Woodrow Wilson

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Woodrow Wilson (1919) Woodrow wilson signature.svg

Thomas Woodrow Wilson [ ˈtɒməs ˈwʊdɹoʊ ˈwɪlsən ] (born December 28, 1856 in Staunton , Virginia , † February 3, 1924 in Washington, DC ) was an American politician of the Democratic Party and from 1913 to 1921 the 28th President of the United States .

After initial neutrality , the United States entered World War I during his second term in 1917 . At the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 he was a member of the Council of Four . The League of Nations was founded largely on his initiative . In 1919 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

Family origin

Wilson's mother, Jessie Janet Woodrow (1826–1888), was born in Carlisle ( England , Great Britain ), his father, Joseph Ruggles Wilson (1822–1903), in Steubenville , Ohio . The parents went to the southern states in 1851 and sympathized with the Confederation there . Woodrow Wilson's father was a PhD theologian and pastor of the Presbyterian Church , but saw no contradiction to slavery and kept his own slaves. Woodrow Wilson, who was born the third of four children to the couple, was of Scottish on mother's side and Scottish-Irish on his father's side. The mother came from Thomas Wodrow (original spelling of the surname), the first historian of the Church of Scotland , after whom the Wodrow Historical Society of Scotland is named.

Study and academic career

Woodrow Wilson had attended private schools in Augusta , Georgia and Columbia , South Carolina , to graduate from college. He studied at Princeton University (1875-1879), where he graduated in 1879 with a Bachelor of Arts . He then studied for a year Law at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville in order then to Atlanta to attend, Georgia, a three-year legal internship (1880-1883). During this time he decided to become a teacher. In 1883 he studied history and political science at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore , Maryland ; In 1886 he received his doctorate there with the issue of Congressional Government to Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) . From 1885 to 1888 he was a teacher at Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania , a prestigious high school for girls.

In June 1885 he married Ellen Luise , née Axsen, from Savannah , Georgia . The marriage produced three daughters.

Wilson (1902)

In 1888 he became Professor of History and Economics at Wesleyan University in Middletown , Connecticut . From 1887 to 1898 he was also a lecturer in administrative sciences at Johns Hopkins University, where he had studied. From 1890 he was professor of law and economics at Princeton, from 1902 to 1910 he served as president of this university. In this position, Wilson recommended blacks not to apply for a university place there in order to preserve "racial peace". Since 1898 he was an elected member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters .

In 1901, Wilson published his five-volume history work, A History of the American People . In the section on the reconstruction period after the American Civil War , he showed great understanding for the Ku Klux Klan , which was active from 1865-75, and made derogatory comments about black people:

“The white men of the South were aroused by the mere instinct of self-preservation to rid themselves, by fair means or foul, of the intolerable burden of governments sustained by the votes of ignorant negroes and conducted in the interest of adventurers; (...) Every country-side wished to have its own Ku Klux, founded in secrecy and mystery like the mother 'Den' at Pulaski, until at last there had sprung into existence a great Ku Klux Klan, an 'Invisible Empire of the South ', bound together in loose organization to protect the southern country from some of the ugliest hazards of a time of revolution. "

“The white men of the South were roused by the sheer self-preservation urge to free themselves - by just means or by terrible means - from the unbearable burden of a government based on the voices of the uneducated Negroes and led in the interests of adventurers; (...) Every rural area wanted its own Ku Klux, founded in secrecy and secrecy like the mother 'cave' in Pulaski, until ultimately a large Ku Klux Klan, an 'invisible realm of the south', emerged in loosely connected to each other to protect the land of the south from some of the worst dangers in a time of upheaval. "

- Woodrow Wilson : A History of the American People

Governor of New Jersey

In 1910, Wilson ran for the Democratic Party as governor of New Jersey . He competed against Republican Vivian M. Lewis , a member of the state government, and defeated him by more than 49,000 votes. The fact that Wilson had previously held no political office worked in his favor; his promise not to let the party apparatus dictate the administration to him was honored by the voters. Wilson stuck to his election campaign statements and implemented reforms that were not supported by the democratic party leadership. In 1911 he was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences .

Presidency (1913–1921)

Despite his reforms as governor, which were unpopular with the democratic party leadership, his growing popularity meant that he was among the candidates for the democratic nomination in the run-up to the 1912 presidential election . Other candidates included Champ Clark , Speaker of the House of Representatives from Missouri , Judson Harmon , Governor of Ohio , Oscar Underwood , Congressman from Alabama , and Thomas R. Marshall , Governor of Indiana . At the Democratic National Convention in Baltimore there was ultimately a duel between Clark and Wilson, with Clark always taking first place in all ballots, but at no time was within reach of the necessary two-thirds majority. When three-time presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan  - later Secretary of State in Wilson's cabinet  - then used his influence and got a number of delegates to vote Wilson, Wilson received the necessary majority in the 46th ballot. As his running mate for the office of Vice President , he chose Thomas Marshall, who had previously had no chance in the nomination for president.

Woodrow Wilson opened the 1916 baseball season

On November 5, 1912, Wilson won the presidential election against the Republicans divided between President William Howard Taft and ex-President Theodore Roosevelt , who ran for the Progressive Party . Due to the fact that there were three serious candidates, he received 41.8 percent of the vote, with electoral votes from 40 of the 48 states. Wilson was the second Democratic president since 1897 and the first president since Andrew Johnson (1865-1869), who came from the former Confederate States. Domestically, he advocated a social reform policy , especially in the spirit of progressivism . Among other things, he used the Federal Trade Commission against quasi-monopoly trusts .

During his presidency, his first wife, Ellen Louise, died in early August 1914 and he married the 43-year-old widow Edith White Bolling Galt a year later . Since Wilson was exposed to strong personal criticism in the press for remarrying so quickly after the death of his first wife, the wedding ceremony on December 18, 1915 did not take place in the White House.

Federal Reserve Act

During Wilson's tenure, the Federal Reserve Act was passed in Congress on December 23, 1913. The aim of the Federal Reserve Act was to create the legal basis for a central bank that was to be largely dominated by the United States. This banking cartel is now colloquially known as the “Fed” and is made up of twelve regional private banks that call themselves “Federal Reserve Banks”. Since its inception, the Federal Reserve System has been criticized .

Racial Politics and Segregation

Wilson supported the southern states in their concern to preserve the discriminatory voting rights for blacks and to consolidate racial segregation without intervention by federal politics .

Wilson quote as the title card in the film The Birth of a Nation

As president, Wilson brought many white southerners into political offices and  - despite protests - reintroduced racial segregation in federal agencies and in the military , which had not existed there since the civil war . Wilson fired all but two of the 17 African-American federal executive positions held during the Taft administration. Separate toilets and canteens were introduced for the remaining black employees, as well as partitions in some offices that screened them off from the white employees. Wilson ended the previously common practice of appointing African-American diplomats as ambassadors to Haiti and the Dominican Republic .

During cabinet meetings, the President liked to tell “darky stories” (racist jokes about black people). DW Griffith's film The Birth of a Nation , which glorified the historic Ku Klux Klan and led to its revival, was screened by Wilson in 1915 at the White House. Three quotes from Wilson's book A History of the American People  - partly shortened, changed and reassembled - are shown in the silent film as title cards.

The historian Imanuel Geiss described Wilson as a moderate southern segregationist. The historian and racism researcher Ibram X. Kendi listed Wilson in an article in the Huffington Post as one of the most racist presidents in US history. In his 2009 work Woodrow Wilson: A Biography, the biographer John M. Cooper played down Wilson's racism, which however remained the exception in modern historical reception. This emphasizes his racism and points out, among other things, that he introduced Jim Crow laws on racial segregation in federal authorities, as was customary in the southern states, and in the League of Nations did not accept groups of other skin colors as equal and give them their right to national self-determination agreed.

First World War

Woodrow Wilson during a parade (1918)

After the lynching of the Haitian President Jean Vilbrun Guillaume Sam , Woodrow Wilson had military intervention there. On July 28, 1915 , American troops occupied the peninsula. This was the beginning of a 19 year occupation in which more than 2,000 people died.

During the First World War , Wilson initially pursued a policy of neutrality for the United States. This policy of neutrality was a key issue when he was re-elected in 1916 against Republican Charles Evans Hughes . Wilson was able to narrowly prevail with 49 against 46 percent and 277 against 254 electors and was sworn in on March 4, 1917 for a second term. The Democrats campaigned for votes with the slogan: “He kept us out of war!” (“He kept us out of war!”); Wilson himself did not say so in a single campaign speech. Only with the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare by the German Empire, the February Revolution in the Russian Empire and the Zimmermann Telegram did public opinion in the United States change. On April 6, 1917, the United States entered the First World War under Wilson's leadership.

Wilson (far right) in Paris during the peace talks (May 1919)

After an armistice had been agreed, the Peace Congress of Versailles , convened by the Entente States and their allies, began on January 18, 1919, and was chaired by the Council of Four made up of Georges Clemenceau , David Lloyd George , the Italian Minister Vittorio Orlando and Wilson has been.

14-point program and League of Nations

Wilson proposed his 14-point program , which had already been presented in January 1918, as the basis for the peace agreement , which included the right of peoples to self-determination and the creation of a League of Nations to prevent further wars. In the peace negotiations, from which the defeated side, the Central Powers , was excluded and which led to the Peace Treaty of Versailles , he was only able to partially and partially fail to enforce the 14 points. On the one hand, this was due to the fact that Clemenceau wanted to satisfy the French need for revenge and also wanted to enforce Orlando South Tyrol regarding Italian annexation requests, and on the other hand, because Wilson's position was weakened by the strong criticism of the Republicans in the United States. In order to persuade Americans of Irish descent to join the war on the side of the hated British, Wilson had promised them to work for the independence of Ireland. After the victory, however, Wilson didn't want to hear anything about it. In retrospect, Wilson judged during a lecture tour through the western United States of the First World War that the approach was "a commercial and industrial war", "not a political war".

On behalf of the signatory powers of the Treaty of Sèvres  - in which the future of the Ottoman Empire , another war ally of the German Reich in World War I, was to be regulated - Wilson had also taken on the task of defining the western border for an independent Republic of Armenia . However, he did not succeed in enforcing a US mandate for the area designated by him. The Republic of Armenia, which was founded in 1918, was largely conquered by Kemal Ataturk's troops in the course of the Turkish Liberation War in 1920 and only escaped complete annihilation through Sovietization .

The US Congress rejected membership of the League of Nations linked to the Treaty of Versailles; the United States withdrew politically from Europe after the First World War. Under the following Republican presidents Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge , there was a move away from Wilsonianism and a foreign policy characterized by isolationism .

Attitude to Germany

Wilson addressing Congress (February 1917)

As a historian, Wilson had a positive attitude towards Germany. He admired Otto von Bismarck and put German institutions such as the Berlin municipal administration on an equal footing with those in the United Kingdom, which he valued above all. He spoke of a "panteutonic" legacy; his main work, The State , is in parts poorly disguised plagiarism based on German works.

His image of Germany seems to have suffered from the course of Wilhelm II since 1890. In general, as president, Wilson initially paid little attention to Europe and its political conditions and developments. During the World War, for example, he was outraged by the German destruction of the Belgian city of Leuven and the disregard for Belgian neutrality.

At the end of 1914 he said to a reporter that Germany was not the only one to blame for the start of the war, but that the German government should be fundamentally changed. Not only the occupied territories but also the German population should be freed from their rulers, he said on the occasion of the American declaration of war in April 1917. Especially after the hard peace of Brest-Litovsk , which Germany had forced upon Russia in early 1918 and which the German authorities Had not condemned the opposition, Wilson's view changed. Now he said that not only the German leadership but also the German population should be punished ("disciplining Germany").

So on June 14, 1919 in Versailles, Wilson made the remark that Wilson had made to British Prime Minister David Lloyd George :

“I have always detested Germany. I have never gone there. But I have read many German books on law. They are so far from our views that they have inspired in me a feeling of aversion. "

“I have always detested Germany. I've never been there. But I've read a lot of German law books. They are so far removed from our imagination that they made me feel rejected. "

This saying shaped the popular image of Wilson hating Germany in pseudoscientific publications of the 1920s and 1930s.

In Germany, the appeal to Wilson's 14 points had raised high hopes that the peace treaty would be mild for Germany. After the demands of the victorious powers had been announced, hopes turned to hatred for Wilson, especially among western, liberal politicians and intellectuals. Gerhard Schulz wrote that Wilson was seen as the only legitimate representative of the Allies in Germany and that the German-American exchange of notes and the subsequent armistice were referred to as a kind of preliminary contract. The later disappointment led to the fact that Wilson's reputation suffered more than that of all other statesmen in Paris and that “the true historical meaning” of Wilson's was “tragically distorted”.

illness

William Orpen : Woodrow Wilson (1919)

On September 25, 1919, Wilson suffered a physical breakdown and shortly afterwards, on October 2, 1919, a stroke that resulted in hemiplegia. Because of his physical condition, he was barely able to carry out his official duties afterwards. However, his personal physician Cary Travers Grayson refused to declare him incapacitated due to his close friendship with Wilson and his loyalty. As a result, there was also no takeover of official business by the Vice President; rather, by the end of Wilson's term in office, numerous routine executive tasks were taken over by his wife Edith, who also had a decisive influence on which matters were presented to the sick president. This politically and constitutionally problematic situation was one of the main impulses for the drafting of the 25th Amendment to the Constitution , which in 1967 finally made clear regulations in the event of the President's temporary or permanent incapacity to office.

In 1919 Wilson was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize "for his services to ending the First World War and establishing the League of Nations".

Last years and death

Wilson (back seat left, next to him his successor Warren G. Harding ) on the way to the handover (March 4, 1921)

Wilson had indeed toyed with the idea of ​​running for a third term; however, this was no longer considered by leading politicians in his party. Ultimately, due to his health problems, the president did not seek another term in the presidential election in November 1920 . His hope of a victory for the Democratic candidate James M. Cox was not fulfilled either: the Republican Warren G. Harding was elected as his successor with a very clear majority , who replaced Wilson in the office of President on March 4, 1921. Wilson also saw the election as a referendum on his intended membership of the League of Nations, which the Senate had rejected during his second term. After leaving office, he continued to live in Washington, but rarely appeared in public. One of his last public appearances was the funeral of his successor Harding, who died unexpectedly in August 1923. Woodrow Wilson died at the age of 67 on February 3, 1924 and was buried in the National Cathedral in Washington . At less than three years old, he had one of the shortest pensions of any US president.

Honors

Wilson Dam
Woodrow Wilson on the $ 100,000 banknote

In his honor, Cape Wilson on the north coast of South Georgia was named, as well as the Wilson Dam in Alabama, the Woodrow Wilson Bridge over the Potomac River and the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars in Washington, DC In addition, his portrait is on the 100,000 dollar bill printed, which was never in circulation, but is still official tender. Schools are named after him in numerous cities in the United States. There is a Calle Wilson in many cities in Puerto Rico in recognition of the fact that during his tenure the Puerto Ricans were granted US citizenship.

The Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs , an institute for public policy , foreign policy and development research at Princeton University , was named after Wilson . In November 2015, the Black Justice League , an association of African American students, called for a 32-hour sit-in strike to rename the Woodrow Wilson School and remove a plaque in honor of Wilson from a university cafeteria. Wilson was a racist, which is why the presence of his name on campus hurt the feelings of minorities, especially African Americans. A statue of Wilson erected in 1919 on the grounds of the University of Texas at Austin was removed that same year for similar reasons. On June 27, 2020, Princeton University officials distributed a message from the University President that the names of both the School of Public and International Affairs and Wilson College would be changed. Woodrow Wilson's "racist way of thinking and politics" make him "unsuitable to serve as the namesake for a teaching institution or college whose teachers, students and alumni must stand together firmly against racism in any form".

There are also buildings named after Wilson at Johns Hopkins University and James Madison University .

Wilson statue in Prague

Outside of his home country, Wilson received honors, especially in Poland and the former Czechoslovakia, which received their independence in 1918 largely due to the peoples' right of self-determination, which was proclaimed in Wilson's 14 points . Wilsonova, for example, is a large main street in Prague , there is a statue of Wilson on the square in front of the Prague main train station and the train station itself was called “Wilson Train Station” (Wilsonovo nádraží) in 1919–40 and 1945–53 . There is a square in Warsaw and a park in Poznań named after Wilson. In Geneva there is the Palais Wilson , which was once the seat of the League of Nations initiated by Wilson and is now used by the office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights , as well as the luxury hotel President Wilson. In France, the Avenue du Président-Wilson in Paris , the Boulevard Wilson in Strasbourg and the Pont Wilson in Lyon are named after the President.

reception

According to Stefan Zweig's great moments of mankind , his hesitation and messianism were, among other things, the undoing for a stable peace after the First World War. In 2016, however, the Wilson biographer Manfred Berg saw German foreign policy "in the early 21st century much more in the Wilsonian tradition" than "local critics of American power politics should be aware of".

Trivia

In the novels Methuselah children (engl. Methuselah's Children ) and The Lives of Lazarus Long (engl. Time enough for love ) of the science fiction writer Robert A. Heinlein carries the protagonist with the pseudonym of Lazarus Long 's maiden name "Woodrow Wilson Smith"; in "The Lives of Lazarus Long" it is mentioned that he got the first name after Woodrow Wilson.

Woodrow Wilson's writings and speeches

  • The state - elements of historical and practical politics , authorized translation by Günther Thomas, Berlin / Leipzig 1913
  • Literature only - An American's reflections , Berlin 1913
  • The new freedom. A call for the liberation of the noble forces of a people . With an introduction by Hans Winand. Munich: Georg Müller, 1914. ( The New Freedom - A Call For the Emancipation of the Generous Energies of a People. New York 1913)
  • Memoirs and documents on the Treaty of Versailles anno MCMXIX (R. St. Baker, ed.), In an authorized translation by C. Thesing, three volumes, Leipzig 1923
  • A History of the American People , 5 volumes, New York 1908
  • Why we are at War: Messages to the Congress, January to April, 1917 - With the President's Proclamation of War, April 6, 1917, and his Messages to the American People, April 15, 1917 ; New York 1917
  • The People's War Book and Pictorial Atlas of the World, Containing Official War Reports and Authentic Articles by Marshal Foch, Lloyd George, Woodrow Wilson [etc.] , Toronto 1920
  • Woodrow Wilson's Case for the League of Nations . Compiled with his approval by Hamilton Foley. Princeton University Press, Princeton 1923. (According to a contemporary review , this compilation, obtained by H. Foley, is based on speeches by Wilson to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and on 37 public speeches he made during his tour of the west in 1919 United States after his second return from Paris)
  • War and Peace - The Public Papers of Woodrow Wilson , New York 1927
  • The Papers of Woodrow Wilson , 69 volumes, Princeton University Press, Princeton 1961-1994

literature

  • Lloyd E. Ambrosius: Wilsonianism. Woodrow Wilson and his Legacy in American Foreign Relations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan 2002, ISBN 1-4039-6009-7
  • Manfred Berg: Woodrow Wilson. America and the reorganization of the world. A biography . Munich: CH Beck 2017, ISBN 978-3-406-70778-0
  • John Morton Blum: The Progressive Presidents: The Lives of Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Lyndon B. Johnson. Charles River Editors ISBN 978-0-393-00063-4
  • Kendrick A. Clements: Woodrow Wilson. World Statesman. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee 1999, ISBN 1-56663-267-6
  • John M. Cooper: Woodrow Wilson: A Biography. New York: Knopf 2009, ISBN 978-0-307-26541-8
  • Sigmund Freud , William C. Bullitt: Thomas Woodrow Wilson. The 28th President of the United States of America (1913–1921). A psychoanalytic study. Giessen: Psychosocial 2007, ISBN 978-3-89806-550-4
  • Thomas J. Knock: To End all Wars. Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New World Order. New York: Oxford Univ. 1992, ISBN 0-19-507501-3
  • N. Gordon Levin: Woodrow Wilson and World Politics. America's Response to War and Revolution. New York: Oxford Univ. 1970, ISBN 0-19-500803-0
  • Robert M. Saunders: In Search of Woodrow Wilson. Beliefs and Behavior. Westport: Greenwood 1998, ISBN 0-313-30520-X
  • Klaus Schwabe : Woodrow Wilson. A statesman between puritanism and liberalism. Göttingen: Musterschmidt 1971, ISBN 3-7881-0062-1
    • Woodrow Wilson and the New World Order Experiment, 1913–1920. In: World Power and World Order. American Foreign Policy from 1888 to the Present. A story of the century. Paderborn: Schoeningh 2006, ISBN 3-506-74783-5
  • James D. Starts: Woodrow Wilson and the Press. Prelude to the Presidency. New York: Palgrave Macmillan 2004, ISBN 1-4039-6372-X

Web links

Commons : Woodrow Wilson  - Collection of Images, Videos and Audio Files
Wikisource: Woodrow Wilson  - Sources and full texts (English)
Wikisource: Woodrow Wilson  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. Woodrow Wilson (compiled with his approval by Hamilton Foley): Woodrow Wilson's Case for the League of Nations , Princeton University Press, Princeton 1923 ( review ).
  2. ^ Documents submitted to Les Prix Nobel
  3. Arthur Link: Wilson. The Road to the White House. Princeton University Press, 1947, p. 502.
  4. ^ Members: Woodrow Wilson. American Academy of Arts and Letters, accessed May 4, 2019 .
  5. ^ Woodrow Wilson: A History of the American People. Volume V: Reunion and Nationalization. Cosimo Classics, New York 2008 [1901], pp. 58, 60.
  6. ^ Saladin Ambar: American President: Woodrow Wilson: Family Life . Miller Center of Public Affairs of the University of Virginia , accessed on 19 April 2018th
  7. ^ Douglas A. Blackmon : Slavery by Another Name. The Re-Enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II. Anchor Books, 2009, p. 357 f.
  8. Kathleen L. Wolgemuth: Woodrow Wilson and Federal Segregation . In: The Journal of Negro History . 44, No. 2, 1959, pp. 158-173. JSTOR 2716036 , ISSN  0022-2992 . doi : 10.2307 / 2716036 .
  9. Schulte Nordholt, JW and Rowen, Herbert H. Woodrow Wilson: A Life for World Peace , 1991, p. 99 f.
  10. a b Sheldon M. Stern: Just Why Exactly Is Woodrow Wilson Rated so Highly by Historians? It's a puzzlement. In: History News Network , August 23, 2015.
  11. ^ Melvyn Stokes: DW Griffith's the Birth of a Nation. A History of "The Most Controversial Motion Picture of All Time". Oxford / New York 2007, p. 199.
  12. Imanuel Geiss: The historical requirements of the Angela Davis process . In: Das Argument , No. 75 (1972), p. 275 ff., On p. 288.
  13. ^ Ibram X. Kendi: The 11 Most Racist US Presidents. In: Huffington Post , May 27, 2016.
  14. Lloyd E. Ambrosius: Woodrow Wilson and American Internationalism. Cambridge University Press, New York 2017, ISBN 978-1-316-61506-5 , p. 15.
  15. Ulstervirginia.com (Eng.) ( Memento of the original from December 12, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.ulstervirginia.com
  16. Loc. cit .: Woodrow Wilson's Case for the League of Nations , p. 163.
  17. Manfred F. Boemeke: Woodrow Wilson's Image of Germany. In: Manfred Boemeke u. a. (Ed.): The Treaty of Versailles. A reassessment after 75 years. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 603-614, here p. 605.
  18. Manfred F. Boemeke: Woodrow Wilson's Image of Germany. In: Manfred Boemeke u. a. (Ed.): The Treaty of Versailles. A reassessment after 75 years. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 603-614, here p. 607.
  19. Manfred F. Boemeke: Woodrow Wilson's Image of Germany. In: Manfred Boemeke u. a. (Ed.): The Treaty of Versailles. A reassessment after 75 years. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 603-614, here pp. 608ff.
  20. Manfred F. Boemeke: Woodrow Wilson's Image of Germany. In: Manfred Boemeke u. a. (Ed.): The Treaty of Versailles. A reassessment after 75 years. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 603-614, here p. 612.
  21. Quoted from: Manfred F. Boemeke: Woodrow Wilson's Image of Germany. In: Manfred Boemeke u. a. (Ed.): The Treaty of Versailles. A reassessment after 75 years. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1998, pp. 603-614, here p. 603.
  22. Manfred F. Boemeke: Woodrow Wilson's Image of Germany. In: Manfred Boemeke u. a. (Ed.): The Treaty of Versailles. A reassessment after 75 years. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1998, pp. 603-614, here p. 603.
  23. ^ Gerhard Schulz: Revolutions and peace treaties 1917–1920 . (dtv world history of the 20th century). 5th edition, dtv, Munich 1980 (1967), p. 175f.
  24. Christof Mauch : The American Presidents CH Beck Munich ISBN 978-3-406-58742-9 p. 289
  25. ^ Saladin Ambar: American President: Woodrow Wilson: Life after the Presidency . Miller Center of Public Affairs of the University of Virginia , accessed on 19 April 2018th
  26. Franz Stocker: USA: When will the 100,000 dollar bill come back? In: WORLD. July 31, 2011, accessed July 14, 2018 .
  27. Jack Martinez: Princeton Protesters Demand Removal of Woodrow Wilson's Name. In: Newsweek , November 20, 2015.
  28. ^ Ralph KM Haurwitz: Crews remove Jefferson Davis, Woodrow Wilson statues from UT Main Mall. In: Statesman , September 23, 2016.
  29. ^ President Eisgruber's message to community on removal of Woodrow Wilson name from public policy school and Wilson College. Office of Communications, Princeton University, June 27, 2020, accessed June 28, 2020 .
  30. ^ Judith Scholter: First World War: Wilson will help us. Die Zeit, July 23, 2017, accessed November 4, 2017 .
  31. Manfred Berg: US President Woodrow Wilson and liberal internationalism. In: Jahrbuch zur Liberalismus-Forschung 28 (2016), pp. 67–90, here p. 90.
  32. deutschlandfunk.de , Andruck - Das Magazin für Politische Literatur , June 26, 2017, Katja Ridderbusch: War President against Will (June 27, 2017)