Banner master designates an ensign .
Banneret or Pannerherr, the ensigns , the banner or banner derived, hence Banier- or Panierherr (of baniere or Banier = ensign), Italy alfiere or banderale , France banneret or bandelier , Spain alférez , lat. Vexillarius , therefore, in Switzerland Venner (occasionally still be found in Boy Scout troop, but officially discontinued operation), the Office of the designated flag -bearing ensign of Fähnlein and one the lance leading banns z. B. a city armed forces formed by citizen or city soldiers with a certain number of armed men. As a warlord, the banner lord of regional authorities, leading such a flag, was often a liege lord . Therefore the baron is derived from the banner lord.
Johann Georg Krünitz explains the commander as follows:
“This little lance flag, Fr. Pennon, Lat. Pendo, led the knights as long as they did not yet have a certain number of feudal men under them or pay other knights. At the side of the knight and under his pennon his servants, squires, Wapenen, etc. fought if he could entertain such things. If he could not do this, it was not detrimental to his dignity to become the feudal man of a rich man or to become more powerful, to accept pay from him, and to do war service under his banner. But if his circumstances made it possible for himself to maintain a considerable retinue of knights, fiefs and servants, he asked the warlord, or his field captain, to transform his flag into a standard. The tip was separated from the pennant, and this slight cut made the knight a pennant or panner, Bannerius, Vexillarius, Vexillifer. This privilege was previously hereditary in the family of the Panner lord as long as their fortunate circumstances remained unchanged, i.e. as long as they had the required number of knights and servants, in France at least 25, but in Germany generally toe helmets or spears from well-made people, could stand and entertain against the enemy. Hence the French proverb; cent ans bannière, cent ans civière. But there were also Panner dominions or countries which had the right or the duty to keep the standard, and where the same was due to every holder of the same. "
In German-speaking Switzerland the standard bearer was called Venner. In the cities, the Venner had the task of the quarter master or foursome of a city, who was responsible for the harness show , tax collection , market supervision and fire brigade . In Bern, the trades of the Pfister (baker), blacksmith , butcher and tanner provided the four city vendors. In the Middle Ages, the Venner handicrafts were divided into several rooms or societies (e.g. Oberpfistern and Niederpfistern). In the early modern period (until 1798) the Venners were made up of the following companies: Pfistern, Schmieden, Metzgern, Ober-Gerwern and Mittellöwen (the latter both together). In the 14th and 15th centuries, a few families held the Venneramt: the Muleren, the Wattenwyl (Pfistern), the Hetzel , Spilmann , Schopfer, Dittlinger and Achshalm (blacksmiths), Kuttler, Simon and Tschachtlan (butchers) and the Brüggler ( Gerwern). Under the chairmanship of the Seckelmeister, the four Venners formed the Vennerkammer . The statue of a Venner adorns the Vennerbrunnen on the town hall square in Bern .
The term Venner was used until recently in the Swiss scout movement , where the patrol leader (Fähnlifführer) Venner / in, resp. his / her deputy young venner or auxiliary venner has been named. Nowadays the term is replaced by Leitpfadi.
The noble families, who carried the title banner army there, were at the head of the knighthoods because of their older origins . Furthermore, they performed their own formal position within them. In the Duchy of Geldern , an area originally divided by feudal lordships and territories, Emperor Charles V laid out four quarters ( Ridderschap van Veluwe, Ridderschap van Nijmegen, Ridderschap van Roermond and the Ridderschap van Zutphen ). The Gelderischen banner gentlemen, which represented a separate body, formed an independent college. In Gelderland the knighthood sent a member of the banner lords to the General Assembly of States after 1584. There were four banners within the County of Zutphen ( Bannerij van 's-Heerenberg, Bannerij van Baer, Bannerij van Wisch and the Bannerij van Bronckhorst ). In Holland the Van Wassenaer held the title of Wassenaar Banner Army .
- François de Capitani: Nobility, citizens and guilds in Bern in the 15th century. Stämpfli, Bern 1982, ISBN 3-7272-0491-5 , pp. 46-49.
- Oeconomische Encyclopädie , Vol. 64, 1794, 2nd edition 1803, p. 703.
- François de Capitani, Hervé de Weck : Banner Lord [Venner]. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- List of the Bernese Venner from 1290 to 1732 in: Johann Rudolf Gruner, Deliciae urbis Bernae: Merckworthiness of the hochlöbl. City of Bern. Compiled from mostly unprinted authentic writings , Zurich 1732, pp. 44–56.