Chamber of Crafts
A Chamber of Crafts is a self-governing body of the entire craft in a chamber district organized in the legal form of a corporation under public law . It is the task of the chambers of crafts to represent the interests of the entire crafts and to regulate the interests of the crafts themselves in the course of self-administration. The Chamber exercises the legal supervision of the guilds and the District Trade machinations of the chamber district. The Chamber of Crafts includes the owners of a craft business (differentiated between: trades requiring a license and trades that are not subject to approval) and the craft-like trades (to which approx. 60 different professions belong) as well as journeymen, employees with completed vocational training and apprentices .
In contrast to the Chamber of Commerce and Industry (IHK), the Chamber of Crafts represents the interests of the craft. As with all professional associations, membership is compulsory with compulsory contributions.
The founding of the Chamber of Crafts in Germany goes back to the Craftsmen Act of 1897 . The Reich Law created the conditions for the formation of the chambers. From April 1900 a total of 71 chambers of crafts were founded throughout the German Empire.
The history of the establishment of the chambers of crafts goes back at least to the 19th century. Many believe that the chambers of handicrafts are the weakened version of the medieval guild system . Guilds run their members' lives from cradle to grave. For centuries they were the basis of economic life. The guild regulations formed a regionally different system of market foreclosure that was interwoven with the political order, paired with a social security system for the skilled trades that was missing at the time. An economically successful exercise of manual work was practically impossible in the cities without membership of a guild. The effects of this time can be found today in many special aspects of German culture ( masters , guilds, waltzes , freemasonry ) and everyday language: traditional, class thinking.
With the social, economic and technical changes that began in the 19th century, freedom of trade gradually spread . In the time of National Socialism , class thinking was strengthened again through Aryanization and the introduction of the large certificate of proficiency ( master craftsman's certificate ). The chambers of handicrafts, whose self-administration was eliminated immediately after the seizure of power , were combined with the chambers of industry and commerce to form district economic chambers from 1942 , within which they played no significant role due to the warlike importance of industry . This handicraft department within the Gauwirtschaftskammer was headed by the Gauhandwerkmeister , who was also the vice-president of the Gauwirtschaftskammer.
After the Second World War , the Gau economic chambers were dissolved. The previous chambers of crafts were re-established in the western sectors.
In the Soviet Zone emerged as SMAD 161 1946 command no. From May 27 national chambers of trade at the level of countries . These had branches at the district level. The district offices of the former Reich guild associations, the district craftsmen's associations and the guilds were incorporated into the chambers. In August 1950, the People's Chamber of the German Democratic Republic passed the law for the promotion of the craft, which was now the legal basis of the state chambers of crafts of the states. After the abolition of the countries in the GDR 1952, the Regulation of 20 August 1953 on 30 September 1953 arose due to chambers of trade at the level of districts . These chambers, like the chambers of handicrafts in the time of National Socialism, did not represent organs of self-administration of the economy. They were the council of the district and served as legal advisors and political promoters of both the private handicrafts and the master craftsmen who were part of a " production cooperative des Handwerks ”(PGH). In particular, they no longer had any tasks in vocational training. After the fall of the Wall , chambers of crafts were created based on the Western model.
The Chamber of Crafts is a corporation under public law , which is established by the responsible Ministry of Economics of the state . This also leads the state supervision of the Chamber of Crafts. The organs of the Chamber of Crafts are the elected “General Assembly”, the committees , the board and the president ; The board and president are elected from the middle of the general assembly. One third of the general assembly consists of journeymen and employees who have completed their professional training, one third of whom are members of the board. The president is supported by a vice-president from the employer's side and one from the employee's side from the middle of the board as a representative. The statutes of the Chamber of Crafts are issued or amended by the General Assembly and approved by the respective Ministry of Economics. The President and the Chief Executive Officer represent the Chamber in public in and out of court.
According to the Crafts Code (HwO), the chambers of crafts have the following tasks:
- to promote the interests of the craft and to ensure a fair balance between the interests of the individual crafts and their organizations ,
- to support the authorities in promoting the skilled trades through suggestions, suggestions and the preparation of expert reports ,
- to submit regular reports on the conditions of the craft,
- to lead the handicraft role,
- regulating vocational training , this includes:
- to lead an apprenticeship role,
- To issue examination regulations and to set up examination boards for this purpose,
- To issue journeyman examination regulations for the individual trades,
- To issue master’s examination regulations for the individual trades and to manage the business of the master’s examination committee.
- to promote the technical and business management training of masters and journeymen to maintain and increase the efficiency of the craft in cooperation with the guild associations, to create or support the necessary facilities for this and to maintain a trade promotion office for this purpose,
- To order and swear experts to provide expert opinions on goods, services and prices from craftsmen,
- to promote the economic interests of the craft and the institutions serving them, in particular the cooperative system,
- To set up arbitration bodies.
Criticism of compulsory membership
A number of entrepreneurs are rejecting compulsory membership. The Federal Association for Free Chambers e. V. The association defines itself through the rejection of the public-law chamber structures and takes up the uneasiness of having to involuntarily belong to a chamber. His representatives criticize the chambers' overspending of tasks as well as the waste of membership fees and the like. a. in boarding houses and oversized buildings. The criticism also turns against the results of the opinion-forming in the chambers.
There is an increasing lack of social commitment in the chambers of crafts. With voter turnouts of regularly well below 20%, the elections for the general assembly are carried out as " peace elections" in many chamber of crafts districts . Candidates are set up who are considered elected without an actual election because their number is just as large or even lower than the number of mandates to be awarded.
The extent to which the support and promotion of member companies can be felt in a positive way for the individual company is repeatedly questioned. This is also due to the fact that numerous companies have no interest or show that they take advantage of the offers contained in the membership fee of the chambers.
Restricted market economy
From the tightening of the imperial handicrafts order in the time of National Socialism, it is concluded that this is an expression of the typical state German will to regulate as an expression of a lack of confidence in the self-regulating forces of the labor and market systems.
For example, the fact that a large number of professions (e.g. doctors, pharmacists, lawyers, etc.) are organized in chambers may speak against this view. To what extent this arises from the protection of interest groups, however, urgently needs to be checked. The chambers are originally an expression of the will of these professional groups to want to organize themselves. If the chambers were to be abolished, the regulatory tasks of the chambers, such as accompanying training, would be carried out directly by the state.
The skilled trades (especially the employees, one third of whom sit on the chambers' committees) would have lost an important influence. However, it cannot be denied that if the previous regulations are retained, the German craft trades are likely to be at a disadvantage in the harmonization efforts within the European Union.
Voices are also repeatedly loud calling for the state to withdraw to an intervening force to protect against abuse, social disadvantage, endangering life and health, etc. In this context, the abolition of the master craftsman's certificate is often requested. At the beginning of 2004, the number of professions in which the master craftsman's certificate is a prerequisite for self-employment was reduced to 41. The background to this was, in addition to the desire for deregulation, in particular the introduction of the so-called Ich-AG, which was given more fields of activity through the abolition of the master craftsman's certificate as a prerequisite for independence.
Proponents of the master craftsman qualification argue that this should not only secure the level of knowledge in the respective professions (although there is no obligation for further training). At the same time, it is intended to prepare those affected for independence, which is associated with considerable risks, including personal insolvency. Ultimately, it should also protect the customer, who, due to a lack of specialist knowledge in many craft areas, can only assess to a limited extent whether the work performed corresponds to the respective standard. The validity of these objections is controversial, not least because of the recurring mistakes of the building trade. Nevertheless, it should not be overlooked that the master craftsman qualification, which requires a corresponding apprenticeship training, is imparted knowledge that has already been lost in other countries. In this context the baker's trade and the butcher's trade are only mentioned as examples. In 2019 the number of trades for which the successfully completed master craftsman's examination is a prerequisite was increased again, from 41 to 53 professions.
List of chambers of crafts in Germany
The following list names all 53 chambers of crafts by their official name, sorted by federal state.
The name may be followed by the city in which the chamber has its seat and then the scope of the chamber district, for example administrative districts or administrative districts and urban districts.
Former chambers of crafts in Germany
|Surname||(Headquarters||Year of dissolution||Incorporated into|
|Chamber of Crafts in Bromberg||Bromberg||1918||After the separation from the German Empire, the chamber continued to operate as the Polish Chamber of Crafts and is now called Kujawsko-Pomorska Izba Rzemiosła i Przedsiębiorczości . The new Schneidemühl Chamber of Crafts was created for the parts of the chamber area that remained with Germany (part of the Grenzmark Posen-West Prussia province ) .|
|Graudenz Chamber of Crafts||Graudenz||1918||After the separation from the German Empire, the chamber continued to operate as the Polish Chamber of Crafts and is now called Cech Rzemiosł Różnych i Przedsiębiorczości . The new Schneidemühl Chamber of Crafts was created for the parts of the chamber area that remained with Germany (part of the Grenzmark Posen-West Prussia province ) .|
|Chamber of Crafts in Poznan||Poses||1918||After the separation from the German Empire, the chamber continued to operate as the Polish Chamber of Crafts and is now called Wielkopolska Izba Rzemieślnicza . The new Schneidemühl Chamber of Crafts was created for the parts of the chamber area that remained with Germany (part of the Grenzmark Posen-West Prussia province ) .|
|Gumbinnen Chamber of Crafts||Gumbinnen||1921||After the separation of part of the chamber area after the war, the Gumbinnen Chamber of Crafts was merged into the Chamber of Crafts for Eastern Prussia with its seat in Königsberg|
|Königsberg Chamber of Crafts||Königsberg (Prussia)||1921||After part of the chamber area was separated off after the war, the Königsberg Chamber of Crafts was merged into the Chamber of Crafts for Eastern Prussia with its seat in Königsberg|
|Chamber of Crafts for Alsace-Lorraine||Strasbourg||1923||After the separation from the German Empire, the chamber became the French Chamber of Crafts and was divided into the Chambre de métiers d'Alsace and the Chambre de métiers de la Moselle in 1923|
|Chamber of Crafts Altona||Altona||1937||Hamburg Chamber of Crafts|
|Chamber of Crafts Harburg||Harburg||1939||Chamber of Crafts Lüneburg or Chamber of Crafts Lüneburg-Stade|
|Sigmaringen Chamber of Crafts||Sigmaringen||1943||Regional Chamber of Commerce Württemberg-Hohenzollern ; Today the chamber area belongs to the Reutlingen Chamber of Crafts|
|Liegnitz Chamber of Crafts||Liegnitz||1945||After the separation from the German Empire, the chamber continued to operate as the Polish Chamber of Crafts and is now called Dolnośląska Izba Rzemieślnicza .|
|Chamber of Crafts Opole||Opole||1945||After the separation from the German Empire, the chamber continued to operate as the Polish Chamber of Crafts and is now called Izba Rzemieślnicza w Opolu .|
|Chamber of Crafts for Eastern Prussia||Königsberg (Prussia)||1945||./.|
|Wroclaw Chamber of Crafts||Wroclaw||1945||After the separation from the German Empire, the chamber continued to operate as the Polish Chamber of Crafts and is now called Dolnośląska Izba Rzemieślnicza .|
|Chamber of Crafts in Gdansk||Danzig||1945||After the separation from the German Reich in 1918, the chamber continued to operate as the Chamber of Crafts of the Free City of Danzig. After the war, a Polish Chamber was created, which is now called Pomorska Izba Rzemieślnicza bears|
|Chamber of Crafts Schneidemühl||Schneidemühl||1945||After the Second World War, the chamber district came under Polish administration. Today the Wielkopolska Izba Rzemieślnicza exists as a Chamber of Crafts|
|Chamber of Crafts in Stettin||Szczecin||1945||After the Second World War, the chamber district came under Polish administration. Today the Izba Rzemieślnicza Szczecin exists as a Chamber of Crafts|
|Chamber of Crafts Halle-Merseburg||Halle (Saale)||1946||Chamber of Crafts of the Province of Saxony (from 1947: State Chamber of Crafts Saxony-Anhalt)|
|Chamber of Crafts Magdeburg||Magdeburg||1946||Chamber of Crafts of the Province of Saxony (from 1947: State Chamber of Crafts Saxony-Anhalt)|
|Chamber of Crafts Dessau||Dessau||1946||Chamber of Crafts of the Province of Saxony (from 1947: State Chamber of Crafts Saxony-Anhalt)|
|Brandenburg Chamber of Crafts||Potsdam||1953||Chambers of Crafts of the Districts|
|Mecklenburg Chamber of Crafts||Schwerin||1953||Chambers of Crafts of the Districts|
|State Chamber of Crafts of Thuringia||Erfurt||1953||Chambers of Crafts of the Districts|
|State Chamber of Crafts Saxony||Dresden||1953||Chambers of Crafts of the Districts|
|State Chamber of Crafts Saxony-Anhalt||Halle (Saale)||1953||Chambers of Crafts of the Districts|
|Lower Bavaria Chamber of Crafts||Passau||1974||Chamber of Crafts Niederbayern-Oberpfalz|
|Chamber of Crafts Upper Palatinate||regensburg||1974||Chamber of Crafts Niederbayern-Oberpfalz|
|Chamber of Crafts Darmstadt||Darmstadt||1979||Chamber of Crafts Frankfurt-Rhein-Main|
|Chamber of Crafts Frankfurt am Main||Frankfurt am Main||1979||Chamber of Crafts Frankfurt-Rhein-Main|
|Chamber of Crafts Coburg||Coburg||2004||The chamber formed in 1918 merged with the Chamber of Crafts for Upper Franconia in 2004|
|Chamber of Crafts Braunschweig||Braunschweig||2009||Chamber of Crafts Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Stade|
|Chamber of Crafts Lüneburg-Stade||Luneburg||2009||Chamber of Crafts Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Stade|
In France there are craft chambers under the name Chambre de métiers et de l'artisanat . These chambers were created under the law of July 26, 1925 under the name Chambre de métiers . The name was changed to Chambre de métiers et de l'artisanat (Chamber of Crafts and Crafts) by Decree No. 2004-1164 of November 2, 2004. They are known as the Établissement public à caractère administratif (EPA), this is a legal entity of the organized under public law with a certain administrative and financial autonomy. The umbrella organization is the Assemblée permanente des chambres de métiers et de l'artisanat (APCMA). The supervisory authority is the Ministry of Crafts and, for the regional chambers, the Prefekt des Départements.
In Poland , chambers of crafts exist under the name of Izba Rzemiosła i Przedsiębiorczości as legal entities that are financed through membership fees. Membership is voluntary. The main tasks of the chambers include the representation and advocacy of their members, advisory services and the implementation of master craftsman and skilled worker examinations.
- Chamber of Commerce and Industry
- Chamber of Engineers
- Craft regulations
- Central Association of German Crafts
- Entry "State Saxony-Anhalt" at the State Archive of Saxony-Anhalt
- Entry "Chamber of Crafts of the Leipzig District" at the Leipzig State Archives
- archive.org: Sworn experts in the trade (archive text) ( Memento from August 18, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- hwk-duesseldorf.de: Sworn experts in the craft , accessed on March 28, 2019.
- Martin Will: Self-administration of the economy: Law and history of self-administration in the chambers of industry and commerce, craft guilds, district handicrafts, chambers of crafts and chambers of agriculture, 2010, ISBN 9783161507052 , p. 589, digitized
- www.cdm.lu/ (French)
- Leipzig Chamber of Crafts