Bill Clinton

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Bill Clinton (1993)
Signature of Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton (2015)

William "Bill" Jefferson Clinton (* 19th August 1946 in Hope , Arkansas , as William Jefferson Blythe III. ) Is an American politician of the Democratic Party . From 1993 to 2001 he was the 42nd  President of the United States . He was previously the governor of Arkansas.

Since 1975 he has been married to Hillary Clinton , the Democratic candidate for the 2016 US presidential election . They have a daughter, Chelsea Clinton .


Clinton's biological father, William Jefferson Blythe Jr. (1918-1946) was a business traveler and died in a traffic accident three months before Bill was born. His mother Virginia Dell Cassidy (1923-1994) learned a nursing profession in New Orleans and left her son with grandparents Eldridge and Edith Cassidy, who ran a general store in Hope and owned a house ( museum since 1997 ). In 1950 Bill's mother returned from New Orleans and shortly afterwards married Roger Clinton, who ran a car dealership in Hot Springs with his brother ; the family moved to Hot Springs in 1950. At age 14, Clinton took his stepfather's name. In his autobiography in 2004, Clinton wrote that his stepfather was a gambler and an alcoholic and had regularly beaten his mother and occasionally abused his half-brother Roger Clinton (* 1956). In the same book, Clinton also expresses gratitude: his stepfather and his wealthy brother spent money on studying at a good university and on his first political campaigns. Clinton grew up as a member of the Southern Baptist Convention and is an avowed Baptist.


In 1968, after three years of study, Clinton earned a college degree in international affairs from the renowned Georgetown University as an economist. During the last two years of college, he worked part-time for a Democratic MP and Congressional committee chairman from Fayetteville , his home state of Arkansas. He then applied for a Rhodes scholarship , won the competition together with others and went to the University of Oxford in England for two years , where he changed studies several times. From there he traveled to France , the Federal Republic of Germany , the Soviet Union and a few other countries.

After his return to the USA, he began to work in a civil rights movement that campaigned for an end to the Vietnam War . In 1973, after three years of study, he received his law degree from top Yale University , where he also met his future wife Hillary . He was also politically active during his studies at Yale and participated in election campaigns for the benefit of various democratic politicians. After graduating as a Juris Doctor (JD), he took up a position as an assistant law professor at the University of Fayetteville . After three months at his first job, he began preparing for his election campaign for the Arkansas Attorney General. Clinton began his career in politics, which he had already been interested in as a teenager within the framework of a young politicians' association.

Military service and the Vietnam War

Political opponents later accused him of trying to circumvent his conscription for military service in Vietnam with his studies in England and Yale . In his autobiography, he describes that as a student, he too received a draft for military service. At first, the students were allowed to finish the semester, later the rule was changed to allow them to complete the academic year. In several places in his autobiography, Clinton writes that he had remorse: on the one hand, he was an active opponent of the Vietnam War, on the other hand, like some of his fellow students, he wanted to do his job. Clinton joined the Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) for a short period on his return from England . This training lasted several years at that time and the graduates only had to take up military service after completing their officer training. He was later accused of trying to delay starting his military service. Meanwhile, the need for soldiers for Vietnam decreased and several Democratic politicians advocated postponing Clinton's possible draft to Vietnam. In his autobiography, Clinton leaves open what happened to his line-up and whether it was canceled.

Political career in Arkansas

Elect Bill Clinton - campaign brochure for the 1974 Congressional election
Bill Clinton in 1978 after being elected governor of Arkansas with Jimmy Carter

In the November 5, 1974 election, Clinton ran for a seat in the House of Representatives . The nature of his campaign and the narrow defeat (Clinton received 48%, incumbent John Paul Hammerschmidt 52% of the vote) in the traditional Republican constituency earned him the name "Boy Wonder" in the press. In 1976, Clinton won the Democratic election as Attorney General of Arkansas; it was the first time that no republican opponents took part. Also in 1976 he was instrumental in the presidential campaign of Jimmy Carter with. On November 7, 1978, he was elected the new governor of Arkansas . After the end of his first term, he was not re-elected; he was defeated in the election on November 4, 1980 to the Republican Frank D. White . In his first tenure, he helped finance the expansion of Arkansas roads by significantly raising vehicle taxes for (mostly older) cars in the higher weight classes. Education in schools was promoted, teachers' salaries were increased and medium-sized companies were promoted. The state suffered from an economic depression and several natural disasters during its tenure. One of the main reasons for being voted out of office in 1980 was the increase in vehicle tax , which many car owners resented.

In 1981 he became a member of a prestigious law firm in Little Rock . A short time later some of his supporters got together again and guaranteed him substantial campaign donations so that he could start preparing for the upcoming election. On November 2, 1982 he ran again as a candidate in the gubernatorial election, which he also won. After his successful re-election, he remained in office until December 12, 1992. In the years between 1983 and 1992 he pushed through a school reform in Arkansas, against sometimes enormous opposition from the teaching staff, which was recognized as a model for many other US states. Economic growth was promoted and new ethical standards, especially with regard to the equality of black and white populations, were set. A constitutional amendment in Arkansas in 1986 extended the terms of office of governors from two to four years. Bill Clinton has served on numerous governor's associations and other transnational commissions. In December 1992, he resigned from office to prepare for office as US President. On November 3, 1992, he had won the presidential election. Clinton is the second-longest-term governor of Arkansas; only Orval Faubus held this office longer.


Election campaign

Clinton with Vice Al Gore on the South Lawn of the White House (1993)

In 1988 , Clinton was first discussed as a possible presidential candidate after the two supposedly most promising Democratic applicants Mario Cuomo and Gary Hart did not run or had to give up early due to a sex scandal. Clinton decided against a candidacy after a long period of deliberation, but held a support speech for the nominated candidate Michael Dukakis at the Democratic Party Congress , which, however, in the opinion of many delegates, was too long and was partially answered with shouts of “stop!”. As a result, Clinton was exposed to snappy newspaper comments and the ridicule of various late-night show masters. He then allowed himself to be invited to some shows and brought the audience to his side through the nature of his appearance (among other things he presented himself as a saxophone player); the imminent damage to image did not occur. Instead, its popularity and notoriety grew.

In 1991, Clinton decided to run for the presidency himself in 1992. Soon he was clearly at the top of the field of democratic candidates, both in the opinion polls and in terms of the amount of campaign donations collected. Shortly before the first primary in New Hampshire , his election campaign fell into a serious crisis; This was due to revelations about an alleged relationship with a nightclub singer and allegations that he used illegal drugs as a student and avoided being drafted into the military during the Vietnam War. Clinton responded to the allegations in a nationally broadcast TV interview in which, with his wife Hillary by his side, he admitted "problems in marriage" but denied the actual affair. He also admitted the consumption of marijuana , but emphasized that he “did not inhale”. He attributed his non- conscription to the military on luck with the drawing of the draftees (see conscription in the United States ) and his studies. Although this was far from clearing up all questions for the press and he was referred to by many journalists as "Slick Willie", he managed to get a respectable second place in the New Hampshire primary, which saved his candidacy was and he was able to declare himself a "Comeback Kid" on election evening. As a result, he decided all important primaries for himself; so his nomination was certain long before the democratic party congress.

During the actual presidential election campaign in the fall, not least because of his successful connection to the historical myth of former President John F. Kennedy - with whom he was often compared at the beginning - he was in the lead with a clear lead from the start. Clinton campaigned under the motto "Putting people first" and chose the song Don't stop (thinking about tomorrow) by the group Fleetwood Mac as his campaign anthem. For him, the text of the song underlined his concern to build bridges between people and into the next millennium. George Bush's broken election promise ' read my lips: no new taxes ' also contributed to Clinton's election victory .

In the presidential election on November 3, 1992 , Clinton won with 43%, ahead of incumbent President George Bush (38%) and the independent candidate Ross Perot (19%). He then moved into the White House as the 42nd President of the United States of America on January 20, 1993 , after a previous presidential transition . Al Gore , who was previously the US Senator for Tennessee , became vice president .

Clinton's campaign manager was Stan Greenberg . The campaign team called its campaign headquarters "war room"; this term became known through media reports and a documentary (" The War Room ").

First term of office 1993–1997

Clinton's oath on January 20, 1993

Clinton's presidency fell into the “golden 1990s”, the years between the fall of the Berlin Wall (November 1989) and September 11, 2001. It was marked by the collapse of socialism (the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact ) and a global one Recovery in the areas of peace, democracy and the economy. Clinton turned to domestic issues and pursued a more cautious foreign policy. Bill Clinton belongs to the wing of the New Democrats (New Democrats), which is politically regarded as the middle of his party between the Blue Dog Coalition , which is more conservative for democratic standards, and the liberal-progressive Congressional Progressive Caucus .

Domestic politics

Domestically, Clinton's primary goals during his tenure were to introduce universal health insurance to address problems in the US healthcare system and to combat drug abuse , gun violence and poverty in the US. As a member of the Woodstock generation , Clinton campaigned for democratization in social and cultural issues, for example through his engagement against AIDS , against racial hatred and for equality between same-sex partnerships.

Above all, Clinton had prescribed the task of his predecessors Ronald Reagan left behind and George Bush the highest national debt in US history, and annual budget deficits of over 200 billion dollars dismantle. This was achieved with the passing of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993 , which among other things increased the top income tax rate from 31% to 39.6%.

In 1996, Clinton implemented a welfare reform that could mean a significant reduction in benefits in cash and in kind for those affected if they were not willing to try hard to find new employment.

Foreign policy

Boris Yeltsin follows Clinton's playing on the saxophone

In the Middle East conflict , Clinton tried to mediate between Yasser Arafat and Ehud Barak . On October 26, 1994, he signed the Israeli-Jordanian peace treaty with King Hussein of Jordan and the Israeli Prime Minister Yitzchak Rabin .

In addition, Clinton sought reconciliation between the United States and the People's Republic of China , the democratization of Russia and the elimination of the political consequences of the Cold War . In particular , he intensified the relationship between the USA and Germany , which he often traveled to and with which he continues to have good personal contacts.

During the UN-led operation in Somalia , Clinton withdrew all US troops when pictures of battered and killed US soldiers were shown in the media. Terrorist leader Osama bin Laden later claimed that Clinton's behavior was a key experience that taught him how to defeat Western societies.

Clinton did not take vigorous action against the genocide in Rwanda in 1994 . In 2005 Clinton said, “What did I do wrong? That we didn't invade Rwanda. That happened within 90 days, this genocide. I know I would have had a hard time getting Congress approval. But I should have tried. I could have saved lives. That was definitely the worst failure of my life. I will never overcome it. "

Second term 1997–2001

The presidential election 1996 won Clinton with 49% of the vote clearly against his Republican challenger Bob Dole (41%) and independent candidate Ross Perot (8%) and was thus confirmed in office. He secured 379 of the 538 electors in Electoral College and was sworn in as president for the second time on January 20, 1997.

Lewinsky affair

Clinton on the day of his second inauguration with his daughter Chelsea and wife Hillary

The second term was overshadowed by the affair with intern Monica Lewinsky , which became known to the public in January 1998. As a result, impeachment proceedings against Clinton were initiated, but they failed. Clinton denied the affair on January 26th in a press address in the White House with the famous sentence "I did not have sexual relations with that woman, Miss Lewinsky". Finally, under pressure from the media and the public, the president declared that he had oral sex with Lewinsky.

President Bill Clinton (second from right) with the later president's wife Melania Trump by Donald Trump (second from left) with model Kylie Bax, US Open 2000 , New York

Clinton cleared up the affair after initially denying it and later criticized the hypocrisy in society and politics. He received international support, for example through appearances by Nelson Mandela or King Hussein I on US television.

Clinton was the second President of the United States (after Andrew Johnson in 1868) to be impeached. Richard Nixon had anticipated such a situation by resigning in August 1974 ( Watergate affair ). The proceedings were not initiated because of the Lewinsky affair itself, but because of false statements under oath and obstruction of justice in connection with the Lewinsky affair.

In the course of the Lewinsky affair, further allegations against Bill Clinton became known. Paula Jones sued him for sexual harassment in 1994. The case closed in 1998 after a $ 850,000 payment and no admission of guilt. Through this process, however, Clinton's relationship with Lewinsky became known. Juanita Broaddrick accused Clinton, then Attorney General of Arkansas, of raping her. Gennifer Flowers (Clinton admits to having an affair with her) and Kathleen Willey (she accuses Clinton of harassing and groping her in the White House) also accused him of sexual assault.

Domestic politics

US federal budget deficit between 1971 and 2001 in billions of dollars. Between 1998 and 2001 there were budget surpluses.

From 1998 the federal budget achieved budget surpluses. In view of the positive economic development and increased tax revenues, Clinton announced tax cuts with the “Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997” and founded the “State Children's Health Insurance Program”, a state health insurance scheme for the children of the low-wage earners (working poor). This was followed in the same year by the “Adoption and Safe Families Act” and in 1999 by the “Foster Care Independence Act”.

Bill Clinton finally repealed the Glass-Steagall Act in 1999 with the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. In this way, the competitiveness of US commercial banks should be strengthened. However, many critics see the abolition of the Glass-Steagall Act as the cause of the negative development in the financial sector that ultimately led to the financial crisis in autumn 2008.

On October 28, 1998, Clinton signed the Digital Millennium Copyright Act , passed by the Senate on October 8 .

Foreign policy

Bill Clinton in the British Parliament (1995)
Bill Clinton statue in Pristina , Kosovo

In his second term, one of Clinton's main focuses was international politics. So he tried to normalize the relationship between Vietnam and the United States. The Kyoto Protocol was also signed under Clinton , which the later Bush administration then rejected. Essentially, the Clinton administration geared its foreign policy to economic realities: every foreign policy decision had to withstand these considerations before it was ratified by the Senate. Because of this, there were no significant changes in US foreign policy in the Clinton era .

In the Middle East conflict, Clinton continued to try to mediate between Yasser Arafat and Ehud Barak . He almost reached an agreement in the Camp David talks in the summer of 2000; however, the follow-up negotiations in Taba failed. Clinton was visibly affected and disappointed. He could not prevent the Middle East from starting the second intifada in September 2000 because of the kidnapping and lynching of two Israeli soldiers and the visit to the Temple Mount by Ariel Sharon , who then became Israeli Prime Minister in 2001 .

After the unsuccessful mission in Somalia in 1993 ( UNOSOM II ), the motto of the Clinton administration was “No Dead”: American deaths should be avoided as far as possible. Because of this, wars were mainly fought with bombers; in the following UN peace missions, the US troops behaved rather passively.

At the beginning of 1999 the 'National Missile Defense Act of 1999' (about: National Missile Defense Act ) was passed.

In 1999, Clinton was largely responsible for the NATO operation in the Kosovo war against what was then the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (now Serbia). The cause of the operation was the failure of the Rambouillet negotiations . Critics complained about a lack of legitimation by the UN Security Council and the accidental shelling of civil facilities .

The Clinton administration expressed its conviction that the Iraqi regime under Saddam Hussein was actively working to obtain weapons of mass destruction. After the Iraqi regime expelled the UN weapons inspectors from the country in autumn 1998, contrary to UN resolution 1551 from 1991 (Iraq's duty to accept and support weapons inspectors in the country), the Clinton administration left military installations in December 1998 and bomb suspected weapons of mass destruction sites. Clinton expressed the view that fundamental decisions had to be made regarding Iraq, but expressly left this to his successor in office because he did not want to make such far-reaching decisions shortly before the end of his term in office.

Clinton's foreign policy has been described by critics as weak and hesitant. In the Yugoslavia conflict, Clinton had left the leading role to the Europeans incapable of reaching an agreement for too long, so that nationalists on the ground could create a fait accompli. In the Palestine conflict, Clinton believed too much in the Palestinians' desire for peace; Clinton had not done anything against the genocide in Rwanda, in Somalia he had left the field because of the media coverage and left the Iraq problem to his successor. The Lewinsky affair left a negative image in parts of the Islamic world.

On December 10, 2000, in the presence of Prime Ministers Tony Blair and Hillary Clinton in Northern Ireland , Clinton spoke out in favor of exercising the human right to referendums, using the British motto popular after World War II , more and more problems “through ballots and not by bullets ”(by voting and not by bullets),“ to put arms for ever beyond use ”(to silence the weapons forever). Blair (from 1997 to 2007 Prime Minister of the United Kingdom ) later also spoke out in favor of the referendum z. B. on the EU constitution.

International terrorism

During Clinton's tenure, the al-Qaeda terrorist network intensified its activities . On February 26, 1993, the first terrorist attack on the World Trade Center with car bombs took place. In August 1998 terrorist attacks were carried out on the US embassies in Dar es Salaam and Nairobi ; 224 people were killed and over 5000 were injured, some seriously. In retaliation Clinton made air strikes on training camps of Al Qaeda in Afghanistan and a pharmaceutical plant in Khartoum ( Sudan ) Arrange ( Operation Infinite Reach ).

Even then, Osama bin Laden was suspected to be behind the attacks . Clinton gave orders that bin Laden be shut down at all costs. The Islamist terrorism surrounding bin Laden was already the focus of American foreign policy at that time and not only after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 under George W. Bush. In 2000, terrorists attacked the US military ship USS Cole (DDG-67) in the Yemeni port city of Aden . The Clinton administration stepped up its search for bin Laden, whose terrorist organization was held responsible for the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks after Clinton's tenure. In addition, Clinton still lacked legal options for a more comprehensive fight against terrorism, which were only given to his successor after the attacks.

Life After the Presidency

Bill Clinton at a campaign rally in May 2009
Bill Clinton at the White House with President Barack Obama, December 2010
Bill Clinton speaking at the Democratic Congress in July 2016 in which his wife Hillary was elected the first female candidate in either of the two major parties

Clinton completed his presidency on January 20, 2001. From January 4, 2001 until the day she was inaugurated as US Secretary of State under Barack Obama on January 21, 2009, his wife Hillary was a member of the US Senate for New York State. There they both have a house in Chappaqua , Westchester County , and the Clinton Foundation's offices in Harlem .

With his foundation, Clinton is primarily involved in the fight against AIDS . In 2004, in negotiations with drug manufacturers, Clinton pushed through drastic cuts in the prices of AIDS drugs in 122 countries. Clinton took part in several world AIDS conferences . On August 15, 2006 he called during the XVI. World AIDS Conference in Toronto to do more in the fight against AIDS. The Clinton Foundation also supports several social institutions, including in Europe, such as B. the MyHandicap foundation, which is committed to helping people with disabilities. In his philanthropic attitude, he refers to the philosopher Ken Wilber , among others .

Environmental policy and health policy of his successor in office George W. Bush criticized Clinton, but mostly only hinted at political differences. While still clearly supporting the mission in Afghanistan, he was initially reluctant to go to Iraq. On July 12, 2004, during the presentation of his memoirs in Germany , Clinton said to Johannes B. Kerner - in response to repeated inquiries - that although he thought the invasion was wrong, the Americans could not leave Iraq afterwards until the situation had happened cleaned up. Clinton also criticized Bush's attempts to portray an alleged connection between bin Laden and Saddam Hussein .

His autobiography Mein Leben (original My Life ) was published in Germany on July 8, 2004 and provides a personal, but also a political flashback. Clinton described it as tough but liberating to write. The book became a huge success worldwide, and Clinton received a fee in the tens of millions. For his appearances as a speaker he took in approximately 7.5 million dollars (six million euros) in 2005. Clinton earns around $ 100,000 to $ 350,000 per speech.

In the 2004 presidential election campaign, Clinton supported John Kerry , with whom he is also privately friends.

In September 2004 it was announced that Clinton had to undergo heart bypass surgery, which he survived without complications. The intervention took place immediately at the Republican party congress; Clinton joked on the Larry King talk show that the Republicans weren't the only ones who wanted four more years.

In November 2004, the William J. Clinton Presidential Center & Park opened in Little Rock . The cost of of James Polshek planned building amounted to 165 million dollars, financed by donations. At the opening, US President George W. Bush quoted Clinton's employees: "If Clinton were the 'Titanic', the iceberg would have sunk".

On February 1, 2005, Clinton was appointed by then UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan as the United Nations Special Representative for the coordination of relief and reconstruction efforts after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake . On December 1, 2005, he was awarded the Bambi in the Charity category for his commitment .

Clinton actively supported his wife Hillary in the primary campaign as she ran for the 2008 Democratic nomination for the presidency . After the primaries, he supported Obama's candidacy for president. On January 20, 2009, he attended Barack Obama's inauguration .

During an unannounced lightning visit to the North Korean capital Pyongyang on August 4, 2009, through a conversation with Kim Jong-il, he obtained the release of US journalists Laura Ling and Euna Lee, who had been imprisoned for more than four months . The White House denied having participated in the planning of the mission.

On February 12, 2010, Bill Clinton was admitted to a New York Presbyterian hospital. He complained of chest pain that could be diagnosed as heart related. Two stents were inserted into a coronary artery . According to media reports, the procedure went well and Clinton was subsequently in good shape.

Following the 2010 Haiti earthquake , Clinton apologized for the role his administration had played in destroying much of Haiti 's agriculture . The existence of thousands of rice farmers in Haiti had been wiped out by subsidized rice from the United States and left the country dependent on food imports. Clinton regretted that his actions "resulted in the loss of the ability to harvest rice in Haiti and to feed these people."

In the 2012 presidential election , Clinton supported the re-election of President Obama. As part of the Democratic nomination convention in early September 2012 in Charlotte , North Carolina , the former US President gave a speech that caused a sensation both nationally and internationally by warning of a presidency by Obama's challenger Mitt Romney .

After announcing her presidential candidacy for 2016 , Clinton supported his wife Hillary in her bid for the highest office in the country. While he stayed in the background during the primaries, the former president made numerous appearances for his wife during the actual election campaign. On January 20, 2017, he and Hillary Clinton attended Donald Trump's inauguration .

Together with the writer James Patterson , Clinton wrote the political thriller The President Is Missing , published in 2018, which focuses on the fight of a fictional American president against a cyber terrorism attack.


Audio books

Awards (excerpt)

Bill Clinton after the Charlemagne Award ceremony in
Aachen in 2000

The jumping bass species Etheostoma clinton , discovered in 2012, is named after Bill Clinton .


  • Roger Stone , Robert Morrow: The Clintons' War on Women . Skyhorse Publishing, 2015, ISBN 978-1-5107-0678-1 (American English).
  • James T. Patterson: The Restless Giant. The United States from Watergate to Bush v. Gore. Oxford 2005.
  • Bill Clinton: My life. Econ, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-430-11857-3 .
  • Hillary Rodham Clinton: A Living History. Econ, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-430-11862-X .
  • Joe Klein: The natural talent - Bill Clinton's misunderstood presidency. Siedler, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-88680-786-X .
  • Ludovic Roy: The Financial and Economic Policy of US President William Jefferson Clinton 1993-2001. Marburg 2003, ISBN 3-828-88551-9 .
  • Sydney Blumenthal: The Clinton Wars. 2003, ISBN 0-374-12502-3 .
  • Noam Chomsky: The Attack - Background and Consequences. Europa-Verlag, Hamburg 2002, ISBN 3-203-76013-4 .

Web links

Commons : Bill Clinton  - Collection of Pictures, Videos and Audio Files
Wikisource: Bill Clinton  - Sources and full texts (English)



Individual evidence

  1. ^ Bill Clinton: My Life. Random House, 2004, ISBN 0-375-41457-6 .
  2. All of Us See Through the Glass Darkly.
  3. ^ English Arkansas Attorney General
  4. ^ Nate Silver : A Brief History of Primary Polling, Part II. In: FiveThirtyEight , April 4, 2011.
  5. Michael S. Rosenwald: Bill Clinton, Monica Lewinsky and the Starr Report's aspirations as literary bodice ripper. In: The Washington Post , January 26, 2018. See also Lily Rothman: The Story Behind Bill Clinton's Infamous Denial. In: Time , January 26, 2015 (English). Helge Hesse added the sentence to his collection: Here I am, I can't help it: In 80 sentences through world history. Eichborn, Cologne 2006, p. 290 (e-book edition).
  6. Kolb, Matthias: Bill Clinton's poisoned legacy. In: January 30, 2018, accessed December 28, 2018 .
  7. ^ Glass-Steagall Act (PL 73-66, 48 STAT. 162). ( Memento from December 1, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF file)
  8. National Missile Defense Act of 1999. , (; archive version of July 4, 2016), accessed July 16, 2020.
  9. ^ Text of President Clinton's 1998 State of the Union Address. In: Washington Post. January 27, 1998, accessed January 10, 2018 .
  10. ^ Text Of Clinton Statement On Iraq. In: CNN. February 17, 1998, accessed January 10, 2018 .
  11. Planetary Problem Solver , Part 3. Newsweek, Dec. 21, 2009.
  12. Mark Weisbrot: Haiti: More help needed. In: amerika21. Archived from the original on April 8, 2010 ; Retrieved April 8, 2010 .
  13. Bill Clinton's brilliant bow to Obama . In: Süddeutsche Zeitung
  14. Bill Clinton on Obama's failures. In: Tages-Anzeiger of November 7, 2011.
  15. ^ President of East Timor: PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC BESTOWS UPON TEN INDIVIDUALS AND ENTITIES THE ORDER OF TIMOR-LESTE , September 1, 2019 , accessed on September 3, 2019.
  16. ^ New Fish Species Discovered: Roosevelt, Carter, Clinton, Gore and Obama ., November 19, 2012. Retrieved June 7, 2013.