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Emperor Maximilian with the imperial banner of the Holy Roman Empire , Albrecht Altdorfer, around 1513–1515, the second banner is that of the Visconti of Milan

The banner is in vexillology (flag studies) and heraldry (heraldry) a special form of the flag with a national emblem or coat of arms , which marked the territory of a nobleman or belonging to his retinue.

Word origin

Banner formerly Panner , or since the Middle High German Banier or ensign ( paniːɐ ) comes from French bannière , army flag 'from the medieval Latin baneria , place where the flag is set up', 'field character'. Its roots are similar to ties in the Gothic bandwa “sign” and Latin pannus “fabric” or pandere “unfold”. The term Heerbann is also closely related . In addition to the flag, it also describes the flag , the contingent. In a figurative sense, Panier (with French banir , 'to announce, to exclaim') is later also used for a slogan, the war cry .

The phrase grabbing the rabbit banner means something like grabbing the cowardly rabbit's banner, i.e. showing its tail and thus fleeing .

As an upscale, solemn expression for “flag”, “banner” is out of date. Today, by a horizontal shaft center hanging banner waving from the vertical shaft (flagstick) is flag distinguished.

Historical use

Section of the Reichssturmfahne with cut off red pennant
Duke Eberhard I of Württemberg with the imperial storm flag, which his house has been granted since 1336 (picture from 1495 in Markgröningen )

From the original signa , the Roman standard symbols , mostly images of animals, the Aquila , the eagle, was transferred to the legions as a standard , while the manipulus for the manipulas and the vexillum as a flag for the cavalry became common. The latter consisted of a square piece of stuff on a stick that was hung across from a lance, the distinguishing feature was the color. The banner is derived from this.

In the early Middle Ages, the German main field sign ( imperial banner of the Holy Roman Empire ) carried the archangel Michael in the picture, under Otto II and since Friedrich I the eagle (black eagle with the emperor's coat of arms on the chest in the yellow field). The imperial eagle also adorned the imperial storm flag , which was linked to the Swabian right of dispute . The Reichsbanneramt was upgraded to an ore office with electoral dignity in the 18th century , but abolished again after sustained resistance from the House of Württemberg, which had been enfeoffed with the Reichssturmfahne since 1336 .

In the German feudal militia it was the army flag that belonged to the noble feudal man who could lead ten to a hundred well-armed soldiers into the field. He was then called the master of the banner , which corresponds to the baron . After the introduction of the standing militia, it became a pure titular dignity . His standard-bearer was the standard-bearer , later called the ensign .

Usage of the word today

Banners are used in clubs (such as traditional, sports and music clubs) and in brotherhoods . They usually bear the club symbol or a picture of the patron and are carried along during parades and representative events at which the group occurs.

Today, a politically motivated banner that is carried on demonstrations, a banner to be.

In the sports fan area, a banner , banner or banner with two handrails is called a double holder. There are also the swivel flag and the fence flag , which is firmly tied to fences or barriers for a longer period of time, and the block flag , which at least partially covers a block of spectators in the stadium.

Banners are also used for outdoor advertising . Today we speak of advertising banners when we mean an advertising graphic integrated into a website. When a banner is pulled through the air behind an airplane, it is referred to as a banner tow .

See also


Web links

Commons : Banners  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. BANNER, n. Signum militare, vexillum . In: Jacob Grimm , Wilhelm Grimm : German Dictionary . Hirzel, Leipzig 1854–1961 ( , University of Trier).,
  2. a b c Banner, Panier . In: Brockhaus' Kleines Konversations-Lexikon. 5th edition, Volume 1, Leipzig 1911, p. 149. (
  3. a b c d flag [1]. In: Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon . Volume 6. Leipzig 1906, pp. 267-268. (
  4. PANNER, n. Outdated spelling for banners . In: Jacob Grimm, Wilhelm Grimm: German Dictionary. Hirzel, Leipzig 1854–1961 ( , University of Trier).
  5. PANIER, n., Mhd. Baniere, banier, panier . In: Grimm: German dictionary. Hirzel, Leipzig 1854–1961 ( , University of Trier).
  6. The Panīer, des -es, or -s, plur. the -e . In: Adelung: Grammatical-Critical Dictionary of High German Dialect . Volume 3, Leipzig 1798, p. 644. (
  7. Panier . In: Karl Ernst Georges: Small German-Latin concise dictionary . 7th edition. Hannover / Leipzig 1910 (reprint Darmstadt 1999), Sp. 1845. (
  8. The Panier or Bannier . In: Brockhaus Conversations-Lexikon. Vol. 3. Amsterdam 1809, p. 354,
  9. BANNERHERR, m. baro . In: Jacob Grimm, Wilhelm Grimm: German Dictionary. Hirzel, Leipzig 1854–1961 ( , University of Trier).
  10. PANEL STRAP, m. talented . In: Grimm: German dictionary. Hirzel, Leipzig 1854–1961 ( , University of Trier).