|region||Grand Est ( main town )|
( Prefecture )
|Community association||Eurométropole de Strasbourg|
|area||78.26 km 2|
|mayor||Jeanne Barseghian ( EELV )|
|Residents||280,966 (January 1, 2017)|
|Population density||3,590 inhabitants / km 2|
|Post Code||67000, 67100, 67200|
The Strasbourg Cathedral from the south, to the
left the Temple Neuf
The city is the capital and thus the seat of the regional council and the regional prefect of the Grand Est region as well as the seat of the prefecture of the Bas-Rhin department . The prefecture also manages the Strasbourg arrondissement , which consists of 33 municipalities . With 280,966 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2017) in the urban area and over 785,000 inhabitants in the agglomeration on French soil, Strasbourg is by far the largest city in the Grand Est.
Along with Basel ( Bank for International Settlements ), Geneva ( ICRC and European UN specification seat) and New York (worldwide UN headquarters) Strasbourg is one of the few cities in the world, commonly known as home to one of the most important deemed international organizations act but without being the capital of a country. Strasbourg is the seat of numerous European institutions, including the Council of Europe , the European Parliament , the European Court of Human Rights , the European Ombudsman and the Eurocorps. Because of this, Strasbourg sees itself as the capital of Europe .
Parts of the city center, the medieval old town on the Grande-Île and the new town are under the title Strasbourg: from the Grande-Île to the new town, a European urban scenery UNESCO World Heritage Site .
name of the city
The Roman predecessor settlement that arose from a Celtic settlement was called Argentorate , in Gaulish Argento-, probably a river name, and rate 'fortification'. Middle Latin name forms such as Argentoratum and Argentina can be found up to the 16th and 17th centuries. Century ( Frans Hogenberg , Matthäus Merian , Hartmann Schedel ).
The name Strasbourg, first attested in 589, is made up of the Old High German strāʒe 'Heeresstraße' and the Old High German castle 'fortified city' and thus means 'fortified place on the Heeresstrasse from Innergallien'. Early mentions can be found in Gregor von Tours as ad Argentoratensem urbem quam nunc Strateburgum vocant (589) and Stradeburgum (590), in Nithard as Strazburg (842) and on Merovingian coins as Stradiburg and Stradeburgo . An alleged mention as early as 400: [civitas Argentoratensium] id est Strateburgum is probably an addition from around 600.
Location and neighborhoods
The city lies on the river Ill , which branches out in the urban area. The historic old town is located on the Grande Île (Big Island), which is surrounded by both arms of the Ill . The eastern parts of the city with the port border on the Rhine . On the opposite eastern bank of the Rhine on the German side is the city of Kehl . Both cities are connected by the Europabrücke for road traffic as well as a railway and a pedestrian bridge. Since April 29, 2017, there has also been a tram connection between Strasbourg and Kehl: Line D of the Strasbourg tramconnects the town hall of Kehl with the center of Strasbourg and crosses the Rhine over the Beatus-Rhenanus-Bridge . Strasbourg is the end point of the Canal de la Marne au Rhin .
Strasbourg is divided into the following 14 districts (quarters) :
|district||Number of inhabitants|
|Conseil des XV - Orangery - Contades||25,312|
|Cronenbourg (German: Cronenburg)||21,462|
|Esplanade - Bourse - Krutenau||23,605|
|Gare - Halles - Tribunal - Porte de Schirmeck||24,000|
|Hautepierre (German: Hohenstein)||17.305|
|Koenigshoffen (German: Königshofen)||16,119|
|Neudorf - Musau - Port du Rhin||40,706|
|Robertsau - Wacken - Cité de l'Ill||19,557|
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Strasbourg
The Strasbourg basin has been inhabited more or less continuously since around 1300 BC. Chr. On. There was already a Gallic settlement in Strasbourg .
The Roman general Drusus founded Strasbourg in 12 BC. As a military outpost called Argentoratum in the later province of Germania superior . Under Trajan and after the fire in 97, Argentoratum had reached its greatest extent and strongest fortification. Strasbourg was probably the seat of a bishopric from the 4th century : in 1956, the remains of an apse building from this period were excavated below today's Église Saint-Étienne . In 357 the battle of Argentoratum took place in the area . In the 5th century Alemanni , Huns andFranconia conquered the city.
In 842 the Strasbourg oaths were sworn here and - apart from Latin - also recorded in the languages of the respective followers, in Old High German and Old French , which makes this the oldest document in an early French language. The language of the city and region was Old High German at that time.
Middle Ages, Free Imperial City, Early Modern Age
In the Middle Ages , Strasbourg was part of the Holy Roman Empire . The Müllenheim family (who moved from neighboring Müllheim im Breisgau to Strasbourg) and the Zorn family were the most important Strasbourg patrician families at that time , whose rivalry for supremacy in the imperial city was fought in downright street battles. The town hall received z. B. extra two entrances, one for Müllenheim and one for Zorn. The two banks of the Ill were also named after these families; one is called Quai Müllenheim, the other Quai Zorn .
Under the rule of these families, Strasbourg developed into one of the most important economic centers in the region. When the bishop tried to curtail the rights of the city, open war broke out with the citizens. In 1262, Bishop Walter von Geroldseck was decisively defeated in the Battle of Hausbergen and the city gained its independence from the bishopric of Strasbourg . As a result, it developed into a free imperial city. About the same time, i.e. H. At the end of the 13th century, the building management of the Strasbourg cathedral was no longer in the hands of the bishop, as was customary with cathedral buildings, but the responsibility of the council and master of the city of Strasbourg. They appointed the administrative officials who ran the church factory, which is first found in sources from the 1220s as the “women's work” and which was responsible for the construction and asset management of the Strasbourg cathedral. The administrative officials consisted of two or three orderlies and a conductor, whose duties included, for example, the twice-yearly accounting, in which the annual income and expenses of the women's work were offset.
Strasbourg was a member of both Rhenish city federations (first Rhenish city federation from July 13, 1254 to 1257 and second Rhenish city federation from 1381 to 1389).
The climax of the violent conflict between the Müllenheim and Zorn families was the so-called "Geschell der Müllenheim und Zorn" on May 20, 1332, as a result of which the dominance of the city nobility was overthrown, because the real winners of this fight were the guilds . As a free imperial city, Strasbourg was one of the first small republics in the Holy Roman Empire. In the years to come, around 40 different members of the Müllenheim family were elected to Strasbourg Stettmeisters (aristocratic members of the magistrate who alternated between the city executive) until 1760 . The patriciate had to be further disempowered after the revolts of the craftsmen in 1482: The new constitution, which was in force until the French Revolution, granted two thirds of the seats in the council to the guilds.
In connection with the devastating European plague - epidemic of the years 1348-1349 (the Black Death ) took place on February 14, 1349 one of the first and largest pogroms of the wave of persecution of Jews in connection with the plague in the German area held: During the Valentine's Day massacre were several hundred (according to some sources even up to 3,000) Strasbourg Jews burned in public; the survivors were expelled from the city. Until the end of the 18th century, Jews were forbidden to stay inside the city walls after 10 p.m. on the penalty of death.
The west facade of the Strasbourg cathedral received its northern steeple from 1399 to 1439. The storeys of the facade below already differ from the draft of a double tower front from 1275. The minster remained the tallest building in the world from 1647 (destruction of the spire of St. Mary's Church in Stralsund ) until 1874 and is still one of the tallest church towers in the world .
After Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press in Europe , Strasbourg quickly became a major center of book production. The Strasbourg printers made an important contribution to the spread of the Reformation , because thanks to the city's far-reaching religious tolerance, writings by Martin Luther and other reformers could be published here at an early stage . A third of the writings printed in the 16th century were Bibles or excerpts from them. In 1605 Johann Carolus published the news paper Relation all Fürnemmen und Gedenckworthy Histories , which is considered to be the world's first printed newspaper.
The idea of the Reformation gained a foothold in Strasbourg early on. The first Protestant preacher was the priest at the Strasbourg cathedral in 1521, Matthäus Zell . In 1524 the council took over the supervision of the church. Although most of its members were not Protestant themselves, he approved the Protestant sermon and also allowed persecuted people like Hans Denck , Kaspar Schwenckfeld and various Anabaptist groups to settle elsewhere . On February 20, 1529, the city council abolished Holy Mass . At the Diet of Augsburg in 1530Strasbourg also made a commitment to the Reformation. Strasbourg did not initially join the Lutheran “Protestants” of the Confessio Augustana , but with Memmingen , Constance and Lindau made their own confession written by Martin Bucer and Wolfgang Capito , the Confessio Tetrapolitana , named after the four cities . In 1531 representatives of the city took part in the convent in Schmalkalden and later Strasbourg became a member of the Schmalkaldic Confederation for the defense of the evangelical imperial estates against Emperor Charles V. The betweenMartin Luther and also Bucer negotiated Wittenberg Agreement of 1536 ensured a more solid theological and political connection to Lutheranism . However, members of divergent theological tendencies were tolerated as long as they did not endanger the social peace of the city. The Huguenots found refuge here, and Johannes Calvin (1509–1564) also stayed in Strasbourg, where Sebastian Castellio made his acquaintance. Melchior Hofmann, on the other hand, was expelled in 1531 and arrested on his return in 1533.
The Augsburg Interim forced the council to hand over some churches to the bishop, who was ousted in 1524, and urged Bucer to emigrate to England. Although the population refused to attend the mass, it was not abolished until 1559. Under the influence of Johannes Pappus , the Lutheran doctrine (as distinct from the Reformed ) gained sole validity. In 1584, Strasbourg asked to join the Confederation . However, their diet delayed the request because it would have changed the denominational balance to the disadvantage of the Catholics. In 1598, in a new church ordinance, Strasbourg committed itself to the concord formula . in theStrasbourg chapter dispute from 1583 to 1604, however, the Catholic party prevailed, and the territory of the Principality of Strasbourg , d. H. a large part of the Strasbourg area remained Catholic.
After 1648 France sought the Rhine as a border, whereby the imperial bailiwick gained in the Peace of Westphalia over the Alsatian imperial cities was made usable for its own purposes; Strasbourg was initially excluded from this. It was only in the context of King Louis XIV's reunion policy, which began in 1679 , that Strasbourg was also targeted. The city was occupied by France in September 1681, amid peace. The French king took advantage of the military weakness of the Strasbourg protecting power (the German emperor), as the Habsburg royal seat of Vienna was in turn threatened by the Turks. This change in rulership was made in the Peace of RijswijkFinally confirmed in 1697. Protestants were excluded from public office and the cathedral was recatholized. The repeal of the Edict of Tolerance of Nantes by the Edict of Fontainebleau in 1685, with which the suppression of Protestantism in France was finally legalized, was not applied in Alsace, and religious freedom prevailed, although the French authorities tried to promote Catholicism , wherever possible to favor. The Lutheran, German-influenced University of Strasbourg continued to exist. In addition, until 1789 Alsace was a de facto foreign province (province à l'instar de l'étranger effectif)separated from the rest of France by a customs border running along the Vosges , i.e. abroad under customs law, while there was no customs border with the empire . Therefore, the city and its surrounding area remained German-speaking and culturally German.
The same was true of the city's coin history. Even after the occupation by France in 1681, Strasbourg minted coins with the inscription "MONETA NOVA ARGENTINENSIS" (= New Coined Money from Strasbourg) up to 1708. The adjustment to the French monetary system (Franc and Sous) took place only gradually, so that pennies (French denier) and sols (= old French for Sous) were minted temporarily in Strasbourg.
In 1770/71 Johann Wolfgang Goethe studied in Strasbourg. During these years the city became a focal point of the literary movement “ Sturm und Drang ”. Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz and Johann Gottfried Herder lived here.
During the French Revolution , the city became a magnet for republicans from Germany. The best known of them is Eulogius Schneider . From Enragés from its radius end of April came the proposal, the north tower of the cathedral as a symbol of clerical arrogance and violation of the principle of equality in 1794 (Egalite) tear. Strasbourg citizens opposed this by crowning the tower with a huge Phrygian cap made of painted sheet metal in mid-May . This was later kept in the city museum and destroyed by Prussian artillery fire in 1870. In the years and decades that followed, Strasbourg became an exilefor German opposition and revolutionaries , such as B. for Georg Büchner .
Napoleon Bonaparte stayed in Strasbourg in 1805, 1806 and 1809 with his first wife, Joséphine de Beauharnais . In 1810 his future second wife Marie-Louise of Austria spent her first night in the city on French soil. In 1828 King Charles X stayed there. On October 29, 1836, the future Napoleon III. a first, unsuccessful coup attempt in Strasbourg.
During the Franco-Prussian War , Strasbourg was besieged by German troops and heavily bombarded. The city library with most of its valuable holdings (including the “ Hortus Deliciarum ”) and the city art museum were destroyed. On September 28, 1870, the city surrendered after defying the cannonade for a month.
In the German Empire
In addition to the fortresses of Metz and Cologne , Strasbourg became one of the most important fortresses in the west of the German Empire after 1871 . In the course of the city expansion, a modern wall was built that included older wall sections from the French period. Remains of the citadel of Vauban are preserved from the ramparts in the east of the city , but above all large parts of the Prussian fortifications along the rue du Rempart behind the train station, including the imposing “War Gate”. Iron moat weirs can still be seen here today, an absolute rarity then and now. In addition to this inner wall, a large area around the city developedFortification belts based on the uniform fort system of Hans Alexis von Biehler , most of which are still standing today and are registered as historical monuments, for example Fort Roon (today Fort Desaix ) and Fort Podbielski (today Fort Ducrot ) in Mundolsheim , Fort Moltke (today Fort Rapp ) in Reichstett , Fort Bismarck (today Fort Kléber ) in Wolfisheim , Fort Kronprinz (today Fort Foch ) inNiederhausbergen , Fort Grand Duke of Baden (today Fort Frère ) in Oberhausbergen and Fort Crown Prince of Saxony (today Fort Joffre ) in Holtzheim . These forts were later used by the French army (Fort Podbielski / Ducrot, for example, was included in the Maginot Line ) and also served as a prisoner of war camp in 1918 and 1945.
Politically, the situation after the Franco-Prussian War and the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine by the German Empire was complex. In 1871, the majority of the Alsatian population was opposed to integration into the newly founded German Reich, which was shown in the Reichstag elections after 1871: the Autonomists were the leading party until 1890. In the years after 1871, however, there was a strong economic upswing in the city of Strasbourg and Alsace, which reconciled at least part of the population with German rule. At the time of industrialization until the late 19th century, the population tripled to 150,000.
The university was re-founded in 1872 as the "Kaiser Wilhelm University" (after Wilhelm I ) and in the following years developed into one of the most important universities in the German Empire. Another important change in the cityscape was brought about by the construction of the new Strasbourg train station , which was driven primarily from a military point of view. It was inaugurated in 1883 and remained largely unchanged until the beginning of the 21st century. The historian Rodolphe Reuss was commissioned with the reconstruction of the city archive that was destroyed in the war . From 1889 to 1914, the imperial curator Wilhelm von Bode was in charge of the re-establishment of the art collections. The library, which was destroyed in the war, was also made into one of the most important university libraries by Reuss, among other things through donations from all over the German Empire (today it is the second largest in France after Paris). The architects Hermann Eggert , August Hartel , Skjøld Neckelmann , Otto Warth , Jacques Albert Brion and Fritz Beblo were commissioned with the Wilhelminian redesign of the city , further representative orders went to Ludwig Becker , Ludwig Levy and Carl Schäfer as well as Karl and Paul Bonatz.
Local economic and social policy in the pre-World War II period
The German administrative system gave the municipalities their own leeway, unlike the centralized French bureaucracy. The municipal code issued in 1895 gave the city of Strasbourg more room to make decisions than comparable French municipalities have to this day. In Alsace-Lorraine, the same general local electoral law applied, in contrast to the three -class suffrage in Prussia and restricted suffrage in most other German states. As a result, before the World War, Strasbourg became the only major German city in which the Social Democrats were massively represented in the local council and, together with the left-wing liberals, were able to significantly influence local politics. The Neustadt was already under Mayor Otto Backwith numerous representative buildings. In 1906, with the decisive votes of the SPD, Rudolf Schwander was elected mayor who, with the help of a staff of socio-politically committed employees, pushed the expansion of the city forward. In the so-called Great Breakthrough, which became the most extensive urban redevelopment project in the German Reich, run-down poor areas were demolished and replaced by generously designed new buildings. An exemplary regulation of the urban poor relief and health care was introduced, the Strasbourg system with regular school dentist and doctor visits. A municipal public bath was built as part of the municipal health care systemand built a tuberculosis sanatorium in the Vosges. The expansion of the Strasbourg Rhine port served the economic upturn . On Schwander's initiative, the city of Strasbourg also acquired the majority of shares in Elektrizitätswerk Straßburg AG, which belongs to the AEG company empire. Subsequently, the central and northern Alsace villages were systematically electrified under city control but under private management, which opened up new sources of income for the city. Even today, the successor company Électricité de Strasbourg has a mixed municipal-private legal form; in contrast to the fully nationalized Électricité de France in the rest of France.
This social democratically inspired local politics met with mistrust among conservative circles in Germany. Overall, despite these positive developments, relations between the Alsatians and the rest of Germany were not free of tension. In particular, the appearance of the military in the Zabern affair (from November 1913) met with violent protests in Alsace and in large parts of the rest of Germany.
Between the two world wars in the 20th century
After the First World War and the emperor's abdication, Alsace-Lorraine declared itself an independent Republic of Alsace-Lorraine, but was occupied by French troops within a few days. From November 11 to 22, Strasbourg was ruled by a communist council republic ; the name of one of the main streets, the Rue du 22 novembre, reminds us of their suppression . The city was then returned to France under the Versailles Treaty of 1919.
The annexation by France took place according to the 14 points of US President Woodrow Wilson without a referendum. The date of the armistice (November 11, 1918) was retrospectively set as the date of the assignment. It seems questionable whether a referendum in Strasbourg would have come out in favor of France, since the political parties aiming for the autonomy of Alsace or an annexation to France only achieved a small percentage of votes in the last parliamentary and local elections.
In 1920 the city became the seat of the international central commission for navigation on the Rhine , which had been based in Mannheim since 1861 and which moved into the former imperial palace . The relocation from Mannheim to Strasbourg was a consequence of the war that Germany had lost. Art. 355 sentence 2 of the Versailles Treaty stipulated: "The Central Commission will have its seat in Strasbourg." The relocation of the seat led to confusion in the Netherlands and Switzerland because these two states had remained neutral and therefore had not signed the Versailles Treaty. The Netherlands and Switzerland therefore did not take part in the first meeting of the Central Commission in Strasbourg on June 21, 1920.
With the establishment of the Maginot Line from 1930, the area of the city of Strasbourg was subordinated to the "fortified sector of the Lower Rhine" (secteur fortifié du Bas-Rhin) . From the bunker systems of the “fortified sub -sector Strasbourg” (sous-secteur fortifié de Strasbourg) along the Rhine, numerous remains can still be seen, especially in the Robertsauer Forest. Along the Route du Rhin, which currently leads to the Europabrücke , there were further weirs until it was demolished in 2009-2010.
Second World War
Between the German invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939 and the British-French declaration of war against the German Reich on September 3, 1939, the entire city was evacuated (120,000 people in total), as were all other villages near the border. Until the invasion of the Wehrmacht troops in mid-June 1940, there was no one in the city for ten months, with the exception of barracked soldiers.
After the surrender-like armistice of Compiègne (June 22, 1940), Alsace was annexed to the German Reich and surrounding cities and towns, including Kehl and Schiltigheim , were incorporated into Strasbourg. The city experienced a strict Germanization policy under Robert Wagner . When the first evacuees returned in July 1940, only residents of Alsatian origin were admitted. Jews were turned away and the synagogue , a huge neo-Romanesque building from 1898 with a 54 meter high dome, was opened on September 12, 1940 by members of the Hitler Youthset on fire and later demolished. The Jewish community fled to Périgueux and Limoges , the university to Clermont-Ferrand . The street names that had been exclusively French since 1918 were replaced by German names, the French language was banned, and club life and religious activities ceased.
From 1943 onwards, Western Allied planes bombed Strasbourg, and in 1944 several important buildings were bombed, including the Palais Rohan , the Alte Zoll and (on August 11) the cathedral.
During the Second World War , the cathedral became a symbol for both parties. Adolf Hitler , who visited it on June 28, 1940, wanted to make it a "national shrine of the German people"; On March 1, 1941, Major General Leclerc swore in Kufra (in Libya) that "we will only lay down our arms when our [France] beautiful [Landes] colors are again blowing on the Strasbourg cathedral". On November 23, 1944, Strasbourg was liberated by US troops and the French 2nd Panzer Division .
After the Second World War
After the Second World War and the official liberation of the city by the French armored division under Major General Leclerc on November 23, 1944, the first thing to do was to determine the destruction caused by the British-American air raids (especially those of August 11, 1944) in the old town and the industrial areas Fix destruction. In addition to the irreparable loss of old building fabric, there was a fire disaster in 1947 that destroyed a considerable part of the city's collection of old masters .
In the 1950s and 1960s, new residential areas were built in the city to solve both the problem of the housing shortage due to the destruction of the war and the sharp increase in population due to the baby boom and immigration from French North Africa : Cité Rotterdam in the northeast, Quartier de l'Esplanade in the southeast, Hautepierre in the northwest. South of Hautepierre, the Quartier des Poteries with a capacity of 8,000-10,000 inhabitants was built between 1995 and 2010 in the same way . In the 1950s, the University of Strasbourg also began to expandand their division into three main areas: the historic buildings, the campus in the Esplanade district and those in the east of Illkirch-Graffenstaden .
In 1949 the city became the seat of the Council of Europe, inspired by Winston Churchill . In 1952 it became the headquarters of the European Parliament . In 1992 it became the seat of the Franco-German cultural channel Arte . In 2005 the Strasbourg-Ortenau Eurodistrict was created , the first ever. It is thanks in particular to the commitment of the long-standing mayor of Strasbourg and top politician Pierre Pflimlin that the city has become a symbol of Franco-German reconciliation and European unification.
In 2000, a group of Algerian Islamists who had planned to carry out an attack on the Christmas market in front of the Strasbourg Cathedral was arrested in Frankfurt am Main . A centuries-old plane tree fell as a result of a sudden thunderstorm during an open-air concert on July 6, 2001, killing 13 people and injuring 97 people. This ranks as one of the most devastating accidents of its kind in history. On March 27, 2007, the city of Strasbourg was found guilty of negligence and fined € 150,000.
On March 16, 2008, the socialist Roland Ries received the most votes in the second ballot with 58.6%, replacing Fabienne Keller ( UMP ) as Lord Mayor of the city. Ries had already held the office from 1997 to 2001, as deputy to Catherine Trautmann, who was appointed Minister of Culture .
In 2011, the largest urbanization project since the imperial era started between the Fronts de Neudorf and the banks of the Rhine: 9,000 new apartments are to be built on 250 hectares.
On July 4, 2020, Jeanne Barseghian was elected mayor.
|1890||123,500||57,954 of them Evangelicals, 61,162 Catholics, 4023 Jews|
|1900||151.041||including 67,955 Evangelicals, 77,864 Catholics|
|1905||167,678||with the garrison ( infantry regiments No. 105, 126, 132, 136, 172, two battalions from infantry regiment No. 143, one hussar regiment No. 9, two foot artillery regiments No. 10 and 14, one field artillery regiment No. 51, two engineer battalions No. 15 and 19, a train battalion No. 15, a machine gun division No. 3), of which 75,916 Protestants, 85,848 Catholics, 5111 Jews; including 3654 people with French as their mother tongue|
|1910||178,891||of which 79,518 Evangelicals, 91,041 Catholics|
Strasbourg has six cities twinning closed. There is a close cooperation with three other cities, especially in the cultural field.
- Boston , United States (1960)
- Leicester , United Kingdom (1960)
- Stuttgart , Germany (1962)
- Dresden , Germany (1990)
- Ramat Gan , Israel (1991)
- Bethlehem , Palestinian Territories (1998)
To prove that it could rush to help the city of Strasbourg at any time, the city of Zurich made a bet in 1456 to transport a pot of millet gruel by water from Zurich to Strasbourg so quickly that the millet in Strasbourg was still hot. Even today this so-called millet trip is commemorated every ten years.
other sponsorships :
Economy and Infrastructure
Strasbourg is the seat of the Chambre de commerce et d'industrie de Strasbourg et du Bas-Rhin , the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Strasbourg and Alsace.
In addition to French-language publications, several German and bilingual publications, radio and television programs are produced in Strasbourg. Strasbourg, for example, is the production site of the Franco-German television station Arte . The largest newspaper in the city is the daily Dernières Nouvelles d'Alsace . In addition to the French-language edition, there was also a German-language edition, the “Elsässische Neuesten Nachrichten”, which could be subscribed to separately until March 2012. The German-language news publications that continue to appear in Strasbourg include the magazine “Land un Sproch”.
European and international institutions in Strasbourg
The following European institutions are based in the city:
Strasbourg is a garrison town of the following units:
Eurocorps (corps staff)
- Telecommunication company Eurocorps
- 2 e brigade blindée (brigade staff)
- Jäger Battalion 291
Universities and colleges
Johannes Sturm founded the Protestant grammar school in 1538, which was elevated to the rank of academy in 1556 and gradually transformed into a university (1621) and a royal university (1631). After the annexation of Strasbourg to France and especially in the course of the French Revolution , the university became more and more a French university and a French pole in the city. After the war of 1870 and the loss of Alsace to France and the emigration of the Francophile part of the elite, it became the Kaiser Wilhelm Universitynewly founded. From 1918, after Alsace was re-annexed to France, Germans resettled after 1871 had to leave Alsace and the language of instruction was completely changed to French. During the Second World War , when Alsace was de facto annexed by the German Empire , the French-speaking part again left the University of Strasbourg to settle in Clermont-Ferrand . During this time, the German-speaking Reich University of Strasbourg continued research and teaching. After 1945 the French-speaking part returned to Strasbourg.
The University of Strasbourg is linked to the European Confederation of Upper Rhine Universities (EUCOR) with the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology and the Universities of Basel , Mulhouse and the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg . Because of Alsace's special position under canon law, it is the only one in France to have two state-funded theological faculties ( Catholic and Protestant ).
In the 1970s, the University of Strasbourg was divided into three different institutions:
- Université Louis Pasteur (Strasbourg I) (natural sciences, economics)
- Université Marc Bloch (Strasbourg II) (humanities)
- Université Robert Schuman (Strasbourg III) (Political Science, Law)
Since January 1st, 2009 the university has been merged again into one unit. The newly founded “Université unique de Strasbourg” (Unistra) has 42,000 students and employs 5200 people.
Strasbourg is also the seat of the French administrative college ENA (École nationale d'administration), the INSA ( Institut national des sciences appliquées de Strasbourg ), the EM Strasbourg Business School , the École pour l'informatique et les techniques avancées , the INET (Institut national des études territoriales) and the ENGEES (École nationale du génie de l'eau et de l'environnement de Strasbourg) .
The Strasbourg College of Decorative Arts, the city's music conservatory and the Mulhouse Le Quai art college were brought together in 2011 in the Haute école des arts du Rhin . The Academy of Dramatic Arts is part of the Strasbourg National Theater .
- Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire de Strasbourg (BNU): The "Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire de Strasbourg", with over 3 million documents, the second largest collection in the country after the Bibliothèque nationale de France , was opened after 1871 on the private initiative of the German side as a replacement for the in The predecessor library destroyed during the fighting during the Franco-Prussian War , replacing the destroyed German-language holdings, initially in the former Dominican Church, later set up in a building specially constructed by the state administration towards the end of the century. The building was renovated and modernized for several years until 2014. The library has the unique status of being a state and university library at the same time.
- Bibliothèque municipale de Strasbourg (BMS): The municipal library 'Bibliothèque municipale de Strasbourg' manages a network of a dozen institutions of various sizes. On September 19, 2008, the six-story central library Médiathèque André Malraux was inaugurated at the former inland port Môle Seegmuller , which is considered the largest public library in eastern France.
As one of the first book printing centers in Europe, Strasbourg counted a large collection of incontinence prints to its most valuable treasures for centuries , but the majority of these prints were destroyed when the city library was destroyed in 1871. In the decades that followed, a new collection was put together. Today the Alsatian metropolis again has a considerable number of incunabula, which are divided into the following libraries: Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire : approx. 2098, Médiathèque de la ville et de la communauté urbaine de Strasbourg: 349 Bibliothèque du Grand Séminaire: 238, Médiathèque protestante : 103 andBibliothèque Alsatique du Crédit Mutuel : 6.
The Strasbourg train station is a major hub of the French state railway SNCF , which by German railway companies such as Deutsche Bahn and the Ortenau-S-Bahn is approached. Most local and long-distance traffic connections with Germany are made via the Europabahn to Appenweier . Strasbourg is also the center of the Alsatian TER system "Metralsace", which provides local trains with speeds of up to 200 km / h and extends to the neighboring countries of Germany and Switzerland. The so-called TER 200 only run on the Nancy – Strasbourg routeBasel SNCF . The high-speed train TGV from Paris has been running since the summer of 2007 directly via the LGV Est européenne , the new high-speed line to Strasbourg and via Karlsruhe to Stuttgart . Other international TGVs between France, Luxembourg and Switzerland (via Basel to Zurich ) operate under the TGV LYRIA brand and are operated by Lyria, a subsidiary of SNCF and SBB, operates and markets. There has also been a direct TGV connection to the Mediterranean Sea to Marseille via Lyon since 2012 and, in addition to Strasbourg, also serves the German cities of Baden-Baden, Karlsruhe, Mannheim and Frankfurt am Main.
The Krimmeri-Meinau stop, which is served by local trains of the Ortenau S-Bahn, is located between the Strasbourg main train station and the train station in the city of Kehl on the German side of the Rhine.
Strasbourg is the starting point of the RN4 expressway towards Paris via Nancy and the French autoroute A4 towards Metz and Paris. The RN4 leads eastwards to the Europabrücke and there changes to the B 28 in the direction of Kehl . Due to the heavy through traffic over the Europabrücke, there is a southern bypass from Strasbourg to the German A 5 and to Offenburgleads. On the French side, as the N353, it is predominantly developed like a motorway, in Germany, however, it is only continued by a country road with roundabouts (but without through-town traffic). In addition, the north-south running A35 autoroute runs past Strasbourg , which connects Lauterbourg on the German border with Colmar , Mulhouse and Basel .
The Strasbourg tram , which is operated by the Compagnie des transports strasbourgeois (CTS), consists of six lines (A to F) which, in addition to the numerous bus routes, make up the core of local public transport. A special feature of this network, which only emerged in the 1990s, are the futuristic-looking tram cars with low-floor technology , which are more like a high-speed train than a tram and have become a tourist attraction.
In 2007, several new lines through Neudorf and Neuhof were put into operation and an extension of line E from Wacken to Robertsau through the Europaviertel was opened, in 2008 the extension of line B to Lingolsheim was completed, and in 2010 the new line F was added.
The network of cycle paths in the Alsatian metropolis has been greatly expanded in recent years. The bridge over the two banks, inaugurated in 2004, and the tram bridge over the Rhine, inaugurated in 2017, are the youngest Rhine crossings in the city that can be used by cyclists.
In Strasbourg, the approx. 1,230 km long long-distance cycle route EV 15 ( Rhine Cycle Route ), which leads through four countries from the headwaters of the Rhine in the Swiss Alps on the Oberalp Pass to its mouth near Rotterdam , crosses the long- distance cycle route EV5 (Via Romea Francigena), the London via Connects Rome with Brindisi.
In addition, an 85 km Franco-German cycle path, the slope of the fort or cycle path to the forts , has led since 2012 along the fortress belt , which was expanded around Strasbourg after 1871. Little by little he goes u. a. on the western heights at forts such as B. Fort Roon (today Fort Desaix ) and Fort Podbielski (today Fort Ducrot ) in Mundolsheim , Fort Moltke (today Fort Rapp ) in Reichstett , Fort Bismarck (today Fort Kléber ) in Wolfisheim ,Fort Kronprinz (now Fort Foch ) in Niederhausbergen , Fort Grand Duke of Baden (now Fort Frère ) in Oberhausbergen and Fort Crown Prince of Saxony (now Fort Joffre ) in Holtzheim .
The city is one of the most cyclist-friendly municipalities in France. Municipal bicycles can be rented at several inner-city stations. In addition, the city also offers bike rental in front of the EU Parliament during the monthly plenary sessions.
Strasbourg lies on the Ill and the Rhine and is connected to the Canal de la Marne au Rhin and the Rhine-Rhône Canal . There is both cargo handling and visits to various cruise and excursion ships. The excursion boats in Strasbourg (Bateau-omnibus) transport around 650,000 visitors annually.
The Port Autonome de Strasbourg is the second largest inland port in France (after Paris) and the third largest on the Rhine (after Duisburg and Cologne). In 2006, 8.5 million tons of goods were handled by inland waterways and around 1.9 million tons by rail. Mainly food, petroleum products, gravel, ores. Container traffic is also increasing. There are regular scheduled services to Le Havre and Flanders.
The port is at the same time an industrial and logistics center, which extends from Lauterbourg to Marckolsheim with several locations. The largest facility is the actual Strasbourg port area with a total of 1000 hectares. 354 companies with a total of 13,000 employees are located in the port area; these are companies from industry, logistics and other services.
In the southern area of the port area, Port Autonome operates a container terminal with two multimodal portal cranes. The ocean-going containers are delivered and forwarded on ships on the Rhine, by train or truck. Ten Rhine shipping lines operate several times a week on the Strasbourg – Rotterdam, Strasbourg – Antwerp and Strasbourg – Zeebrugge routes.
The international airport of Strasbourg is located in Entzheim , about 10 kilometers southwest of Strasbourg. Also located within the city limits of the airfield Strasbourg Neuhof in the same area, about 3 kilometers south of the center.
Since the Reformation , the contrast between Protestants and Catholics has formed an important component of the city's history in Strasbourg, which joined it early as an imperial city (1524) and was partially re-Catholicized under French rule .
The first Lutheran sermon was given by Matthäus Zell in 1521 . The city became formally Lutheran in 1524. At the same time, with reformers like Martin Bucer , Kaspar Hedio and Wolfgang Capito , Strasbourg also developed into a reformed center of the Reformation. The city received Huguenots and signed the reformed Confessio Tetrapolitana . In addition, many were Anabaptists and supporters of the radical Reformation such as Hans Denck , Kaspar Schwenkfeld and Melchior Hoffmannreceive. The diversity of Strasbourg Protestantism favored the immigration of Evangelicals with diverse views and provided space for theological discussions. Protestant pluralism should last for more or less decades.
The majority of townspeople have been Catholic since the 19th century , which was compounded by immigration from the surrounding area, the rest of France and southern Europe; The Protestant communities, however, have a large number of partly monumental church buildings from the time of the German Empire . Strasbourg is the seat of the Archdiocese of Strasbourg .
The city's Catholic churches include the Strasbourg Cathedral (Cathédrale Notre-Dame) , the Church of Jung-St. Peter , the Johanniskirche (Saint-Jean) , the Magdalenenkirche (Sainte-Madeleine), the Moritzkirche (Saint-Maurice), the Ludwigskirche (Saint-Louis), the Stephanskapelle (Chapelle Saint-Étienne) and the Josefskirche . Among the Protestant include Saint-Pierre-le-Jeune Protestant Church , the Protestant Church , the St. Thomas Church (Saint-Thomas), the St. Paul's Church (Saint-Paul), the Nikolaikirche (Saint-Nicolas), the Wilhelmskirche (Saint-Guillaume) and the Aureliakirche (Sainte-Aurélie) . The Saint-Pierre-le-Vieux church has been divided between the denominations since 1683 ( simultaneous church ), and a connecting door between the choir and nave has only existed since 2012.
Because of the variety of churches, monasteries, congregations and synagogues, Strasbourg was once nicknamed ville aux mille églises (“city of a thousand churches”).
The city was once home to a large Jewish community; From 1389 to 1789, Jews were forbidden to enter the city and they settled in the surrounding communities. The Jewish community flourished again in the 19th century. The majority of the members of the Jewish community were deported and murdered during the occupation by Nazi Germany from 1940 to 1944 , but since then the community has grown again to around 20,000 members, mainly due to the arrival of Sephardic Jews from North Africa in the 1960s . The Jewish community has the representative Synagogue de la Paix and seven other synagogues, two prayer rooms, a hospital, an old people's home, aEruv , three yeshivot and several schools.
The Muslim community consists primarily of immigrants from Muslim countries such as Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. There are 35 mosques and prayer rooms available to the faithful. In the summer of 2012, the second largest mosque in France was opened in the Heyritz district in the presence of numerous high-ranking personalities . There are also the Mosquée de la Gare near the train station and the Mosquée Al-Fateh in the Quartier de l'Esplanadeas well as mosques in the districts of Meinau (2), Hautepierre (2), Neudorf, Robertsau and Koenigshoffen as well as several prayer rooms. In addition, since February 2012, Strasbourg has had the first Muslim cemetery in France with up to 1,000 graves. A private Islamic faculty in Strasbourg has been training imams since January 2013 .
Urban buildings, monuments, squares and parks
Strasbourg's well-preserved historic old town Grande Île , which was declared a World Heritage Site in 1988 , is surrounded by the Ill , a tributary of the Rhine. The Cathédrale Notre-Dame (Strasbourg Cathedral) is the city's landmark, built between 1176 and 1439 in Romanesque and Gothic styles.
Dominated by the west facade of the cathedral, there are numerous half - timbered houses , some with four to five storeys, in the Alemannic-South German style on the Münsterplatz (Place de la Cathédrale) . The steep roofs with up to four attic storeys are characteristic. The well-known, richly decorated Kammerzell House is on the north side of Münsterplatz .
Opposite the south portal of the minster is the Palais Rohan , the former city residence of the Strasbourg bishops, who all came from the Rohan family in the 18th century. The palace was designed by Robert de Cotte in 1727 and executed on site from 1731–1742 under the direction of Joseph Massol . In type, style and materials it follows the Parisian architecture of the time and differs significantly from the older Strasbourg buildings. The living and reception rooms in the forms of Louis-quinze, the French Rococo, are significant . Today there are museums in the palace (see below) and the historical rooms can be visited. The Hanauer Hof was built around the same time, a city palace that was converted into the city's town hall in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Touristy very popular is the so-called " tanning district " (Quartier des Tanneurs) in the district of La Petite France on the banks of the Ill river and several of its channels with its picturesque half-timbered houses , narrow streets and typical dormers . There used to be a military hospital there on an island .
Monuments from the time of the German Empire are mainly located in the Neustadt : the train station, the art college, the former school for young girls (today Lycée international des Pontonniers ), the former imperial palace Palais du Rhin , the palace of justice (Palais de Justice), the singing house (Palais des Fêtes) and the university with its library and observatory. In 2017 the entire Neustadtincluded in the World Heritage Site, which so far only includes the Grande Île. The botanical garden in its current form was commissioned by the German authorities between 1880 and 1884 as part of the establishment of the imperial university, whose ambitious goal was to build a second botanical center in the German Empire after Berlin. The garden is located on the site of the former city wall and extends over 3.5 hectares. It used to be equipped with beautiful metal greenhouses. Today only the round greenhouse Serre de Bary , named after Professor Anton de Bary, remainsis named who created the garden. This greenhouse, which was listed in 1993, houses tropical plants from Asia and a pond with a diameter of 7 m, in which the giant Amazon water lily has been grown for ages.
Other well-known buildings in the city are located around the central Kléberplatz . The Synagogue de la Paix was built in 1958 in place of the destroyed old synagogue . For the conception of the parking lot and the tram stop in Hoenheim-Nord, Zaha Hadid received the Mies van der Rohe Prize for European Architecture 2003.
Strasbourg has 11 municipal museums (including “Aubette 1928”), 11 university museums (including the botanical garden) and 2 privately owned museums (“Musée Vodou” and “Musée de l'Ordre des avocats de Strasbourg”); In addition, there are a total of 5 museums in the suburbs (one each in Geispolsheim , Mundolsheim , Oberhausbergen , Reichstett , and La Wantzenau ), as well as 3 in the neighboring German town of Kehl . (Status: 2020)
Due to the eventful history of the city (including the complete destruction of the city museum during the siege of Strasbourg in 1870) and its own system, related collections in Strasbourg are distributed across various museums as follows:
- Painting . Paintings up to 1681 (the year Strasbourg was annexed to France) from the Upper Rhine area are in the women's shelter museum . Paintings up to 1870 from all over Europe, with the exception of the Upper Rhine before 1681, are in the Museum of Fine Arts . Paintings from 1870 onwards are in the Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art .
- Graphic . Graphics up to 1870 are in the graphics cabinet , with the exception of the medieval architectural drawings and plans of the Strasbourg cathedral , which are in the women's shelter museum. Graphics from 1870 can be found in the Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art (focus on art) and in the Museum Tomi Ungerer (focus on illustration and caricature).
- Handicrafts . Handicrafts up to 1681 can be found in the women's shelter museum, except for the parts of the medieval astronomical cathedral clock . Arts and crafts 1681–1870 are in the Arts and Crafts Museum , which, however, also keeps parts of the medieval astronomical cathedral clock. Handicrafts since 1870 can be found in the Museum of Modern and Contemporary Art.
- Egyptology . Strasbourg has two collections of objects and works of art from ancient Egypt . The Municipal Archaeological Museum houses the collection of the patron Gustave Schlumberger , which is different from the collection of the Egyptological and Papyrological Institute of the University of Strasbourg .
There are the following main museums:
- Women's Refuge Museum : arts and crafts of the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Baroque in the Upper Rhine . Works by Nikolaus Gerhaert , Niklaus von Hagenau , Hans Wydyz , Konrad Witz , Hans Baldung , Wilhelm Stetter , Sebastian Stoskopff and many others. Original sketches and glass windows from the Strasbourg cathedral and numerous churches and monasteries in the city and region.
- Museum of Fine Arts : paintings and sculptures, early to 1870. Works by Giotto di Bondone , Hans Memling , Sandro Botticelli , Raffael , Piero di Cosimo , Antonio da Correggio , Paolo Veronese , Jacopo Tintoretto , Maarten van Heemskerck , Anthonis van Dyck , Jacob Jordaens , Peter Paul Rubens , Simon Vouet , Eustache Le Sueur , Jusepe de Ribera , Francisco de Goya , Baccio Bandinelli ,François Girardon , Jean-Antoine Houdon and many more
- Archaeological Museum : Finds from the Paleolithic to the Merovingians , with a focus on the excavations in Argentoratum and on the Donon .
- Decorative Arts Museum: Palace room of the cardinals in the Palais Rohan with mostly original furnishings (approx. 1740–1770), as well as porcelain, gold and silversmiths, etc.
- Museum of modern and contemporary art : painting, photography, graphics, sculpture, handicrafts and other art forms since 1870. Works by Claude Monet , Gustave Doré , Paul Gauguin , Wassily Kandinsky , Max Ernst , Hans Arp , Paul Klee , Victor Brauner , Charles Spindler , Käthe Kollwitz , Marcelle Cahn and many more
- Historical museum : History museum of the city of Strasbourg in the renaissance building of the former slaughterhouse ( Grandes boucheries ), from the establishment of the Roman camp Argentoratum via the Free Imperial City to the present day, with numerous exhibits, including memories of the Jewish pogrom of 1349 , a monumental model of the city of Strasbourg from the Year 1727, objects related to the creation of the university and the Marseillaise, as well as a memorial room for Jean-Baptiste Kléber .
- Alsatian Museum : Ethnological Museum of Alsace . Crafts, customs, costumes, folk art , religions and traditions of rural societies.
- Zoological Museum : The Museum of Zoology is both the city and operated by the university and shows stuffed animals and products of all kinds and from all over the world, as well as an osteological collection . Closed until 2023 due to renovation and expansion.
- Le Vaisseau : The scientific discovery center for children and young people is run by the Bas-Rhin municipality .
- Museum Tomi Ungerer : Countless original works by Tomi Ungerer and several of his colleagues in the fields of book illustration, caricature and poster art.
- Graphics cabinet : Collection of drawings, wood engravings and copperplate engravings by old masters up to 1870: Albrecht Dürer , Albrecht Altdorfer , Hans Baldung , Antonio Pollaiuolo , Wenzel Hollar , Giandomenico Tiepolo and many others
- Vodu Museum : The Vodu Museum is located in a former water tower from 1878 and shows the extensive collection of African cult objects of the Arbogast couple.
- The opera building on Place Broglie is a venue for the Opéra national du Rhin , the joint lyric ensemble and ballet of the cities of Strasbourg, Mulhouse and Colmar .
- The Théâtre national de Strasbourg on the Place de la République is affiliated with the Academy of Dramatic Arts.
- The Théâtre de la Choucrouterie or Sürkrüt-Theater is a cabaret that Roger Siffer has been running since 1984 in a former sauerkraut factory in the Finkwiller district on the outskirts of Strasbourg's old town. Some of the performances are alternating between French and Alsatian in two halls .
- Strasbourg has been the venue for the Fête de la Musique , which takes place annually on June 21, since 1982 . The city center is then closed to traffic from 6 p.m. and visitors can enjoy free music performances by soloists, bands and choirs in the streets.
- Also since 1982, the annual Musica Festival for New Music, which lasts several weeks, has been held in autumn, offering concerts with works by contemporary composers at various venues in the city.
A European Prize for Literature was launched in 2005 and has been awarded annually since 2006 to European writers of international importance for their oeuvre.
The Odyssée near Kléberplatz is one of the oldest cinemas in France. It was founded in 1913 as the Union Theater and has been a listed building since 1990.
- Christmas market: At Christmas time , Strasbourg has a Christmas market that is spread over several locations in the city center. Alsatian specialties are offered at all locations . The Christkindelsmärik is located near the town hall . Every year a huge Christmas fir from the Vosges is set up on Kléberplatz (in 2010 it reached a height of 32.5 m), which is given a different decoration every year by a working group. Christmas concerts are also offered in the churches and the minster.
- The football club Racing Strasbourg has been playing in Ligue 1 again since the 2017/18 season after a temporary crash in the third division . With the ASPTT Strasbourg , the city also has a women's football club , which competed first-class until the mid-1990s and whose badminton department is also one of the strongest in France in the 21st century (including the 2013 European Cup ).
- Strasbourg Illkirch Graffenstaden Basket won the French basketball championship in 2004/05 . Between 2013 and 2017, the club was runner-up five times in a row.
- The Étoile noire is one of the most famous French ice hockey clubs .
- The WTA women's tennis tournament Internationaux de Strasbourg is an important sporting event every year. The former winners include a. Steffi Graf , Jennifer Capriati and Lindsay Davenport .
Numerous well-known personalities were born in Strasbourg, including: Johannes Tauler , Sebastian Brant , Johann Fischart , Johann Friedrich Oberlin , Jean-Baptiste Kléber , Marie Tussaud , Ludwig I of Bavaria , Gustave Doré , Charles Friedel , Matt Pokora , Émile Mathis , Émile Waldteufel , Charles de Foucauld , Hugo Becker , Hans Arp , Charles Münch , Rudolf Schwarz , Hans Bethe ,Marcel Marceau , Thomas Schulte-Michels , Tomi Ungerer , Arsène Wenger , Gilbert Gress , Armando Teixeira , Matt Pokora .
The following stayed in Strasbourg for a long time: Johannes Gutenberg , Martin Bucer , Johannes Calvin , Hans Baldung , Hans von Gersdorff , Jean Georges Noverre , Johann Wolfgang Goethe , Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz , Klemens Wenzel Lothar von Metternich , Georg Büchner , Louis Pasteur , Ettore Bugatti , Ferdinand Braun , Georg Simmel , Albert Schweitzer , Otto Klemperer , Marc Bloch ,Alberto Fujimori , Jean-Marie Lehn .
- Josef Benzing , Jean Muller: Bibliography Strasbourgeoise (= Bibliotheca bibliographica Aureliana. LXXX, XC, XV). Volume 1 (edited by Benzing) and Volume 2–3. Baden-Baden 1981–1986 (= Répertoire bibliographique des livres imprimés en France au seizième siècle. Volume 148).
- Roland Recht, Georges Foessel and Jean-Pierre Klein: Connaître Strasbourg. Cathédrale, musées, églises, monuments, palais et maisons, places et rues. Complete revised and additional edition. Editions Alsatia, Colmar 1988, ISBN 2-7032-0185-0 ; 1998, ISBN 2-7032-0207-5 .
- Georges Livet, Francis Rapp and a. (Ed.): Histoire de Strasbourg des origines à nos jours (= Histoire des villes d'Alsace ). 4 volumes, Edition des Dernières Nouvelles de Strasbourg, Strasbourg 1980–1982, ISBN 2-7165-0041-X .
- Ralf Bernd Herden : Strasbourg. Siege 1870. Europe's capital and Alsace in the field of tension in the Franco-German conflict (= University of Applied Sciences for Public Administration Kehl . Discussion Papers. Volume 17 ). BoD, Norderstedt 2007, ISBN 978-3-8334-5147-8 .
- Yuko Egawa: City rule and community in Strasbourg from the beginning of the 13th century to the Black Death (1349) (= Trier historical research. Volume 62). Kliomedia, Trier 2007, ISBN 978-3-89890-108-6 .
- Robert Schelp: The Reformation Trials of the City of Strasbourg at the Imperial Court of Justice at the time of the Schmalkaldic League, (1524) / 1531–1541 / (1555). Bookstore , Kaiserslautern 1965, . Zugl .: Diss., Tübingen 1965. Extended edition. With a foreword by Philippe Dollinger . Bookshop Geschw. Schmidt, Kaiserslautern 1965, .
- Alexander Rost, photos: Marc Riboud: Strasbourg: A city gives lessons. In: Geo-Magazin . Hamburg 1980, 9, , pp. 36-56. Informative report on Strasbourg's eventful history with Alsace.
- Maximilian Him : Argentorate . In: Paulys Realencyclopädie der Classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume II, 1, Stuttgart 1895, Col. 713 f.
- Johannes Friese: New Patriotic History of the City of Strasbourg and the former Alsace. From the oldest times up to the year 1791. 2nd edition. Volumes 1-2. Strasbourg 1792 ( limited preview in Google Book search)
- City of Strasbourg website (French, English, German)
- Strasbourg Tourist Office (German)
- Strasbourg City Guide , strasbourgbienvenue.com (French)
- The old town of Strasbourg. City in the heart of Europe (data and facts) and The old town of Strasbourg, France, part 93. Film text & video (= treasures of the world - heritage of humanity. Part 93). Status: February 12, 2010, script and direction: George Tabart, 14:01 min., First broadcast date: January 25, 1998, 3sat
- Historical maps of the city: urn : nbn: de: hbz: 061: 1-30347 (map 1) and urn : nbn: de: hbz: 061: 1-30196 (map 2). In: Nikolaus Person : Quotidiani Martis Labores cum Specialibus Tabellis. Mainz 1692. In: digital.ub.uni-duesseldorf.de
- German book of place names. Edited by Manfred Niemeyer. De Gruyter, Berlin / Boston, Mass. 2012, ISBN 978-3-11-018908-7 , p. 615, doi: 10.1515 / 9783110258028 (chargeable).
- Comparateur de territoireAire urbaine de Strasbourg (partie française) (009). In: insee.fr, September 19, 2019, accessed on January 3, 2020.
- Populations légales en vigueur à compter du 1st janvier 2020 (PDF; 12.9 MB). In: insee.fr, December 30, 2019, accessed on January 3, 2020.
- Strasbourg l'Européenne. In: ot-strasbourg.com. Archived from the original on December 10, 2015 ; accessed on December 10, 2019 (French).
- Strasbourg, capitale européenne ( Memento of May 20, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: peap.fr, accessed on June 24, 2016 (French).
- Strasbourg, capitale européenne. In: ciel-strasbourg.org. Retrieved June 14, 2011 (French).
- Jacques Rigaud, Jean Marie Belin, Pierre Yves Callizot: Strasbourg, capitale de l'Europe . In: ina.fr . Retrieved on June 24, 2016. Video, March 19, 1984, 10:28 min. (French).
- A compilation of numerous references can be found in Ernst Förstemann : Altdeutsches Namenbuch. Second volume: place and other geographical names. Reprint of the third, completely revised […] edition, ed. by Hermann Jellinghaus . Olms, Hildesheim / Zurich / New York 1983, Part 2, Col. 904 f.
- On Strasbourg in antiquity: Robert Forrer : Strasbourg-Argentorate: préhistorique, gallo-romain et mérovingien. 2 volumes. Istra, Strasbourg 1927; Jean-Jacques Hatt : Argentorate - Strasbourg. Presses Universitaires de Lyon, Lyon 1993, ISBN 2-7297-0471-X ; Des origines à la Pax Romana, accessed on June 23, 2016 (French).
The theologian Jakob Twinger von Königshofen (1346–1420) wrote a city chronicle that extends into the 14th century : Chronicle of Jakob Twinger von Königshofen , accessed on June 23, 2016. In: Karl Gustav Theodor Schröder: The Chronicles of the Upper Rhine Cities from 14th to the 16th century. Teilbd. 1 (= The Chronicles of the Upper Rhine Cities. Vol. 8). Edited by Karl Hegel. Salomon Hirzel, Leipzig 1870, OCLC 165710175 ; 2nd, unchanged. Edition, photomechan. Reprint (= The Chronicles of the Upper Rhine Cities. Volumes 8–9). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1961, . -
The Strasbourg city law can be found in: Ernst Theodor Gaupp : German city rights of the Middle Ages. First volume: The city rights of Strasbourg, Hagenau, Molsheim, Colmar, Annweiler, Winterthur, Landshut in Bavaria, Regensburg, Nuremberg, Eger, Eisenach and Altenburg. Max, Breslau 1851 ( limited preview in Google Book Search), accessed June 23, 2016; Neudr., Scientia-Verl., Aalen 1966, .
See Peter Wiek: The Strasbourg Cathedral. Investigations into the participation of the urban bourgeoisie in the construction of episcopal cathedral churches in the late Middle Ages. In: Journal for the history of the Upper Rhine . 107 (1959), . 1, , pp. 40-113, especially pp. 41 f., 72 f., 84. -
Bruno Klein : The Strasbourg cathedral as a place of communal representation. In: Jörg Oberste (Hrsg.): Representations of the medieval city (= Forum Middle Ages / Studies. Volume 5). Schnell + Steiner, Regensburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-7954-2101-4 , pp. 83–93, here p. 86, urn: nbn: de: bsz: 16-artdok-49743 .
- See Peter Wiek: The Strasbourg Cathedral. Investigations into the participation of the urban bourgeoisie in the construction of episcopal cathedral churches in the late Middle Ages. In: Journal for the history of the Upper Rhine. 107 (1959), no. 1, pp. 40-113, here p. 72.
- See Peter Wiek: The Strasbourg Cathedral. Investigations into the participation of the urban bourgeoisie in the construction of episcopal cathedral churches in the late Middle Ages. In: Journal for the history of the Upper Rhine. 107 (1959), no. 1, pp. 40-113, here p. 51.
- See Barbara Schock-Werner : The Strasbourg Cathedral in the 15th Century. Stylistic development and hut organization of a citizen's cathedral. Cologne 1983, , here p. 26 (Zugl .: Kiel, Univ., Diss., 1981 udT: Barbara Holes: The Strasbourg Cathedral in the 15th Century ).
- Manfred Krebs: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 2, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1955, ISBN 3-428-00183-4 , p. 158 ( ). In:
- Oath letter - Constitutional Treaty of the Imperial City of Strasbourg (1482). In: German History in Documents and Images (GHDI). Volume 1: From the Reformation to the Thirty Years War 1500–1648. ( germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org [PDF; 103 kB; accessed on April 17, 2012]; German Historical Institute Washington ; comment; text based on: Jean Lebeau, Jean-Marie Valentin [ed.]: L'Alsace au siècle de la Réforme 1482-1621. Nancy 1985, pp. 18-21).
- Klaus-Dieter Linsmeier: Epidemics. Charity in times of syphilis. In: Medicine in the Middle Ages. Between empirical knowledge, magic and religion (= spectrum of sciences. Special: Archeology, History, Culture. Volume 2.19), 2019, p. 74 f.
- Bernard Vogler: Strasbourg . In: Theologische Realenzyklopädie (TRE). Volume 32, de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 2001, ISBN 3-11-016712-3 , pp. 233-640 (234).
- Petra Kistler: How the "Relation", the world's first newspaper, was published in Strasbourg in 1605. In: Badische Zeitung , June 15, 2016, accessed on June 25, 2016.
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- Alsace-Lorraine (history: 15th – 17th centuries). In: retro | bib, accessed on June 23, 2016. - Page from Meyer's Konversationslexikon. Fourth edition. Vol. 5th ed. By the collective of authors. Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig and Vienna, 1885–1892, p. 580, column b, chapter: Alsace since the Reformation.
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