which goes back to an anecdote from the 19th century.
The background here is that the two cities of Frankfurt and Offenbach could not be historically more different. Territorial conflicts between the imperial city of Frankfurt and its neighboring states had existed since the Middle Ages. After the Reformation , Lutheran Frankfurt and Reformed Offenbach were involved in denominational disputes. Since the 18th century, the Counts of Isenburg also encouraged the settlement of manufacturers that were not wanted in bourgeois Frankfurt. In the 19th century, Frankfurt continued to see itself as a pure trading city, while industry settled in the surrounding communities of Fechenheim, Griesheim, Höchst and Offenbach. Only after the annexation by Prussia did Frankfurt follow suit with industrialization and soon surpassed its rivals. In the 20th century, Frankfurt grew mainly through the incorporation of Prussian suburbs, while Offenbach had no room for expansion. Until 1945, the border between the two neighboring cities also always formed a state border.
The two football clubs Kickers Offenbach and Eintracht Frankfurt and their respective supporters have had a longstanding sporting rivalry . Over the years, the two teams often faced each other in the so-called Mainderby , particularly often in the 1950s (for example in the final of the German football championship in 1959 ), in the DFB Cup (most recently in 2009 ) and in the Bundesliga up to The Kickers were relegated in 1984.
A highly developed gastronomy and hotel culture developed in Frankfurt as early as the 17th and 18th centuries as a result of the numerous wealthy guests who flocked to the city during the imperial coronations and trade fairs . In the 19th century, Frankfurt's cuisine was considered to be the best in Germany, alongside Hamburg's and Viennese.
In earlier centuries there was a sufficient supply of vegetables , fresh herbs and fruit in Frankfurt despite the lack of preservation options . The gardeners from the surrounding kitchen villages of Sachsenhausen , Oberrad , Niederrad and Seckbach took care of this . The trading point was the vegetable and herb market in Frankfurt's old town , where the so-called squatting women , as the market women were called in Frankfurt dialect , sold fresh vegetables, herbs and fruit for sale.
Frankfurt sausages made from pork are one of the oldest and best-known delicacies . The butchers in Frankfurt were only allowed to slaughter one type of cattle per week until the introduction of the freedom of trade in 1864. In an ordinance of 1628 it said: “Whatever day he slaughtered, whether it be cattle, mutton or pork, he would stay with him all week and not slaughter any sheep by mutton. But he has the power to slaughter all different cattle every week. ”Since there were no refrigeration techniques yet, meat products could not be made from different types of meat. In the 19th and 20th centuries, other local sausage specialties such as Frankfurter beef sausage , Frankfurter yellow sausage and Zeppelin sausage were created .
A special specialty is the Frankfurter Green Sauce ( Frankfurterisch Frankfurter Grie Soß ), also short green sauce or semolina sauce , which is traditionally made from seven herbs: boretsch , chervil , cress , parsley , pimpinelle , sorrel and chives . The basis of the cold sauce , which is eaten with hard-boiled eggs and boiled potatoes or as an accompaniment to various meat and fish dishes, is the fresh herb composition "Frankfurter Grüne Soße / Frankfurter Grie Soß" . The compilation of herbs produced in the city of Frankfurt and the immediately adjacent communities has been registered as a protected geographical indication (PGI) since 2016 . The green sauce has become part of local folklore. A memorial was erected to her in 2007 , and an annual green sauce festival has been held since 2008
With the decline of viticulture in the 19th century, the previously underestimated apple wine (Ebbelwoi) became popular in Frankfurt and has been recorded here since around 1600. Today it is regarded as a traditional Frankfurt drink, thanks in part to the success of the television program Zum Blauen Bock . Hearty dishes are particularly popular with cider, such as ribs with cabbage and hand cheese with music .
Today there is only one vineyard left in Frankfurt with the 1.3 hectare Lohrberger slope . It is one of the smallest individual vineyards in the Rheingau and is managed by the city of Frankfurt am Main's winery . Every year around 10,000 bottles of Riesling are produced in this location , which is mostly matured dry and reaches late harvest quality in good years .
Well-known sons and daughters as well as other people connected with the city are listed in the list of personalities of the city of Frankfurt am Main . Persons appointed honorary citizens by the city can be found in the list of honorary citizens of Frankfurt am Main .
A task force supplier for the German Navy is called Frankfurt am Main . The small cruiser SMS Frankfurt of the Imperial Navy during the First World War and the wooden steam corvette Frankfurt of the fleet of the German Confederation were previously named after the city. The merchant fleet included the express steamer Frankfurt from Norddeutscher Lloyd from 1900 to 1918 and from 1954 the combined freighter "Frankfurt" from Hapag, and from 1981 to 2007 the Frankfurt Express from Hapag-Lloyd, which from 1981 to 1984 was the largest container ship in the World was. In 2010 a container ship named Frankfurt Express was put into service again.
In 1960, the city of Frankfurt took on one of the first name sponsorships for a Deutsche Lufthansa aircraft. The Boeing 707 D-ABOD carried her name from 1960 to 1975, a DC-10 from 1975 to 1985 and a B747-200 from 1985 to 1990 . In 1991 Lufthansa christened the B747-430 with the registration D-ABVF in the name of the city, which it carried until May 2010. On May 19, 2010, Lufthansa's first Airbus A380 D-AIMA was named Frankfurt am Main .
In 2015, the city of Frankfurt am Main ranks first worldwide in the Sustainable Cities Index determined by the international planning and consulting company Arcadis and the Center for Economic Policy Research (CEPR) in London.
On the last series of D-Mark banknotes , on the 200- D-Mark banknote, to the left of the portrait of the doctor Paul Ehrlich , there was a collage of various historical buildings in Frankfurt. There you can see the Paulskirche , the Kaiserdom , the Saalhof with Rententurm , the main train station , the Eschenheimer Turm , the house of Paul Ehrlich in the Westendstraße , the Hauptwache , the Römer and the Römerberg Ostzeile , the Goethe-Haus and the Eiserne Steg .
The female personification of Frankfurt is the Francofurtia , which is often found as an allegorical representation on facades and monuments or on historical coins and documents. Objects suitable for collecting that relate to Frankfurt are called Francofurtensien .
The font Futura is not only used in the appearance of the city and used by municipal offices, but is also used as the "Frankfurt font" by numerous local associations and organizations, including the Ernst May Society .
- Bernhard Müller: Picture atlas on the history of the city of Frankfurt am Main. Moritz Diesterweg publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 1916, reprint by W. Weidlich publishing house, Frankfurt am Main 1976, ISBN 3-8035-8904-5 .
- Walter Gerteis: The unknown Frankfurt. 3 volumes. Verlag Frankfurter Bücher, Frankfurt am Main 1960–1963 (popular, essayistic-anecdotal city history).
- Friedrich Bothe : History of the city of Frankfurt am Main. Verlag Wolfgang Weidlich, Frankfurt am Main 1977, ISBN 3-8035-8920-7 .
- Waldemar Kramer (Ed.): Frankfurt Chronicle. Waldemar Kramer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1987 (3rd edition), ISBN 3-7829-0321-8 .
- Frankfurt Historical Commission (ed.): Frankfurt am Main - The history of the city in nine contributions. (= Publications of the Frankfurt Historical Commission . Volume XVII ). Jan Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1991, ISBN 3-7995-4158-6 .
- Lothar Gall (Hrsg.): FFM 1200. Traditions and perspectives of a city. Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Sigmaringen 1994, ISBN 3-7995-1203-9 (catalog for the 1200th anniversary 1994 with scientific articles).
- Ernst Mack: From the Stone Age to the Staufer City. The early history of Frankfurt am Main. Verlag Josef Knecht, Frankfurt am Main 1994, ISBN 3-7820-0685-2 .
- Frolinde Balser : From ruins to a European center: History of the city of Frankfurt am Main 1945–1989 . Ed .: Frankfurter Historical Commission (= publications of the Frankfurter Historical Commission . Volume XX ). Jan Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1995, ISBN 3-7995-1210-1 .
- Building and Information Office Frankfurt am Main: Art + Construction in Frankfurt am Main. Text: Günther Vogt, 1971.
- Heinz Ulrich Krauss: Frankfurt am Main. Data, highlights, construction work. Societäts-Verl., Frankfurt am Main 1997, ISBN 3-7973-0626-1 . (Chronicle with a focus on architecture and building history).
- Ulf Jonak: The Frankfurt skyline. Campus, Frankfurt am Main - New York 1997, ISBN 3-593-35822-0 . (Critical consideration of high-rise construction).
- Clemens Jöckle : 100 buildings in Frankfurt am Main, Regensburg, Schnell & Steiner, 1998, ISBN 3-7954-1166-1 .
- Dieter Bartetzko : Frankfurt's tall houses. Insel, Frankfurt am Main - Leipzig 2001, ISBN 3-458-34353-9 . (Representation of the high-rise building in Frankfurt).
- Wolf-Christian Setzepfandt : Architecture Guide Frankfurt am Main / Architectural Guide . 3. Edition. Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin 2002, ISBN 3-496-01236-6 .
- Heinz Schomann : Frankfurt am Main and the surrounding area. From the Pfalzsiedlung to the banking center. Dumont art guide. Dumont, Cologne 2003, ISBN 3-7701-6305-2 . (with a focus on architecture).
- Matthias Alexander, Gerd Kittel: High-rise buildings in Frankfurt. Societäts-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2006, ISBN 3-7973-1000-5 .
- Christof Bodenbach (ed.): New architecture in Frankfurt am Main. Junius Verlag, Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-88506-583-8 .
- Angela Pfotenhauer, Elmar Lixenfeld and Uwe Dettmer: Frankfurt am Main. German Foundation for Monument Protection, 2009, ISBN 978-3-86795-009-1 .
- Christian Liberang, Markus Dauss and Evely Brockhoff: The “New” Frankfurt, Innovations in Frankfurt Art from the Middle Ages to Today. Waldemar Kramer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2010, ISBN 978-3-86539-673-0 .
- Christian Grau, André Risto and Willi Bucher (eds.): Frankfurt. The other look. Theiss Verlag, Stuttgart 2010 ISBN 978-3-8062-2388-0 . (Recordings from the air)
- Philipp Sturm, Peter Cachola Schmal: High-rise city Frankfurt. Buildings and Visions since 1945 , Prestel, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-7913-5363-0 .
- Philipp Sturm, Peter Cachola Schmal: The always new old town. Building between the cathedral and the Römer since 1900 , Jovis, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-86859-501-7 .
- Selected Frankfurt dialect poetry. Waldemar Kramer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1966, ISBN 3-7829-0067-7 .
- Helmut Bode: Frankfurt saga treasure. 100 legends and fabulous stories, retold based on the sources and older collections as well as Lersner's chronicle. Waldemar Kramer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1978, ISBN 3-7829-0209-2 .
- Benno Reifenberg : The uniqueness of Frankfurt. Waldemar Kramer Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1979, ISBN 3-7829-0220-3 .
- Barbara M. Henke, Thomas Kirn, Ruth Rieger: Edition The German Cities - Frankfurt. CJ Bucher, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-7658-0873-3 .
- Martin Mosebach: My Frankfurt. With photographs by Barbara Klemm. Insel, Frankfurt am Main 2002, ISBN 3-458-34571-X . (Insel-Taschenbuch. Vol. 2871)
- Christian Setzepfandt : Mysterious Frankfurt am Main. Wartberg, Gudensberg-Gleichen 2003, ISBN 3-8313-1347-4 .
- Art student Ursula , advertising film for the city of Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 1956/57, 19:41 min., Editor: Boehner-Film Fritz Boehner KG (Hamburg + Erlangen), client: City of Frankfurt am Main, supported by the traffic and Science Office, art student Ursula in the German Digital Library
- That was the old Hessen - Frankfurt. Documentary, Germany, 2013, 43:40 min., Script and direction: Jörg Adrian Huber, production: Hessischer Rundfunk , series: So war das alten Hessen, first broadcast: April 9, 2013 on HR3 , summary by ARD .
- FRANKFURTinsights - Die 1000 Wonders von Frankfurt , documentary series, Germany, 2014, 5 times 5 min., Conception and direction: Thomas Pohl, production: Department Studios Filmproduktion, client: Press and Information Office of the City of Frankfurt am Main, first broadcast: April 1st 2014, u. a. with Lord Mayor Peter Feldmann, Frankfurt fire brigade, Liebieghaus, demolition of the unit tower, rescue helicopter Christoph 2, link to the films
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- Official website of the city of Frankfurt am Main
- City of Frankfurt am Main (district). Historical local dictionary. In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- Association wiki: Frankfurt am Main
- Link catalog on Frankfurt am Main at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Culture portal of the city of Frankfurt am Main
- Literature about Frankfurt am Main in the Hessian Bibliography
- Hessian State Statistical Office: Population status on December 31, 2019 (districts and urban districts as well as municipalities, population figures based on the 2011 census) ( help ).
- Population regional association. In: Frankfurt Rhine-Main region. Regionalverband FrankfurtRheinMain , December 31, 2018, accessed on February 19, 2020 .
- Population of the metropolitan area. Regionalverband FrankfurtRheinMain , December 31, 2018, accessed on February 19, 2020 .
- Speech by Mayor Roth at the city council on December 11, 1997.
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