from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Panel of guild coat of arms
1 shoemaker 2 fishermen 3 butchers 4 clothiers
5 weavers 6 painters 7 millers 8 masons
9 carpenters 10 roofers 11 tailors 12 bakers
13 saddlers 14 blacksmiths 15 furriers 16 tanners

As guilds - from Old High German Zumft "to befit" - refers sized corporations of artisans , as since the Middle Ages created to safeguard common interests and to the 19th century existed in certain regions (for example in Switzerland ) until today.

The guilds formed a social and economic system for regulating the supply of raw materials , employment figures , wages , prices , sales quantities and even widow care . Guilds sometimes comprised several professional groups . According to medieval tradition, the external sign was coats of arms , guild signs and clothing, depending on the guild order .

The guilds prescribed production methods for their members to ensure quality . In this way they fended off overproduction , on the other hand they prevented the introduction of new, more productive, possibly less health-endangering production techniques. They guaranteed their members a befitting , ie “fair” income . The consumers was by eliminating price competition , a stable price-performance ratio guaranteed - albeit at a high price level (See also: antitrust ).


Since the Middle Ages and up to industrialization in the 19th century, the association of master craftsmen has been referred to as guild , gaff , office (northern German), unification, guild (Saxon) or colliery, in addition to the now common term guild . Today, the academic language agreement shall state in Germany the merger by master craftsmen as a profession and the association of merchants from the Middle Ages and early modern times as a guild, whereas in England with guild both is called.


Forerunners of urban guilds had existed since the Roman Empire; they mainly served the tax registration of their members, who then often moved to the country. The Latin term for these associations was collegium , e.g. the craftsman, merchant, ship owner, baker, etc.

The beginnings of guilding in Central, West and North-West Europe can be found in the High Middle Ages , when numerous new cities were founded ( city ​​foundation phase ) and the craft branches in the cities became highly specialized.

As the oldest, of documented guild Frankfurt fishermen and sailors' guild, n. Chr from the year 945. 1010 was the Würzburg Fischerzunft , which celebrates its anniversary every year on January 6.

In most German cities, power was initially only in the hands of the urban nobility and the ministerials of the monasteries, bishops and high nobility. Later on, long-distance traders were also able to fight for certain rights and political influence. The association of craftsmen in guilds, that is, their organization within the city, was often severely restricted or even prohibited during this time. An amalgamation of a group of people, or a " conspiracy " as it was called at the time, almost always meant political influence in a medieval city. The founding of the guilds was associated with a so-called "guild revolution" or a political upheaval in some cities. However, the guild citizens were often granted extensive autonomy from the outset in order to make the establishment of new cities attractive for traders and craftsmen (e.g. Freiburg im Breisgau in 1120).

In certain cities in the Holy Roman Empire , the craftsmen organized in guilds even succeeded in conquering political power in whole or in part. In the imperial cities , guild constitutions were in effect at times, which guaranteed the guilds dominance in the council, which, however, cannot be equated with a democracy in the modern sense. Elections were held annually in Pfullendorf . This constitution was a model for many cities and was valid in Pfullendorf from 1383 to 1803. Zurich also had a “ guild constitution ” until 1798 .

In the late Middle Ages and the early modern period , however, most guild republics disappeared again under pressure from the sovereigns and the political influence of the guilds was restricted or reduced entirely to commercial law. Around 1550 the "guild rule" was in all imperial cities by Emperor Charles V abolished. After that, patrician power structures were predominant again until the end of the Holy Roman Empire.

Against the power of the masters within the guilds, the journeymen formed their own journeymen associations from the late Middle Ages.

The craftsmen who were not organized in guilds belonged in some places to the so-called Meinheit . In contrast to unattached journeymen, servants and day laborers , they then often had civil rights .

In the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation , guilds had to consist of at least three masters in the 18th century to make voting easier. However, if the members left it again, the guild could continue to exist in a single person. At that time it was a question that was often debated whether membership in two guilds was possible at the same time. This was possible as long as it was the same craft, "for example a Seiffensieder in Halle and in Naumburg." However, a man could not belong to two guilds of different trades. The principle was : "A lot of handicrafts spoil a master."

The life of the individual group member was decisively determined by the guild. The guild craftsman was only able to pursue his work with this involvement. The community of magistrates regulated the work and management of the individual, the quality of his products, controlled his moral life, protected him in individual emergencies and prayed for the salvation of its deceased members.

The development of the craft from the end of the Middle Ages to the 19th century is consistently described as a continuing decline, under which a liberating line was drawn with the introduction of the freedom of trade. This assessment has often been made clear by the degeneration of customs and outdated social structures. More recent research has also examined the economic background to this decline. Apart from economic fluctuations, the real incomes of the craftsmen fell considerably. The causes were the separation of production and trade ( publishing system ), large-scale forms of production ( manufacture and mass production ), the competition of new and partly imported types of goods and the extensive integration of the market through new roads and means of transport.

Whether the end of the guilds should be understood as a story of decline or whether it also contained elements of proto-industrial reorientation, in other words, whether the step from a “vertical solidarity” of the respective guild to the “horizontal solidarity” of the workers' movement was prepared or even taken is still the subject of scientific controversy.

The compulsory guild and thus the economic power of the guilds were severely restricted or completely abolished in the areas dominated by Napoleon after the French Revolution , including in the German-speaking countries. Probably restored in places after the Wars of Liberation, the discussion about freedom of trade did not end any more and by 1871 at the latest this was introduced everywhere in the German Reich.

In Switzerland , the guilds temporarily lost their power with the Helvetic Revolution in 1798, which they partly regained with mediation in 1803. In most of the city cantons the privileges of the guilds were abolished around 1830 with the forced political and economic equality of the rural and urban populations, in Basel, however, not until the 1870s.

The craft guilds are modern successors to the guilds . In some places, guilds still exist as craftsmen's associations or as folk or social associations, as in Zurich. The guilds were abolished in the various German areas through the introduction of freedom of trade in the course of the 19th century.

Regional particularities

Aachen and Cologne

In Aachen and Cologne, guilds worked in the corporations called " gaffs " , as was constitutionally established in Cologne in the composite letter of 1396 and in Aachen in the Aachen gaff letter of 1450.


In Bern , the societies and guilds are still corporations under public law.


In Bolzano , as elsewhere in the Tyrolean region, guilds were organized as corporate " brotherhoods ", with their own guild drawer and an elected board. For example, a Bolzano “ schneider fraternity” with its own statutes is attested for 1471 , while the Bozen Binder brotherhood in 1495 can be traced back to sources.

Northern Germany

In the big cities near the north German coasts, most of the guilds were traditionally called offices . There were also other handicraft corporations, such as the journeyman's shop and others, some of which were called brotherhoods or brotherhoods , such as the death shop and other coffers into which the members paid regularly to help the guild members, their widows and children in case of illness or Support death. In Hamburg there were still 32 offices and eight brotherhoods in 1850; In 1863 they were abolished with the introduction of the freedom of trade , also in Bremen in 1861 and in Lübeck in 1866 .


See: Vierwerke .


In some cities, the parade of a guild or guild associations in the form of city festivals has been preserved. In Zurich there with the Sechseläuten the most famous annual parade of the guilds , the status of private law here teams have.


For the corporations of London traders, which were at times guild-like, see the main article Livery Company and its detailed articles .

Law and custom in the old craft

The guild law applied in cities, outside of these the craft was guild-free or non- guild . In contrast to the merchants' associations, guilds have always been institutionally limited to the respective retail trade - another reason for their extensive political impotence. Outside the guilds, the guild profession was not allowed to be exercised. The guild included all practitioners. Sometimes several similar professions were combined in a guild in order to achieve an effective power in the city.

The guilds controlled the number of craftsmen and journeymen in the cities and laid down their rules in writing in officially approved guild regulations . In this way, the rules of the respective trades were drawn up and monitored, for example training rules, working hours, product quality and prices. In this way they ensured that there was not too much competition within a city. Internally, the guilds had the right of self-administration , so the masters regulated their monetary affairs independently, chose their heads (“elders”, old masters and young masters) themselves, in some cases also had the journeyman's coffers in custody, could impose penalties and collect fines, so they had certain commercial police powers. In addition to their economic function, the guilds also performed religious, social, cultural and military tasks. In the event of serious illness or death, the master families received support from the official drawer .

The journeymen (as well as the master women) had no say. They and the apprentices nevertheless belonged to the guild as members of minor rights. This corresponded to the idea for the whole house with the master as householder.

Important decisions were dependent on the approval or goodwill of the authorities. In order to ensure control, the morning language was set up in every guild as a regular meeting that did not take place without the presence of a council representative. Each guild had a fixed place for these meetings. It was an old custom to gather in a particular church, others had the privilege of meeting in the town hall, and wealthier corporations had their own guild house , which was also used for members' celebrations. Poor guilds met in the inn, in the journeyman's hostel or in the house of a master. The agenda included accounting, reports on the masterpiece, acquittals of apprentices. Complaints among the members took up a lot of space and were to be settled here if possible before the public jurisdiction was used. The morning speech took place with the drawer open . The certificates, funds, seal stamps, and silver vessels ( welcome ) of the guild were kept in this mostly sophisticated chest and could be seen by everyone. Even before the end of the guilds, the morning languages ​​were abolished where trade chambers were established.

In the late Middle Ages , guilds also founded singing schools where master singing was cultivated.

The journeymen also held regular meetings ( called jug days in some places ). The ritualized drinking customs imitated the ceremonial customs in the morning speech of the masters. The journeymen, too, often had a drawer that was taken as important as that of the masters and therefore the journeymen corporation itself was often referred to as the “journeymen’s drawer” for short. The sense of togetherness of a journeyman's shop was much stronger than that of the totality of the journeymen in a city. Where the journeymen became combative, this did not take place in a modern, political sense that would have aimed at social improvements, but had the aim of safeguarding traditional rights, customs and concepts of honor. Nevertheless, masters and authorities saw the journeyman's unrest of the 18th and 19th centuries as such a great threat that many journeyman's shops were closed.

CVs and social structures


Those who wanted to be accepted as apprentices usually came from a middle-class family. One of the prerequisites for entry into the guild consistently and explicitly was an honorable birth . His parents were also not allowed to come from dishonorable professions , as such, regionally different, for example knackers, tanners, hangmen, millers or shepherds.

The apprenticeship lasted three to six years. The number of apprentices varied in the individual trades. Goldsmiths employed an average of only one apprentice or journeyman, in the textile trade there were many more. The apprentices were largely without rights and dependent on the master. In guilds with a large need for auxiliary workers, they received (low) wages, in most professions they or their fathers had to pay an apprenticeship . For them there was no form of organization and no representation of interests. Therefore, there are no material antiquities related to this group as they were handed down by masters and journeymen. The journeyman's piece as the end of the apprenticeship was probably only introduced around 1800.


At the end of the apprenticeship the apprentice, often in the assembly of the whole guild, was "advertised", "released" or "sold off". Rough customs ( teasing ) were associated with this event in some guilds . Contrary to popular opinion, the completion of a hike was by no means required in all guilds. Where it was required, this was only introduced in post-medieval times. Whether a journeyman was allowed to marry was determined uniformly for the entire guild. In the 18th century, the social situation of journeymen visibly deteriorated. The labor market was even more dependent on seasonal and economic fluctuations than it is today. Unrest and work stoppages increased, but seldom aimed directly at eliminating social grievances; instead, they were often motivated by matters of honor; indirectly, of course, this was also an expression of the unsolved social problems. Journeyman corporations were particularly strong internally; beyond a dull sense of justice they were seldom able to articulate themselves politically before the 19th century. As a rule, the journeyman did not acquire citizenship. Many journeymen lacked the necessary capital to become self-employed as masters. Opportunities for social advancement were often only offered by taking over a workshop on the way of marrying the daughter or widow of the master.


The more respected and wealthy a guild, the stronger the need of the master families to shut themselves off from the outside world and to hinder the entry of strangers. Master sons were preferred if they married a master daughter from the same trade ("closed marriage circles "). Access was restricted by limiting the number of approved master craftsmen or an approval quota per year. Journeyman who wanted to become masters had to meet further conditions depending on the city, guild and historical situation.

  • The applicant must have worked on site as a journeyman for a certain period of time.
  • In many but not all guilds a journey of several years had to be done.
  • A masterpiece was to be made at own expense.
  • Deficiencies in this were only too happy to be found in the examining masters and had to be atoned for with a fine.
  • The citizens' registration fee had to be paid.
  • In some cities, people had to buy or manufacture their own breastplate for military service .
  • There were different amounts to be paid to the guild, the funeral fund, and the master who worked on the masterpiece.
  • If the place of assembly of the guild was a church, taxes for wax candles could be due.
  • It was necessary to own a house or to present the necessary money.
  • Admission was combined with a meal of several courses for all masters of the guild.

The high requirements for access to the master’s activity could only partly be explained by the concern for a high quality standard . Rather, it was about harmonizing demand with the range of services and keeping competition low. Due to the dominant supply monopoly , the prices were set by the guild like a cartel .

Craftsmen outside the guilds

In addition to the guilds, there were “free trades” and partnerships that were less respected in terms of rank and were mostly also subject to lesser supervision by the authorities. In their customs and institutions they nevertheless emulated the model of the respected guilds.

Craftsmen who distinguished themselves as artists through special skills or who stood out as entrepreneurs with their economic strength from the guild level were occasionally given the status of a free master by the authorities . They are comparable to the court craftsmen who, as employees of the nobility, were withdrawn from the urban order structures.

Guilds had a monopoly on the work for which they were privileged . At most, competing products were allowed to be offered at trade fairs or fairs. But everywhere there was a quantitatively difficult to grasp class of craftsmen, the so-called Bönhasen in northern Germany , who worked secretly outside the guilds. These included soldiers who could not live on their pay, seamen who had to look for work on land in winter. There were journeymen among them who had been expelled from the guild because of marriage or other “misconduct” or who had somehow failed in their career as a craftsman. The guild masters attacked and persecuted them, ridiculed them as Bönhasen and dismissed them as "botchers", "troublemakers" or "bunglers". They were “stopped” by force, in that the guild masters penetrated them and took work and tools. These acts of violence were tolerated by the authorities, but the “common people” often sided with the cheaper illegal workers in these “boon hunts”, which sometimes degenerated into brawls. Furthermore, the craft lower class included cobblers and tinkers, the many auxiliary workers in the textile trades and similarly low-skilled professions, some in the guild, some outside, some tolerated, some persecuted, some in the city, some in the suburbs and in the country, but only ever found their livelihood on the edge of the subsistence level.


The division of labor between the sexes favored a development that was completed in the 17th century. It led to the displacement of women from the craft guilds or at least to a restriction for women to a few professions. According to Étienne Boileau , Prévôt of Paris, it has been handed down that out of about a hundred craft trades, at least five were purely female trades, and there were also some mixed ones.

“Industries in which women had the monopoly were organized on the same basis as those operated by men, and industries in which men and women were equally active women entered on the same terms as men and were subject to the same regulations . "

For Cologne there is evidence of a mixed guild.

"The gold spinners were united in a guild with some of the gold bats."

- Edith Ennen : Mixed jobs in Cologne

However, there were guilds that accepted women as guild members, such as the yarn makers , the silk weavers and the silk makers . As family members, women were involved in some services of the guilds, but mostly could not acquire full membership.

Many guild regulations contained the rule: If a master dies, "the widow must remarry within one to two years, otherwise she will lose her husband's workshop." In some cities it was also possible for the widow to do this in the name of the son and successor Business continued to maturity.


In medieval Europe, which was dominated by Christianity, a general interest ban had been in effect since the 12th century . Jews who were not directly subject to these prohibitions (Pope Alexander III expressly permitted them to engage in interest payments in 1179) were at times the only group in medieval Europe that was allowed to lend money commercially under canon law . Conversely, Christian authorities v. a. From the late Middle Ages onwards, various prohibitions were imposed on practicing handicrafts and the like (including the so-called compulsory guild), and in many cases real estate was also prohibited. Therefore, the European Jews in particular were often active as money lenders . Since very few small businesses managed without credit , Jews, especially in economic crises, were viewed as " usurers " and insulted. This is how the stereotype of the rich, greedy, deceitful Jew developed in anti-Judaism in the Middle Ages .


In the German-Slavic contact area east of the Elbe-Saale line, especially in the Lüneburg Wendland , the Archbishopric of Magdeburg , the Mark Brandenburg , the territories of the southern Baltic Sea coast and occasionally also in the two Lusatia , historical sources from the late Middle Ages occasionally contain so-called Wendenpassus (Terminus technicus after Winfried Schich ), which in the older research literature were often somewhat exaggeratedly referred to as "Wendenklausel" or "Deuschtumparagraph". These stated that Wenden (i.e. Slavs) joining a guild or acquiring full citizenship in a city (as a prerequisite for joining a guild) should be made considerably more difficult or even prohibited.

The oldest evidence of a Wenden passage comes from a guild statute of the shoemakers from Beeskow (1353). So far, supposedly older documents have always been found to be incorrectly dated or added later. From the late 14th century onwards, the phenomenon spread across regions. The background to this development is probably not to be found in “national tensions”, as is often assumed by older research, but in the worsening social and economic crisis of the guild handicrafts as well as the rural agricultural society in the course of the late Middle Ages. The guilds tried to counteract the increasingly swelling rural exodus by gradually increasing the barriers to settling in the city. Since the rural population in the regions in question still largely consisted of Slavs at that time, a noteworthy number of these people, who were pushing into the cities and perceived as a threat by the long-established residents, could be recorded with a universally formulated Wenden passage. The discrimination against Slavs or native Slavs could take various forms: from the increase in citizen benefits specifically for Sorbs ( see Kamenz 1518 and 1530) to the general ban on settling in Wenden (see Lüneburg 1409).

The actual scope and importance of the phenomenon “Wendenpassus” should not be overestimated in all this, especially since the sources are sometimes confusing and contradicting. It is correct that this was a form of discrimination that demonstrably took up older anti-Slavic prejudices from the time of the German Ostsiedlung and provided them with new relevance in a changed context. However, it is fundamentally wrong to claim that there was no Slavic urban population in the German cities of the Middle Ages and the early modern period or that they were deliberately suppressed and displaced. Evidence such as the Sorbian citizen oath of Bautzen (around 1532) already speak against this. Individual case studies, such as Beeskow or Luckau , also indicate that the restrictions introduced in the Wenden passage (initially) only related to newly arriving Sorbs, but not to Sorbs who were already resident. Also, since only normative source material is often available, we have not yet been able to conclusively assess how consistently these provisions were actually enforced and for how long they actually remained in force. The example of Kamenz shows, for example, that despite the Wendenpassus, the influx of Sorbian new citizens into the city did not necessarily have to break in and could even increase again later to such an extent that a Sorbian citizens' oath had to be drawn up.

The professional apprenticeship as a means of the guild order against growing competition

In 1562, municipal guild regulations were generalized in England and made public law. On the one hand, the apprenticeship period was set at five (e.g. France) to seven (e.g. England, Holy Roman Empire) years, depending on the country, while on the other hand it was stipulated for each guild how many apprentices a master was allowed to train. The long apprenticeship period as well as the limitation of the number of apprentices led to a greater training expenditure, which consequently kept the number of competitors low and the prices high.

As Adam Smith criticized in 1776, a long period of apprenticeship cannot guarantee the high quality of the goods produced. Furthermore, he saw violations of freedom in the guild rules, in that a poor man was prevented from using his strength (= his capital) without restrictions. Instead of a long period of apprenticeship promoting the apprentice's diligence, apprentices harbored an inner aversion to work if nothing new could be learned. Overall, Smith saw the guild vocational training as an institution which mainly protected the producers, whereby the abolition of this would benefit the consumer through lower prices due to higher competition. According to Smith, (vocational) education should be de-privatized in order to promote the dynamization of society and to ensure the qualification of apprentices.

Even Christoph Bernoulli criticized the economic restrictions of the guild system in 1822 in his book about the adverse impact of the guild constitution on the industry , as it would prove for apprentices to be disadvantageous. He then demanded that the guild system be abolished directly. His opponent Johann Jakob Vest convinced many of his supporters of the negative consequences of a society without guilds and criticized Bernoulli for denouncing only negative things about the guild system without making suggestions for innovations himself. In the dispute over the further course of the guild and guild system, the apprenticeship system was the focus, as it was the guilds' central means of reproduction. A reformation of the apprenticeship would have meant the end of the guilds and, ultimately, a reorganization of society.

With the end of the guilds in the 19th century as a result of industrialization, vocational training was de-privatized and corporated, as the organization of vocational training was now regulated by the state rather than by guilds. Nationally applicable training standards have also been defined. Thus (especially in German-speaking countries) education with its goals of imparting professional qualifications and social skills was reorganized through professions . Ironically, the modernization of society happened precisely through vocational training, which was supposed to cushion the consequences of modernization in the guilds and establish a middle class by establishing a state-regulated vocational training system on the basis of traditional craft professions.

See also


  • Gerhard Deter: Legal history of the Westphalian craft in the 18th century. The right of masters (= historical work on Westphalian regional research. Economic and social history group. Volume 8). Aschendorff, Münster 1990, ISBN 3-402-06792-7 (also: Münster (Westphalia), university, dissertation, 1987).
  • Heinz-Gerhard Haupt (Ed.): The end of the guilds. A European comparison (= critical studies on the science of history. Volume 151). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2002, ISBN 3-525-35167-4 (digitized version)
  • Sabine von Heusinger : The guild in the Middle Ages. On the interweaving of politics, economy and society in Strasbourg (= quarterly for social and economic history. Supplement 206). Steiner, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-515-09392-7 .
  • Arnd Kluge : The guilds. Steiner, Stuttgart 2007, ISBN 978-3-515-09093-3 .
  • Knut Schulz : Crafts, guilds and trades. Middle Ages and Renaissance. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2010, ISBN 978-3-534-20590-5 .
  • Berent Schwineköper (Ed.): Guilds and guilds. Commercial and industrial cooperatives in the early and high Middle Ages (= Constance working group for medieval history. Lectures and research. Volume 29). Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1985, ISBN 3-7995-6629-5 (online) .
  • Thomas Schindler, Anke Keller, Ralf Schürer (eds.): Good! Mysterious craft 1500-1800 . Verlag des Germanisches Nationalmuseums , Nuremberg 2013, ISBN 978-3-936688-73-3 .
  • Anke Keller, Ralf Schürer (ed.): The guild between historical research and museum representation. Conference proceedings from the publishing house of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum , Nuremberg 2013, ISBN 978-3-936688-90-0 .

Web links

Commons : Guilds  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Commons : Zunftwappen  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Commons : Zunfthaus  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Guild  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
Wikisource: Guild  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Franz Irsigler : On the problem of guild and guild terminology, in: Guilds and guilds. Commercial and industrial cooperatives in the early and high Middle Ages , ed. v. B. Schwineköper, Sigmaringen 1985, pp. 53-70. Reprinted in: Miscellanea Franz Irsigler. Celebration for the 65th birthday, ed. Volker Henn, Rudolf Holbach, Michel Pauly and Wolfgang Schmid, Trier 2006, pp. 187–203.
  2. ^ Christian Meier (ed.): The occidental city after Max Weber. On the problem of belonging in antiquity and the Middle Ages (= historical journal. Supplement. NF Volume 17). Oldenbourg, Munich 1994, ISBN 3-486-64417-3 , JSTOR i20522869 .
  3. Technical literature on the subject: Jean Pierre Waltzig: Étude historique sur les corporations professionnelles chez les Romains depuis les origines jusqu'à la chute de l'empire, d'Occident (= Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique . Mémoires Couronnés et Autres Mémoires. Collection in-8 °. Volume 50, 1-4, ISSN  0770-8254 ). 4 volumes. C. Peeters, Brussels et al. 1895–1900.
  4. History of the Guild | Frankfurt fishermen and boatmen guild. Retrieved October 31, 2017 .
  5. Peter Weidisch: Würzburg in the "Third Reich". In: Ulrich Wagner (Hrsg.): History of the city of Würzburg. 4 volumes, Volume I-III / 2, Theiss, Stuttgart 2001-2007; III / 1–2: From the transition to Bavaria to the 21st century. 2007, ISBN 978-3-8062-1478-9 , pp. 196-289 and 1271-1290; here: p. 259, fig. 70.
  6. cf. Peter Eitel : The Upper Swabian imperial cities in the age of guild rule. Investigations into their political and social structure with special consideration of the cities of Lindau, Memmingen, Ravensburg and Überlingen (= writings on south-west German regional studies. 8, ZDB -ID 500514-0 ). Müller & Graff, Stuttgart 1970, (at the same time: Tübingen, University, dissertation, 1967).
  7. cf. Ludwig Fürstenwerth: The constitutional changes in the Upper German imperial cities at the time of Karl V. Göttingen 1893, (Göttingen, University, dissertation, 1893; ).
  8. a b c Of whom one could be in two guilds, and whether one could be in two guilds . In: Die Hochteutsche Rechtsgelahrte Societät (ed.): General juristisches Oraculum . tape 5 . Johann Samuel Heinsius, Leipzig 1748, p. 24 ( ).
  9. ^ Wilhelm Abel (Hrsg.): Handicraft history in a new view (= Göttingen contributions to economic and social history. 1). New edition. Schwartz, Göttingen 1978, ISBN 3-509-01068-X .
  10. Michael Stürmer: Autumn of the old craft. Munich 1979.
  11. Arno Herzig : Forms of organization and consciousness processes Hamburg craftsmen and workers in the period from 1790-1848. In: Arno Herzig, Dieter Langewiesche , Arnold Sywottek (ed.): Workers in Hamburg. Lower classes, workers and the labor movement since the late 18th century. Verlag Erziehungs und Wissenschaft, Hamburg 1983, ISBN 3-8103-0807-2 , pp. 95–108, here p. 102.
  12. ^ Heinrich Laufenberg : History of the workers' movement in Hamburg, Altona and the surrounding area. Volume 2. Auer, Hamburg 1931, p. 85 ff.
  13. Heinz-Gerhard Haupt: The end of the guilds. A European comparison. Göttingen 2002.
  14. ^ Hannes Obermair : The old tailoring trade in Bozen. In: The Sciliar . Volume 85, No. 1, 2012, pp. 32-36, here p. 33.
  15. (not to be confused with the religious brotherhoods of the Middle Ages)
  16. ^ Franklin Kopitzsch , Daniel Tilgner (ed.): Hamburg Lexikon. 4th, updated and expanded special edition. Ellert & Richter, Hamburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-8319-0373-3 , p. 18 f.
  17. The Reichshandwerkordnung of 1731 had tried to prevent these exclusions with little success: “According to this already in the Policey -ordnung de Anno 1548. Tit. 37. and 1577. Tit. 38. because of certain people / that their children are provided by those Gafflen / Aembtern / Gülten / Guilds / Guilds and craftsmen should not be excluded. As if it had to endure / and touched Constitutiones should be followed consistently in the future / no less also their court-Fron-Thurn-Holtz- and field guardians / dead graves / night watchmen / begging bailiffs / street sweepers / Bach Feger / Shepherd and the like / in Summa no profession, and Handthierung / then only the slave- alone / biting their Zweyte generation, in so far most the former another honest life-Arth chosen / and that makes all wenigst with yours 30 . For years would have continued / excluded / understood / and to whom artisans are allowed without refusal… ”(quoted from: Gudrun Decker, Alexander Decker: Living conditions in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. In: Helmut Hoffacker (Ed. ): Materials for historical-political instruction. Volume 4: Reformation and Peasants' War. Living conditions and generation history 1500–1800. Absolutism. Metzler, Stuttgart 1982, ISBN 3-476-20266-6 , p. 93).
  18. Philipp Gonon , Rolf Arnold : Introduction to Vocational Education (= Introductory Texts Educational Science. Volume 6 = UTB 8280). Budrich, Opladen et al. 2006, ISBN 3-8252-8280-5 , p. 41.
  19. ^ Christine Werkstetter: Women in the Augsburg guild craft. Work, industrial relations and gender relations in the 18th century (= Colloquia Augustana. Volume 14). Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-05-003617-6 (At the same time: Augsburg, Universität, Dissertation, 1999).
  20. Eileen Power: The Life of Women in the Middle Ages - Women's Professions in Paris. P. 76 f.
  21. Edith Ennen : Women in the Middle Ages. P. 160.
  22. Margret Wensky: Woman - C. The woman in medieval society - III. The woman in urban society . In: Lexicon of the Middle Ages (LexMA). Volume 4, Artemis & Winkler, Munich / Zurich 1989, ISBN 3-7608-8904-2 , column 864 f. (here col. 865).
  23. Anke Sczesny: Guilds. Retrieved March 3, 2017 .
  24. Christianity and Judaism through the ages. Retrieved March 3, 2017 .
  25. Winfried Schich : To the exclusion of the Wends from the guilds of North and East German cities in the late Middle Ages. In: Antoni Czacharowski (ed.): National, ethnic minorities and regional identities in the Middle Ages and modern times. Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika, Toruń 1994, ISBN 83-231-0581-2 , pp. 31-51.
  26. ^ Hermann Knothe (Ed.): Document book of the cities of Kamenz and Löbau (= Codex diplomaticus Saxoniae regiae . Main part 2, Volume 7). Giesecke & Devrient, Leipzig 1883, pp. 128, 139.
  27. Winfried Schich: To the exclusion of the Wends from the guilds of North and East German cities in the late Middle Ages. In: Antoni Czacharowski (ed.): National, ethnic minorities and regional identities in the Middle Ages and modern times. Uniwersytet Mikołaja Kopernika, Toruń 1994, ISBN 83-231-0581-2 , pp. 31–51, here p. 45.
  28. Cf. Frido Mětšk : The position of the Sorbs in the territorial administrative structure of German feudalism. A contribution to the legal and constitutional history of German feudalism in the Sorbian country (= Spisy Instituta za Serbski Ludospyt w Budyšinje. 43, ZDB -ID 135256-8 ). Domowina, Bautzen 1968, p. 121f.
  29. Philipp Gonon, Rolf Arnold: Introduction to Vocational Education (= Introductory Texts Educational Science. Volume 6 = UTB 8280). Budrich, Opladen et al. 2006, ISBN 3-8252-8280-5 , pp. 31-33.
  30. Philipp Gonon, Rolf Arnold: Introduction to Vocational Education (= Introductory Texts Educational Science. Volume 6 = UTB 8280). Budrich, Opladen et al. 2006, ISBN 3-8252-8280-5 , pp. 41-43.