North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Organization du traité de l'Atlantique Nord (OTAN)
Flag of NATO
Map of the member states of NATO
|SACEUR ( Supreme Allied Commander Europe )||
General Tod D. Wolters
(since May 3, 2019)
|SACT ( Supreme Allied Commander Transformation )||
General André Lanata
(since September 2018)
|founding||April 4, 1949|
|Member States||Founding members:
Since February 18, 1952:
Since May 6, 1955:
Since May 30, 1982:
Since March 12, 1999:
Since March 29, 2004:
Since April 1, 2009:
Since June 5, 2017:
Since March 27, 2020:
A total of 30
|NATO headquarters||Brussels , Belgium|
|Total troop strength||about 3.8 million|
|Motto||animus in consulendo liber ( Latin for "a free sense in counseling")|
The NATO ( english N orth A tlantic T reaty O rganization "Organization of the North Atlantic Treaty" and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization ), the German often called Atlantic Treaty Organization or the North Atlantic Treaty referred ( French OTAN - O du rganisation T Raite de l ' A tlantique N ord ), is an international organization without sovereign rights. Its member states retain full sovereigntyand independence. NATO is based on the North Atlantic Treaty according to Article 51 of the UN Charter . Your organization sees itself not only as a defense alliance , but also as a military-political organization of 30 European and North American member states with the goal of their own security and global stability.
According to the German Federal Ministry of Defense, NATO sees itself as a “community of values of free democratic states”. In the preamble to the North Atlantic Treaty, the members commit themselves to peace, democracy, freedom and the rule of law.
The NATO headquarters houses the North Atlantic (the main body of the NATO) and its immediately downstream facilities, International Staff (IS) and the International Military Staff (IMS); this institution has had its seat in Brussels since 1967 . After the North Atlantic Pact was signed on April 4, 1949 - initially for 20 years - the headquarters were initially located in London and then from April 16, 1952 to 1967 in Paris .
The two most important military headquarters are the ACO (also known as Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe / SHAPE for historical and legal reasons ) in Casteau near Mons, Belgium, and the Allied Command Transformation (ACT) in the US city of Norfolk (Virginia) .
History and Development
Soon after the end of World War II , the antagonisms between the former participating powers of the anti-Hitler coalition - the USSR on one side and the United Kingdom , France and the USA on the other - emerged. With the Brussels Pact of March 17, 1948, the Western European countries France, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg formed an alliance for economic, social and cultural cooperation and collective self-defensetogether. This alliance was nominally intended as an assistance pact against renewed German aggression. On June 11, 1948, the United States Senate passed the so-called Vandenberg Resolution , which said that if the United States promised to defend it, every European country had to pledge to defend the United States. In March 1947, the USA assumed the British protective role over Greece and Turkey in order to counteract an expansion of Soviet power ( Truman Doctrine ). With the February coup in Czechoslovakia and the Berlin blockadeFrom June 1948 to May 1949 a possible military threat from the Soviet Union-led communist Eastern Bloc came into focus in Western Europe . The Western European states now turned to the USA with a request for military assistance against possible Soviet aggression. This led to a reciprocal agreement, the North Atlantic Treaty. The deliberations on the text of the contract and its content had been going on since July 6, 1948. On December 10, 1948, negotiations began on the North Atlantic Treaty between the member states of the Brussels Pact, Canada and the United States.
Construction and expansion phase 1949 to 1955
On April 4, 1949, the North Atlantic Treaty was signed by Belgium, Denmark (with Greenland), France (with the French territories in Algeria), Great Britain (with Malta), Iceland, Italy, Canada, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the USA. It came into force on August 24, 1949. With the admission of Portugal, it was accepted that a country that had been dictatorial since 1926 and only transformed into a democracy in 1974 was allowed to take part in the struggle against the Eastern Bloc .
In the early years the community was under the impression the Berlin blockade in 1948/49 and the ignition of the first Soviet atomic bomb on August 29, 1949. The first Strategic Concept for the Defense of the North Atlantic area in the original "The Strategic Concept for the Defense of the North Atlantic area (DC 6/1) ”was drawn up from December 1, 1949 and approved by the North Atlantic Council on January 6, 1950 . It was based on the US strategy of containment (containment). The principle at that time was to ward off a Soviet attack on the alliance's territory as far to the east as possible. On March 28, 1950, the first defense planning became a NATO strategy by the NATO Military Committee(Strategic Guidance for North Atlantic Regional Planning; MC 14) approved. With the outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950, in which the People's Republic of China also intervened in November 1950, military policy in Europe also changed. From August 1950, the USA tripled its strategic bomber formations stationed in Great Britain. The European NATO countries saw fears that the USA might lose its ability to be present and to act in Europe, and planned a comprehensive increase in defense spending and a massive increase in personnel in the armed forces by 1954. This was the last time that the end of 1952 was part of the final planning of the Strategic Guidances MC 14/118 armored divisions and 71 infantry divisions were to be set up, and by the end of 1954 8004 combat aircraft, 672 transport aircraft, 2382 naval and carrier aircraft, 31 aircraft carriers, 2 battleships, 29 cruisers, 920 destroyers and 107 submarines were to be available. These should be assigned to a NATO staff in peacetime or "earmarked" in the event of a crisis. However, both could not be fully implemented for cost reasons, although extensive military aid was provided from the USA.
On October 24, 1950, the French Prime Minister René Pleven made a proposal for a European Army under the command of a European Defense Minister, which would also include German battalions . These were to be integrated into Allied troop units under Allied command. Despite considerable disadvantages for the young Federal Republic of Germany, which was supposed to be prevented from joining NATO by the Pleven Plan , Federal Chancellor Konrad Adenauer agreed to this in principle. On December 20, 1950, the member states of the Brussels Pact (Western Union) decided to incorporate the previous military organization into NATO. On February 7, 1951, the U.S. government approved (Truman's cabinet ) the Pleven plan for the establishment of a European army. On April 2, 1950, the Allied Command Europe began its work and the Allied Forces Headquarters in Europe (SHAPE) was established in Rocquencourt in July 1951 . At the conference of foreign ministers of the United States, France and Great Britain in Washington from September 10-14, 1951, plans were made to set up West German armed forces that were to be integrated into a European army. A treaty on the European Defense Community (EDC) signed on May 26, 1952 failed, however, on August 30, 1954 in the French National Assembly with 319 to 264 votes.
On February 18, 1952, Greece and Turkey were admitted to NATO and the NATO command Allied Land Forces South-Eastern Europe (LANDSOUTHEAST) was established in Izmir . On February 20, 1952, NATO received a permanent organization in Paris. On 12 March 1952, the Briton was Lord Ismay for the first Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization appointed, and the term began from 4 April 1952. On April 10, 1952, the Allied Command Atlantic (ACLANT) officially took in Norfolk , Virginia , working on. Originally it was called SACLANT , after the "Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic", the Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic . The SACLANT US admiralLynde D. McCormick had held this position since January 30, 1952.
On December 3, 1952, the Strategic Concept for the Defense of the North Atlantic Area (MC 3/5) was modified, and the strategic guidelines, defense planning and armed forces objectives resulted in the Strategic Guideline MC 14/1, also known as Forward Defense on December 9, 1952 ( Forward Strategy).
On March 21, 1953, NATO adopted the US-developed nuclear strategy of massive retaliation , and this was laid down in the Overall Strategic Concept for the Defense of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (MC 14/2). In March 1953 the Allied Forces Mediterranean (AFMED) was set up on the British island of Malta and in August 1953 the Allied Forces Central Europe (AFCENT) command was set up in Fontainebleau, France .
Development from 1955 to 1967
On March 16, 1955, US President Dwight D. Eisenhower announced the use of tactical nuclear weapons against military targets in the event of war.
With the signing of the Paris Treaties on October 23, 1954 in the course of the integration of the Federal Republic of Germany into the West, the latter was invited to join, which was carried out in an accession ceremony in the Palais de Chaillot in Paris on May 9, 1955 shortly after the treaties came into force . On May 14, 1955, the Warsaw Pact was founded because of this NATO accession . On May 15, 1955, the Austrian State Treaty was signed in Vienna, which restored the sovereignty of the state and led to the withdrawal of the occupation troops by October 1955.
On March 13, 1957, the US headquarters in the Federal Republic announced that the US armed forces would be equipped with nuclear weapons . The Polish Foreign Minister Adam Rapacki submitted the Rapacki Plan to the UN General Assembly , which was to create a nuclear weapons-free zone that would encompass the People's Republic of Poland , the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic . This area was later expanded to include Czechoslovakia in the plan .
On May 23, 1957, the North Atlantic Council adopted the US-developed nuclear strategy of massive retaliation , and this was laid down in the Overall Strategic Concept for the Defense of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (MC 14/2).
On September 19, 1958, the first US medium-range missiles of the Thor type were deployed in Great Britain, and after their operational readiness they were subject to the authority of the Royal Air Force (RAF). On November 10, 1958, Nikita Khrushchev announced the Berlin ultimatum calling for West Berlin to be transformed into a demilitarized "independent political unit".
On March 11, 1959, France withdrew its fleet from NATO submission. On October 31, 1959, Turkey approved the deployment of US Jupiter- type medium-range missiles . A total of an American squadron with 26 missiles was set up by 1960. The United States also stationed two Jupiter squadrons with 25 rockets in Italy until 1960 .
On April 21, 1960, the United States offered NATO member states the delivery of Polaris sea-based missiles (SLBM). On October 12, 1960, NATO Commander-in-Chief General Lauris Norstad officially proposed the establishment of a multilateral nuclear force. The United States started on 30 January 1961 for the first time an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) type Minuteman from a bunkered silo. On May 10, 1961, US President John F. Kennedy stressedbefore the NATO Military Committee, the strengthening of conventional combat capabilities and the need to control nuclear weapons. On July 20, 1962, NATO Commander-in-Chief, General Norstad, resigned due to differences over future NATO strategy. He was succeeded by General Lyman L. Lemnitzer . With the stationing of Soviet medium-range missiles of the type R-12 (SS-4 Sandal) in Cuba, the Cuban Missile Crisis broke out in October 1962 . Nuclear war had never been as likely as it was at this point in time.
In France's December 1965 elections, President Charles de Gaulle was confirmed in office and he began to change his defense policy. With the first French nuclear weapon explosion on February 13, 1960 in Reggane in Algeria , the country had entered the circle of nuclear powers and built with the Force de frappeits own nuclear force. With increased self-confidence, France also remembered the humiliating treatment by the Allies during the Second World War. De Gaulle refused permanent US dominance in NATO and demanded that US and Canadian units stationed in France be placed under French command. After the USA had refused to give its consent, the French President demanded the withdrawal of Allied troops and NATO headquarters on February 10, 1966 on the grounds that “France is now striving to fully exercise its sovereignty, which is achieved by stationing foreign forces on its Soil was not guaranteed ”, and at the same time declared the withdrawal of his troops from the military integration of NATO. On the 1st In July 1966 the representatives of France withdrew from the military organs of NATO. 30,000 NATO soldiers had to leave France, the military headquartersUntil 1967, SHAPE was relocated to Mons in Belgium, the EUCOM to Stuttgart and AFCENT to Brunssum in the Netherlands. On October 16, 1966, under pressure from the USA, the members of the NATO Council also unanimously approved the transfer of their highest political body to Brussels. De Gaulle did not ask for this. In 1966 the formation of a multilateral force failed .
Up until the 1960s, the western alliance was clearly superior to its adversary when it came to nuclear warheads and means of delivery. The official strategy was massive retaliation: In response to a conventional attack, NATO provided for the immediate and extensive use of nuclear weapons against the USSR and the Warsaw Pact. However, the strong expansion of the Soviet strategic nuclear potential since the early 1960s changed the situation. The gradually emerging stalemate between the superpowers forced NATO to rethink its strategy. On December 14, 1966, the Nuclear Planning Group (NPG) was established for the role of nuclear weapons in the Alliance.
Development from 1967 to 1984
On the basis of the Harmel report published in the North Atlantic Council in 1967, the strategy of the graduated response ( flexible response ) was confirmed at the NATO Ministerial Council in Brussels on December 14, 1967 and adopted for NATO. In order to reduce nuclear risks, the strategy of massive retaliation no longer applied, but with the "two-pillar doctrine", NATO focused on the one hand on military security through conventional armed forces and the newly developed tactical nuclear weapons and on the other hand on détente . In the years that followed, NATO built a new self-image: the triad of conventional, tactical-nuclear and strategic-nuclear potentials and the mottoSecurity = defense and détente led to new approaches between NATO and the Warsaw Pact.
At the NATO Council of Ministers meeting on June 24 and 25, 1968 in Reykjavík , Iceland, the declaration of a mutual and balanced troop reduction, the so-called "Reykjavík Signal", was made. On August 21, 1968, Warsaw Pact troops invaded Czechoslovakia and ended the Prague Spring . On November 12, 1968, the Soviet head of state and party leader Leonid Brezhnev proclaimed the Brezhnev doctrine on the limited sovereignty of socialist states.
In 1969, on the initiative of Richard Nixon, attempts were made to build up a third, more civilian pillar of NATO. Secretary General Manlio Giovanni Brosio planned to expand NATO into a marketplace for ideas and suggestions. It should contribute to the defense against environmental threats and to the improvement of environmental conditions, from urban development to environmental pollution. Nixon's representative, who later became UN ambassador Daniel Patrick Moynihan , named acid rain in particular as the “greenhouse effect ” (translation of the greenhouse effect at the time) as topics for the committee. NATO was considered suitable because of the existing expertise in the meteorological area (there were initiatives in the organization on issues of air pollution control as early as the early 1960s) as well as the experience with cross-border research and direct government access. The proposal was made in Germany by the Kiesinger governmentAt the beginning it was enthusiastically received and worked on intensively between ministries, but the results were mainly used for civil society. The federal government acted wait and see, u. a. because environmental issues were seen more as part of (civil) domestic policy and the initiative was seen as an attempt by the USA to expand its international leadership role again after the lost Vietnam War. Treatment within a military alliance would rather damage international civil cooperation.
In 1970, the defense spending of NATO member states, excluding the US and Canada, was $ 24.53 billion. On March 20, 1970, the first NATO communications satellite, NATO 1 , was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in the USA . From April 1976 to November 1984 four more NATO communications satellites ( NATO III A to D ) were launched.
On October 1, 1970, the Euro-Group , the European group of NATO member states , met for the first time in Brussels, and discussed the burden-sharing for the US stations in Europe. On December 2, 1970, the Euro Group passed a "Defense Improvement Program" up to 1975 and costing 420 million US dollars, with the Federal Republic of Germany taking over around 40%.
In the summer of 1971, NADGE (NATO Air Defense Ground Environment), NATO's ground-based air defense network with a 5,000 km long radar chain from the North Cape and Iceland to Malta and eastern Turkey and around 40 radar stations, was successfully tested for the first time.
From September 14 to 28, 1972, NATO carried out its largest maneuver in the North Atlantic to date with the participation of the Allied Command Europe Mobile Force . With the Strong Express exercise , the alliance responded to the Warsaw Pact's ocean maneuvers and the shield maneuver in Czechoslovakia. From January 22nd to February 8th 1973 the sea maneuver Sunny Seas 73 took place in the southeast section of the North Atlantic. On May 2, 1973, the creation of a multinational English Channel fleet was announced.
On April 23, 1973, the US President's National Security Advisor , Henry Kissinger , announced the proposal to draw up a new Atlantic Charter that would also include Japan . However, this proposal was rejected by the other NATO member states.
On August 1, 1975, the CSCE Final Act was signed, which represented a first real step towards peaceful and friendly cooperation in Europe. On June 1, 1976, the French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing announced the early participation of France in the forward defense of NATO in the event of a defense.
In October 1977 the NATO foreign ministers in Bari (Italy) agreed to form the High-Level Group (HLG), which was subordinate to the Nuclear Planning Group (NPG). It included representatives from twelve NATO countries. The HLG developed the basis for the NATO double decision .
The CSCE follow-up meeting began on October 4, 1977 in Belgrade (Yugoslavia). On October 28, 1977, Chancellor Helmut Schmidt gave a speech at the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London and emphasized the growing disparity in the field of medium-range missiles with simultaneous nuclear-strategic parity between the superpowers.
The NATO Nuclear Planning Group (NPG) discussed on October 18 and 19, 1978 questions of the deterrent capacity of the Warsaw Pact nuclear forces in Europe and recommended the modernization of NATO medium-range missiles.
The NATO double decision from 1979 is still controversial today, because the retrofitting of medium-range missiles in Europe and the simultaneous offer to negotiate with the USSR did not immediately lead to the hoped-for relaxation. The double decision was sharply criticized by peace activists across Europe during their Easter marches . Whether this renewed intensification of the arms race contributed to the collapse of the Eastern bloc or whether these countries were facing economic collapse is still very much debated today.
On August 10, 1981, the ambassadors of the NATO member states in Brussels were informed of the decision of the US President Ronald Reagan that the " neutron nuclear weapon " would be built and stationed in the USA. Around 800 neutron explosive devices had been manufactured in the USA since 1974 and were scrapped again by 1992.
In May 1981 the North Atlantic Council (NAC) commissioned the High-Level Group (HLG) of the Nuclear Planning Group (NPG) to analyze the threat to NATO and to prepare the negotiations on the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces in Geneva.
On November 30, 1981, the INF negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union on medium-range nuclear systems began.
In 1982 Spain became the 16th member of NATO.
According to the West German Federal Ministry of Defense, in September 1983 the Soviet Union had 39 positions with 351 operational SS-20 missiles with a maximum of 1,053 nuclear warheads, of which 243 missiles were deployed in the western Soviet military districts of Belarus , the Carpathians and the Urals . In addition, 248 SS-4 Sandel and SS-5 Skean missiles were stationed in 1983 . Various missile defense systems on the part of the USA and the Soviet Union were not taken into account.
From November 2, 1983, NATO carried out Able Archer 83, a Europe-wide, ten-day maneuver that simulated a nuclear war.
From November 14, 1983, US medium-range missiles began to be deployed in Europe. On December 8, 1983, the INF negotiations in Geneva were broken off by the Soviet Union.
Development from 1985 to 1990
As a result of the change in Soviet foreign policy under CPSU General Secretary Mikhail Sergejewitsch Gorbachev and the reforms introduced ( glasnost and perestroika ), there were controversial discussions within the NATO states about how to react to this policy.
On June 1, 1988, the INF Treaty on the destruction of all medium and short-range missiles (500 to 5500 kilometers) and their production ban between the Soviet Union and the USA came into force. This led to the dismantling of medium-range missiles in Europe until 1991.
On February 2, 1989, the MBFR negotiations were broken off after almost 16 years and were replaced by the negotiations on a Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) that began on March 9, 1989 . In May 1989, a NATO communiqué on the modernization of short-range nuclear missiles (SRBM) was made dependent on further developments within the Warsaw Pact.
With the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989 and the dissolution of the Eastern Bloc in 1991, the geopolitical situation in Europe changed fundamentally. Of course, this had fundamental effects on NATO and the related possibilities for preparing enlargements of the European Union in the east. On September 12, 1990, the two plus four treaty , a state treaty relating to Germany , was signed by representatives of both German states and the four victorious powers of World War II. It paved the way for the reunification of Germany and the dissolution of the German Democratic Republic. The Soviet and later Russian Western Group of Troops (WGT) of 340,000 soldiers stationed in the former GDR was withdrawn by 1994.
Development from 1991 to 1999
In the transition period that followed, new ideas and structures emerged. In future, NATO should continue to play an important role in the framework of the Euro-Atlantic security order and as a transatlantic link. In addition, new tasks were added after the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact. For example, NATO should be a crisis management instrument, a verification and enforcement instrument for arms control and an intact military alliance for peacekeeping measures by the United Nations and the OSCE . At the NATO summit in Rome on November 8, 1991, a new strategy for the alliance was decided. It relied on the triad of dialogue, cooperation and preservation of the defense capability and replaced the concept of "flexible response".
In December 1991, the NATO Cooperation Council (NAKR) was constituted to maintain the stability of the alliance.
The “new ideas” also include NATO's readiness for “ out-of-area ” missions agreed in 1992 . After authorization by the UN Security Council or the OSCE, missions outside of NATO territory are now also possible. The consequence of this decision were the active war operations of NATO with the air strikes against Yugoslavia during the Kosovo war . This process is criticized because neither a member state of NATO was attacked, nor was there authorization from the UN Security Council.
On January 10, 1994 in Brussels, a cooperation on military and security policy issues was agreed with interested Central and Eastern European states of the NAKR, thus opening up the prospect of membership. There was a close connection with the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program, for example, in addition to joint maneuvers, a joint military operation with the former member states of Warsaw took place for the first time as part of the Peace Implementation Forces (IFOR) and Stabilization Force (SFOR) Pact carried out in Yugoslavia.
On January 1, 1995, the Bundeswehr units stationed in East Germany (around 50,000 soldiers at the time) were integrated into the alliance structure of NATO.
Between 1990 and 1997, NATO reduced its land forces by 35%, its navy by 30% and its air force by 40%. Land-based tactical nuclear weapons were withdrawn from Europe, and US troops in Europe were reduced from 300,000 soldiers (1989) to initially 100,000 soldiers (1997).
At the end of the 1990s, NATO carried out a further restructuring with the aim of enabling rapid intervention in crisis areas, greater flexibility and a move away from bipolar threat thinking in connection with a correction in the management levels and the institutional structures.
The Combined Joint Task Force (CJTF) concept was adopted at the NATO Council Conference in Berlin in June 1996 . This provides for multinational ( combined ), depending on the task, specially combined units ( task forces ) of various branches of arms coordinated for joint use ( joint ) and is intended to enable NATO member states in Europe to use material and logistics of the alliance even without the USA and to conduct military operations outside of NATO territory.
The previous NATO Cooperation Council was also transformed into the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC) at the NATO meeting on May 30, 1997 in Sintra (Portugal) on the initiative of the USA . The EAPC provides for annual ministerial-level meetings and monthly ambassadorial-level meetings with subordinate committees.
In May 1997, the Basic Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security between NATO and the Russian Federation was agreed in Paris , which was a prerequisite for NATO's eastward expansion. NATO and Russia no longer referred to themselves as opponents. Internally it was decided to transform NATO from a military to a mostly political organization. The NATO-Russia Council (NRC) also served as a coordination forum.
At the NATO summit in Madrid in 1997 on July 8 and 9, 1997, Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic were offered membership of NATO and a NATO-Ukraine charter was agreed with Ukraine on a “special partnership”.
At the end of 1997, the accession protocols were signed with Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary, three former Warsaw Pact states. Once the instruments of accession were ratified , their accession took effect on March 12, 1999.
On July 10, 1998, the two NATO countries United Kingdom and Spain agreed to include the use of Gibraltar in NATO maneuvers. So far Spain has refused to do so. The agreement paved the way for the establishment of a NATO command in Spain called for by the Spanish government after the United Kingdom withdrew its threatened veto.
On March 24, 1999, NATO began air strikes against Belgrade in the wake of the Kosovo war . Operation Allied Force , largely led by the United States, was the first war that NATO waged both outside of an alliance case , the proclamation of which was previously considered the basis of NATO-wide action, and without an express UN mandate .
At the anniversary summit of NATO in Washington on April 24, 1999, NATO adopted a new strategic concept ( The Alliance's Strategic Concept ). The result is a revision of the strategic concept from 1991.
Development from 2000 to 2009
Terrorist attacks in the USA on September 11, 2001
Immediately after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 in the USA, NATO temporarily put the alliance case (collective defense case) under Article 5 of the NATO Treaty, also known as the Washington Treaty , into force for the first time in its history , and on October 1, 2001 in full. Article 5, in consultation with the governments of NATO member states, provides for the restoration and maintenance of the security of the North Atlantic area, and an armed attack on an ally, in this case the USA, is seen as an attack on each of the ally.
On October 4, 2001, the NATO states agreed a series of measures to support the USA in its fight against international terrorism. This included the exchange of intelligence information, unrestricted overflight rights and access to ports and airfields in the accession area by the US armed forces and the deployment of a permanent NATO fleet to the Eastern Mediterranean ( Operation Active Endeavor ). Although the members still see the attack on the World Trade Center as an armed attack that triggered the alliance case under Article 5, the governments of the NATO member states sometimes had completely different assessments of the consequences to be drawn.
NATO has not yet had much to counter the increased threat posed by international terrorism since September 11, 2001. Traditionally, the organization sees itself as an alliance of states against attacks by other states. This makes it difficult to classify this terrorist attack - that of a few extremist persons who are active without an official declaration of war by an attacking country.
ISAF mission in Afghanistan
The International Security Assistance Force , abbreviated to ISAF ( International Security Assistance Force ), has been a security and reconstruction mission in Afghanistan since 2001 , initially by a group of states, including Germany, the United Kingdom, Canada, Turkey and others. a. m., was supported and led. ISAF has been under the leadership of NATO since 2003. The list was made at the request of the new Afghan government to the international community and with the approval of the United Nations Security Council(Resolution 1386 of December 20, 2001). The mission is not a blue helmet mission, but a so-called peace enforcement mission under the responsibility of the participating states. ISAF is operationally managed by NATO through Commander Allied Joint Force Command Brunssum ( JFC Brunssum ) in the Netherlands. The mission ended on December 31, 2014.
The NATO-Russia Council (NRC) was founded on May 28, 2002 in Rome and serves to improve cooperation between the NATO countries and Russia on matters of defense and security policy . The integration of Russia into NATO initially resulted in intensive cooperation on many levels. Russia had previously participated with up to 1,500 soldiers in the NATO-led SFOR in Bosnia-Herzegovina and in the KFOR in Kosovo.
NATO crisis response force
At the NATO summit in Prague on November 22, 2002, a reaction force, the so-called NATO Response Force (NRF), was set up with land, air and sea forces for rapid deployments and in November 2006 with a target strength of 25,000 soldiers for declared fully operational.
The US accused Iraq of serious violations of UN requirements. In February 2003, US Secretary of State Colin Powell tried to use satellite recordings, tape recordings and other documents to prove the resumption of prohibited weapons programs before the UN Security Council. Powell's remarks were not enough to convince the Security Council of the necessity of a war effort.
The United States and the United Kingdom have now attempted to obtain authorization from the United Nations to attack Iraq. This was rejected by Germany, a NATO member state represented on the UN Security Council, Russia and France. As a result, a coalition of the willing was forged in order to still be able to represent support on a broad basis as legitimation for war.
As part of the preparation of the US plans to invade Iraq, a serious crisis arose within NATO: When it came to the question of whether Turkey should be provided with preventive defense systems (German Patriot anti-aircraft missiles) so that it could stand up in the event of an attack France and Belgium vetoed Iraq to defend against possible counter-attacks. Germany later joined the veto (but only after the deadline; from a purely formal point of view, the German veto is therefore invalid, but politically it was no less explosive). This led to an intensification of the transatlantic resentments that already existed between these countries and Russia on the one hand and the USA and the United Kingdom on the other. It is unclearGeorge W. Bush ) as a relevant military alliance from the US point of view.
Eastern expansion of NATO in 2004
At the NATO summit on 21./22. November 2002 in Prague, NATO invited Bulgaria, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania to accession talks. On March 29, 2004, these seven states became NATO members.
NATO missile defense program
The missile defense program, known by the North Atlantic Council as Active Layered Theater Ballistic Missile Defense (ALTBMD) since September 2005, provides for the detection and combat of enemy short- and medium-range missiles up to a range of 3,000 km. In July 2006, NATO Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer announced plans for a Europe-wide missile defense program. In particular, the United Kingdom, Poland and the Czech Republic are already working actively with the US in this area.
Development from 2010 to 2014
Russia's departure from the west
After the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, the US government under George W. Bush (early 2001 to early 2009) temporarily forced the National Missile Defense system and, as part of this, an interceptor missile station in Poland and a radar station in the Czech Republic. This has been criticized by the Russian government. Barack Obama announced in September 2009 that he would not build a radar station in the Czech Republic and that the interceptor missiles would be stationed at sea.
As early as 2007 at the Munich Security Conference, Russian President Putin described NATO's expansion plans as a threat to the Russian security situation and a "serious provocation".
Use of mobile and modular missile defense systems
On November 20, 2010, the representatives of the NATO member states decided at their summit in Lisbon to extend the planned missile shield to the territories and the population of Europe. Since 2009, the planning of stationing fixed elements has been dispensed with in both the Czech Republic and Poland, and the use of mobile and modular defense systems has been favored. The Active Layered Theater Ballistic Missile Defense Program Office , based in Brussels and The Hague, is responsible for coordinating the defense program .
At the summit in Lisbon, Russia's participation in the development of the missile defense system was agreed for the first time with President Medvedev.
The missile defense system in Poland and the Czech Republic should cost around 1.6 billion US dollars by 2012 and, according to US data, protect against possible missile attacks by states such as Iran and North Korea. Russian President Dmitry Medvedev interpreted the plans to build up the US missile defense systems as armament against Russia and planned in return for the stationing of missiles in Kaliningrad .
During the uprising in Libya against the dictator Muammar al-Gaddafi , the situation escalated into civil war. Thereupon NATO started an international military operation in Libya . With the help of Qatar , Jordan , the United Arab Emirates and Sweden , the rebels finally succeeded in overthrowing the Gaddafi regime. The mission lasted from March 19 to October 31, 2011.
During the Syrian civil war there were isolated rocket strikes from Syria on Turkish territory, whereupon Turkey appealed to the alliance in accordance with Article 4 of the NATO treaty. As a result, the NATO Council decided on December 4, 2012 to deploy Patriot anti-missile missiles near the Turkish-Syrian border to protect Turkey . On January 30, 2013, all missiles were under Operation Active Fenceready to use. The range is, however, significantly shorter than the distance between their stationing locations and the Turkish-Syrian border. Furthermore, it took several weeks to relocate and prepare for use. The relationship between the range and the stationing locations and the long relocation time rather than a purely military one suggest a political character of the mission. It is therefore argued that the deployment serves to demonstrate alliance solidarity with Turkey, to reassure the country and to further strategically connect Turkey to the West. In contrast, critics of the mission such as Jan van Aken see the deployment of the missiles as a further step towards a military escalation of the conflict.
Development since 2014
War in Ukraine
The 2014 NATO summit in Newport , Wales, was shaped by the war in Ukraine and agreed on a 'NATO Readiness Action Plan'. At the beginning of April 2014, NATO ended military cooperation with Russia, but initially retained the political channels in the NATO-Russia Council . From the conflict in Ukraine, NATO concluded that it would set up the NATO Response Force as a Very High Readiness Joint Task Force ( spearhead) must supplement the designated reaction force, which should be able to be deployed by air with 3,000 to 5,000 soldiers within two to five days. In addition, the Alliance's presence in the Central and Eastern European member states will be expanded. Rotating units are to be used for this purpose. In addition, the permanent maritime task forces of NATO are to be strengthened.
NATO Enhanced Forward Presence
The NATO Enhanced Forward Presence (eFP) is an armament initiative to secure the NATO eastern flank of the alliance and was decided on July 8 and 9, 2016 at the NATO summit in Warsaw, Poland. It serves as a deterrent to Russia and is based on the deployment of multinational combat troops (NATO battlegroups) with around 1000 rotating soldiers each for training and exercise purposes in the Baltic states of Estonia , Latvia and Lithuania as well as Poland . Since 2016, several NATO Force Integration Units have been set up in Central and Eastern Europe to take on command and control facilities. They are filled on a rotating basis.
In 2016, the Scientific Services of the German Bundestag certified that "[e] in Turkish military operations in Syria [...] - like the military operations in France, Germany, Great Britain, the USA and other members of the so-called 'anti-IS coalition' - are subject to international law could invoke the right of self-defense in the form of the right to emergency aid under Article 51 of the UN Charter (in favor of France or Iraq) ”. Since the fighting was taking place on Syrian territory, no duty of assistance according to Art. 5 of the NATO treaty could be derived from them. The services emphasized that they did not have to judge "[e] in military action by Turkey against the Assad regime itself or against the Syrian Kurds in Northern Syria (YPG)", as such action is not up for discussion.
In autumn 2019, however, fears were voiced that after the invasion of northern Syria by Turkish troops, clashes between the Turkish and Syrian military could lead to the declaration of a NATO alliance case . At a press conference, the Turkish Foreign Minister Mevlüt Çavuşoğlu, in the presence of NATO Secretary General Stoltenberg, demanded a “clear and unambiguous” declaration of solidarity from NATO. Indeed, Turkey's offensive was condemned by the other NATO member states. The European states represented in the UN Security Council (United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Germany and Poland) requested a special meeting to discuss how to proceed with the offensive.
US role during Trump's tenure
During the presidential election campaign in 2016, Donald Trump rated NATO several times as "obsolete". Shortly before he took office, he justified this judgment: NATO was designed a long time ago, and far too few member countries paid what they had to pay. "We should protect these countries, but many of these countries don't pay what they should pay".
Shortly after his election, the then German Defense Minister Ursula von der Leyen appealed to Trump as the elected President of the United States to maintain loyalty to the Alliance. The task of NATO and its member states is to defend “common values” and not to “make a good deal” in monetary terms. In June 2017, Richard Herzinger criticized what he believed to be Trump's view that “the US military power is something like a private security service” that “other countries can rent, but whoever stops its service is the customer late payment. "
In April 2017, at a meeting with Jens Stoltenberg, Trump described NATO as a “bulwark of international peace and security”. Stoltenberg then praised the US government's "very strong commitment" to the security of Europe.
In July 2018, German Chancellor Angela Merkel doubted that the US was still a reliable partner. "What we have taken to be quite natural for many decades, namely that the United States of America sees itself as the power of order for the whole world, for better and for worse, is no longer guaranteed for the future," said the Chancellor at their summer press conference in Berlin. The week before, US President Donald Trump had once again questioned NATO during his trip to Europe and called the European Union an opponent.
In January 2019, the US House of Representatives passed a NATO Support Act by 357 to 22 votes . This means that the President has no financial means for a possible exit of the USA from NATO.
Legal basis and obligations
The North Atlantic Treaty provides for a defensive alliance with the assistance of the members. The first articles of the treaty oblige the members to settle conflicts peacefully and to develop international relations on a friendly basis. The preservation of the western-liberal social order with political, economic, social and cultural cooperation and recognition of democratic principles is also part of it. In the event of an armed attack on one of the members, the treaty obliges the other member states to undertake so-called collective self-defense .
The Member States undertake in Article 4 to meet without delay for consultations on military measures whenever a Member State so requests. These consultations have so far been convened four times (as of 2017).
The core of the duties is Article 5, which regulates the alliance case . According to this, the states can define an armed attack on a member state as an attack on all and mobilize the common capacities against the attacker. Each member state decides for itself which measures are taken according to its own rules, so there is no automatic military intervention by all members. The alliance case was declared for the first and so far only time after the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 (status: 2019).
In addition, the member states decide on their defense policy commitments in the political bodies of NATO. From the outset, the member states agreed to distribute military capacities and capabilities, as well as regional responsibilities. In 2002 it was decided that all member states should increase their defense spending towards 2% of the gross domestic product by 2024. In this way, the member states reacted to the accusation that the European states had repeatedly raised, especially in the US Congress since the 1980s, of free-riding . The figure of 2% of GDP was determined purely politically and the allegation of unfair burden-sharing cannot be substantiated.
Tasks, goals and strategy development
The goals formulated in the North Atlantic Treaty have not changed in the course of its existence, because the wording of the treaty has remained unchanged since 1949. However, the tasks of NATO have been adapted to changed security policy realities and are interpreted differently today.
During the Cold War era , NATO's main mission was to guarantee the freedom and security of its members through deterrence , armament and constant preparedness . Establishing an equivalent third, civilian pillar of NATO, as proposed by Richard Nixon in 1969 , did not succeed to the extent planned at the time. As a transnational, international organization with direct access at government level, NATO has played an important pioneering role, particularly in dealing with environmental problems, including air pollution control , acid rain and the greenhouse effect .
The reunification of Germany , the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the USSR and the democratization of the former Eastern Bloc countries triggered a fundamental change in the security policy environment in Europe. The tasks of NATO were adapted to the new situation, and according to the North Atlantic Treaty, deterrence and defense remained the main tasks, but took a back seat. There was increasing focus on dialogue and cooperation with the “old adversaries”, and various partnership programs (including Partnership for Peace ) ultimately resulted in NATO's eastward expansion .
Strategic concept for the defense of the North Atlantic region
The first Strategic Concept for the Defense of the North Atlantic area in the original "The Strategic Concept for the Defense of the North Atlantic area (DC 1.6)" was developed from December 1, 1949 and January 6, 1950 by the North Atlantic Council approved. On December 3, 1952, the Strategic Concept has been modified for the Defense of the North Atlantic area, and the strategic guidelines that defense planning and force goals culminated on December 9, 1952 in the Strategic Policy MC 14/1, also known as forward defense (Forward Strategy).
Strategy of massive retaliation
With the massive retaliation (engl. Massive retaliation ) a nuclear strategy of the NATO was designated. Their concept was to answer every hostile attack on NATO countries in Europe, whether with nuclear weapons or just with conventional armed forces , with a devastating nuclear counter-attack. This strategy ( Overall Strategic Concept for the Defense of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (MC 14/2) ) was adopted on May 23, 1957 in view of the numerical superiority of the Soviet Union in terms of conventional armed forces in continental Europe on the one hand and the simultaneous US superiority in strategic nuclear weapons on the other hand, adopted by the NATO Military Committee.
Flexible response / reply strategy
The main features of a new strategy have been formulated:
- Conflicts must be able to be responded to with a range of possibilities without provoking a nuclear strike in every case.
- Appropriately graduated military responses require the renewed involvement of conventional forces.
- The aim of conventional and nuclear armed forces is to be as flexible as possible.
- In the course of his strategic considerations, the opponent must be forced to weigh up the costs and benefits.
Strategic concept 1991
At the NATO summit in Rome on 7./8. November 1991 the new strategic concept of the alliance was adopted, which, in contrast to the flexible reaction, was also supported by France. The alliance will then continue to be defensive and determined to maintain a necessary military potential to protect the alliance area. In addition, NATO offered the United Nations and the OSCE to carry out peace missions on their behalf.
Strategic concept 1999
At the NATO summit on April 24, 1999 in Washington , USA, the third strategic concept of the alliance, valid until 2010 (The Alliance's Strategic Concept), was approved. It describes goals and tasks, analyzes the security situation and derives strategic perspectives and tasks from this. By existing and strengthening the transatlantic link, the closest possible transatlantic link should link the security of Europe and North America. With the maintenance and further development of effective military capabilities, the defense readiness of the members is ensured. The most important change, however, is the finding that conflict prevention and crisis management also include military operations outside of NATO territoryshould be possible for prophylactic hazard prevention (so-called "out-of-area operations"). Furthermore, NATO reserves the right to intervene in crisis areas even without a mandate from the United Nations (UN) (see Kosovo 1999). NATO interventions in international conflicts in which no member state is directly involved as a party to the conflict go beyond the original defense mandate and are therefore often referred to as "out-of-defense missions".
- Maintaining and strengthening the transatlantic link
- Support for European security and defense policy
- Conflict prevention and crisis management
- Partnership, cooperation and dialogue
- Arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation
In the strategic concept of the alliance of 1999 it is stated on the nuclear doctrine that the alliance will maintain an appropriate composition of nuclear and conventional armed forces. These are stationed in Europe. The document does not mention that NATO continues to insist on maintaining the option to use nuclear weapons for the first time. During the Cold War, NATO argued that nuclear weapons might be required to counter an overwhelming conventional attack. In addition, NATO appears to be under pressure to adopt a new option already anchored nationally by the US, UK and France, namely to respond atomically when “ rogue states"Who do not have nuclear weapons, violate their" vital interests "anywhere in the world through the use of chemical or biological attacks.
There are currently around 240 US nuclear weapons stationed in Europe under NATO.
|country||Military base||Number of nuclear weapons|
|Belgium||Kleine Brogel AB||20th|
|Ghedi Torre AB||40|
Nuclear weapons are subject to NATO's nuclear participation , i.e. they are located in countries that are officially considered non-nuclear-weapon states and have signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty . The 110 nuclear weapons stored in Lakenheath in the United Kingdom until 2007 could be used by the USA without the consent of NATO and have been withdrawn.
The UK has 160-200 of its own nuclear weapons assigned to NATO for the defense of the Alliance, with the exception of the case where the UK government decides that the highest national interests are at stake.
Strategic concept 2010
On November 19, 2010, the alliance adopted a new strategy paper at the NATO summit in Lisbon 2010 . It provides for intensive cooperation with Russia and contains adjustments in the areas of nuclear deterrence , cyber war and the establishment of a missile shield.
The new Alliance Maritime Strategy of March 18, 2011 represents a supplement to the Strategic Concept of NATO 2010 related to maritime security challenges by highlighting collective defense , crisis management and cooperative security as core tasks of NATO at sea .
NATO is a multi-level and complex organization that has both military and civil administrative structures. The latter are made up of legitimate representatives of the member states. The military level is made up of military representatives from the member states. All decisions within the organization are made according to the principle of consensus , whereby the military level has to act according to the instructions of the civil level.
The civil organization includes the North Atlantic Council , the NATO General Secretariat with the International Staff, the Nuclear Planning Group and some other institutions, such as B. the NATO-Russia Council .
NATO's political headquarters were in London from 1949 to 1952 . From April 1952 to 1967 the headquarters were in Paris, initially in the Palais de Chaillot , later in a building built for NATO, which is now used by the Paris-Dauphine University .
After France left the military structures of NATO, the headquarters moved to Brussels in 1967. There, around 4,000 full-time employees are employed in the northeast of the city on Boulevard Léopold III / Leopold III Laan (as of 2015). Half of these forces are deployed as civilian and military representatives from the member states. 300 of the full-time staff work in the embassies, while the International Military Staff consists of 500 members.
After a contract for a new building was signed with Belgium in 2002 , the headquarters north of Boulevard Léopold III / Leopold III Laan was rebuilt on the former airfield of Melsbroek. This was declared open on May 25, 2017 and handed over to NATO by the Belgian state.
North Atlantic Council
The North Atlantic Council (Engl. North Atlantic Council, NAC ) based in Brussels is the highest decision-making body within the Alliance and is responsible for political consultation and coordination. It is the only NATO institution that is explicitly mentioned in the North Atlantic Treaty (Article 9). The North Atlantic Council meets at least once a week at the level of the permanent representatives and twice a year at the level of the Foreign Ministers Meeting (MoFA ) and Defense Ministers Meetings (MoD ). In addition, the North Atlantic Council also meets every two to three years at the level of the heads of state and government in so-called NATO summits.
|September 17, 1949||Founding Summit in Washington, DC (USA)|
|16. – 19. December 1957||Paris, France)|
|June 26, 1974||Brussels Belgium)|
|29-30 May 1975||Brussels Belgium)|
|10-11 May 1977||London (United Kingdom)|
|30.-31. May 1978||Washington, DC (USA)|
|9-10 June 1982||Bonn (Federal Republic of Germany)|
|November 21, 1985||Brussels Belgium)|
|2-3 March 1988||Brussels Belgium)|
|29-30 May 1989||Brussels Belgium)|
|4th December 1989||Brussels Belgium)|
|5th-6th July 1990||London (United Kingdom)|
|7th-8th November 1991||Rome (Italy)|
|10-11 January 1994||Brussels Belgium)|
|May 27, 1997||Paris, France)|
|8th-9th July 1997||Madrid (Spain)|
|22-25 April 1999||Washington, DC (USA)|
|June 13, 2001||Brussels Belgium)|
|May 28, 2002||Rome (Italy)|
|21-22 November 2002||Prague (Czech Republic)|
|28-29 June 2004||Istanbul (Turkey)|
|13-14 October 2004||Poiana Brașov (Romania)|
|February 22, 2005||Brussels Belgium)|
|28-29 November 2006||Riga (Latvia)|
|2-4 April 2008||Bucharest (Romania)|
|3rd to 4th April 2009||Baden-Baden and Kehl am Rhein (Germany),
|19. – 20. November 2010||Lisbon (Portugal)|
|21-22 May 2012||Chicago (USA)|
|4th to 5th September 2014||Newport (United Kingdom)|
|8th-9th July 2016||Warsaw (Poland)|
|24.-25. May 2017||Brussels Belgium)|
|11-12 July 2018||Brussels Belgium)|
NATO General Secretariat and International Staff
The General Secretary is the chairman of the North Atlantic Council and heads the General Secretariat with the International Staff ( IS ). In addition, the Secretary General will chair the Nuclear Planning Group (Engl. Nuclear Planning Group, NPG ), which since 1967 the Committee on Defense Questions (Engl. Nuclear Defense Affairs Committee, NDAC ) replaced. He was also chairman of the Defense Planning Committee until it was disbanded in 2010.
The Secretary General facilitates decision-making, controls the discussions and ensures that decisions made are implemented. As the highest representative of NATO, he represents the organization in public. He is unanimously appointed for a four-year term of office by all member states with the possibility of an extension to a fifth year. As long as a candidate does not reach a consensus , the office will remain vacant.
|No.||Surname||country||Beginning of the term of office||Term expires|
|1||Hastings Ismay, 1st Baron Ismay||United Kingdom||April 4th 1952||May 16, 1957|
|2||Paul-Henri Spaak||Belgium||May 16, 1957||April 21, 1961|
|3||Dirk Stikker||Netherlands||April 21, 1961||August 1, 1964|
|4th||Manlio Giovanni Brosio||Italy||August 1, 1964||1st October 1971|
|5||Joseph Luns||Netherlands||1st October 1971||June 25, 1984|
|6th||Peter Carington, 6th Baron Carrington||United Kingdom||June 25, 1984||July 1, 1988|
|7th||Manfred Woerner||Germany||July 1, 1988||August 13, 1994|
|-||Sergio Balanzino||Italy||August 13, 1994||17th October 1994|
|8th||Willy Claes||Belgium||17th October 1994||October 20, 1995|
|-||Sergio Balanzino||Italy||October 20, 1995||5th December 1995|
|9||Javier Solana||Spain||5th December 1995||October 6, 1999|
|10||George Robertson||United Kingdom||October 14, 1999||December 17, 2003|
|-||Alessandro Minuto-Rizzo||Italy||December 17, 2003||December 31, 2003|
|11||Jaap de Hoop Scheffer||Netherlands||January 1, 2004||July 31, 2009|
|12||Not so Fogh Rasmussen||Denmark||August 1, 2009||September 30, 2014|
|13||Jens Stoltenberg||Norway||October 1, 2014||officiating|
Persons with names in italics only held the office temporarily.
- Deputy General Secretaries
- 1952–1956: Jonkheer van Vredenburch
- 1956–1958: Baron Adolph Bentinck
- 1958–1962: Alberico Casardi
- 1962–1964: Guido Colonna di Paliano
- 1964-1968: James A. Roberts
- 1969-1971: Osman Olcay
- 1971–1978: Paolo Pansa Cedronio
- 1978-1981: Rinaldo Petrignani
- 1981–1985: Eric da Rin
- 1985-1989: Marcello Guidi
- 1989-1994: Amedeo de Franchis
- 1994-2001: Sergio Balanzino
- 2001-2007: Alessandro Minuto Rizzo
- 2007–2012: Claudio Bisogniero
- 2012-2016: Alexander Vershbow
- 2016–2019: Rose Gottemoeller
- since October 2019: Mircea Geoană
Since 1955 also exists NATO Parliamentary Assembly (Engl. NATO Parliamentary Assembly, the NATO-PA ), which was referred to since its inception in 1955 to June 1991 as the North Atlantic Assembly. The assembly meets twice a year in different member countries for a spring and an autumn meeting. The assembly currently has 257 parliamentarians from 28 NATO member states and 66 parliamentarians from 14 associated states.
- Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (Engl. Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, EAPC ), formerly North Atlantic Cooperation Council
- NATO-Russia Council ( NRC )
NATO is officially supported in its work by the national Atlantic societies organized in the Atlantic Treaty Association , which work for them primarily in the field of public relations. In Germany this is the German Atlantic Society .
NATO Military Committee
The NATO Military Committee (Engl. Military Committee, MC ), the highest military decision-making and advisory body within the Alliance is the North Atlantic Council assumed and meets twice a year at the level of representatives appointed by the Chiefs of the National Military Representative (Engl. National Military Representatives , NMR ). The committee advises NATO's civil decision-making bodies - the North Atlantic Council and the Nuclear Planning Group - on military matters. Since 1963, the members of the military committee have also elected a chairman ( Chairman of the Military Committee, CMC ), whose office has been held since June 26, 2015 by theCzech General Petr Pavel is executed. His predecessor was the Danish General Knud Bartels from November 16, 2011 to June 26, 2015 .
The committee consists of the chiefs of staff (from Germany the inspector general of the Bundeswehr ) of all member states involved in the military integration of NATO or their representatives. He advises on specific military measures which are then recommended to the North Atlantic Council .
International military staff
As an executive body, the NATO Military Committee has an International Military Staff (IMS ), which consists of several departments and includes around 500 civil and military employees.
NATO command structure and military integration
The Allied Command Operation ( ACO ) directs all military operations of NATO. The operational supreme command is the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR), who has always been an American general or admiral , as they provide a large part of the resources.
|No.||Surname||country||Beginning of the appointment||End of appointment|
|1||Dwight D. Eisenhower||United States||April 2, 1951||May 30, 1952|
|2||Matthew B. Ridgway||United States||May 30, 1952||July 11, 1953|
|3||Alfred M. Gruenther||United States||June 11, 1953||November 20, 1956|
|4th||Lauris Norstad||United States||November 20, 1956||January 1, 1963|
|5||Lyman L. Lemnitzer||United States||January 1, 1963||1st July 1969|
|6th||Andrew J. Goodpaster||United States||1st July 1969||15th December 1974|
|7th||Alexander Haig||United States||15th December 1974||July 1, 1979|
|8th||Bernard W. Rogers||United States||July 1, 1979||June 26, 1987|
|9||John R. Galvin||United States||June 26, 1987||June 23, 1992|
|10||John M. Shalikashvili||United States||June 23, 1992||October 22, 1993|
|11||George A. Joulwan||United States||October 22, 1993||June 11, 1997|
|12||Wesley Clark||United States||July 11, 1997||May 3, 2000|
|13||Joseph W. Ralston||United States||May 3, 2000||January 17, 2003|
|14th||James L. Jones||United States||January 17, 2003||December 7, 2006|
|15th||Bantz J. Craddock||United States||December 7, 2006||June 2, 2009|
|16||James G. Stavridis||United States||June 2, 2009||13th of May 2013|
|17th||Philip M. Breedlove||United States||13th of May 2013||4th May 2016|
|18th||Curtis M. Scaparrotti||United States||4th May 2016||3rd May 2019|
|19th||Death of D. Wolters||United States||3rd May 2019||officiating|
There is also a parallel command level, the Allied Command Transformation ( ACT ), whose task is to integrate the national armed forces. He is headed by the Supreme Allied Commander Transformation (SACT). The two Allied commands are subordinate to the Military Committee .
NATO military headquarters in Europe
Originally, the European NATO headquarters (English Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe, SHAPE ) has been in Rocquencourt near Paris since July 1952 . After France's withdrawal from NATO military structures, the move to Casteau near Mons in Belgium took place on March 31, 1967 .
In 2014, all NATO members spent a total of 942.820 billion US dollars (rounded) (of around 1.776 trillion worldwide ) on defense. Of this, the United States accounted for 654.264 billion, European Member States 270.405 billion and Canada the remaining 18.150 billion .
|Member State||2010||2011||2012||2013||2014||2015||2016||2017 1|
2 Does not include pensions,
The entire NATO defense budget for 2017 includes Montenegro for the first time
NATO membership and partnership
NATO currently has 30 members. The twelve founding members - they have belonged to NATO since 1949 - are Belgium , Denmark , France , Iceland , Italy , Canada , Luxembourg , the Kingdom of the Netherlands , Norway , Portugal , the United States of America and the United Kingdom .
From 1949 to 1962, the French departments in Algeria were also expressly part of the NATO treaty area. Until Malta's independence in September 1964, the Mediterranean island was also part of the NATO treaty area as a British colony. Until March 31, 1979, NATO and the British Navy were able to use Malta as a military base in exchange for extensive financial aid (details here ).
Turkey and Greece joined the organization in 1952 , and the Federal Republic of Germany has been a member of NATO since 1955 . Spain joined the alliance in 1982, and in 1990 the North Atlantic Treaty was extended to all of Germany .
There were peculiarities with regard to France, which from 1966 to 2009 was no longer integrated into the military structures of NATO. The reason for France's exit was that Charles de Gaulle did not accept NATO as a perceived instrument of US interests. He wanted to preserve France's military independence and agency and not subordinate French troops to US command. After the Yugoslavia crisis , the French government changed its position within NATO and since the end of 1995 has again participated in the meetings of the Defense Planning Committee (DPC) without entering into the integrated military structures of NATO. Declared in early 2009Nicolas Sarkozy , wanting to immediately reintegrate France into the military structures. On March 17, the National Assembly approved Sarkozy's plan to fully return France to the command structure.
Greece from 1974 to 1981 and Spain from 1986 to 1999 were also temporarily excluded from the military structure.
Iceland is a special case as it does not have its own armed forces. The defense of Iceland was guaranteed until 2006 by the United States, which in 1951 committed itself to the defense of Iceland in a bilateral defense agreement , the Agreement Between the United States and the Republic of Iceland, May 5, 1951 . The US government decided on March 19, 2006 unilaterally and surprisingly for Iceland to withdraw the US armed forces. The last US soldiers left Iceland on September 30, 2006. Nevertheless, the USA continues to guarantee Iceland's military protection in the event of an attack. The government of Iceland has committed itself to providing medical assistance in the event of an alliance. Iceland is only an observer in theNuclear Planning Group and appoint a civilian representative to meetings of the Defense Planning Committee (DPC) and the Military Committee ( Military Committee ).
As part of NATO's eastward expansion , the Czech Republic , Poland and Hungary became members of NATO in 1999. Afterwards the countries Estonia , Latvia , Lithuania , Slovakia , Slovenia , Bulgaria and Romania were invited, which joined NATO on March 29, 2004. Albania and Croatia received an invitation to join the military alliance at the summit in Bucharest on April 3, 2008 and signed on July 9 (four weeks before the start of the war in Georgia) in Brussels the accession protocols. Their accession was planned for the NATO summit in Kehl and Strasbourg in April 2009 , ratified by all NATO members and completed on April 1, 2009. On December 2, 2015, at a meeting of the foreign ministers of the NATO countries, an official invitation was issued to Montenegro ; it joined NATO in June 2017. With North Macedonia , the necessary negotiations were held by Greece until 2019 because of the dispute over its nameblocked. Greece and Macedonia agreed on a name in June 2018 and paved the way for North Macedonia to join NATO. On February 2, 2019, Jens Stoltenberg tweeted that NATO was signing an accession protocol with North Macedonia. On March 27, 2020, North Macedonia finally joined the military alliance.
Since the Federal Republic of Germany joined NATO in 1955, the role and participation have changed considerably. In the years leading up to reunification, the Bundeswehr was designed as an alliance army . There were no national management structures for the incident; In the event of an alliance, the German units were subordinate to the NATO commanders. Some units, especially from the Air Force and the German Navy , were already directly subordinate to NATO in peacetime and were operationally led by NATO at all times.
With the establishment of the unity of Germany from October 3, 1990, the areas of the former GDR and the two parts of Berlin also became part of the NATO area. According to the two-plus-four treaty , however, non-German NATO troops may not be stationed in East Germany on a permanent basis, which makes this geographical area a “white spot” within the NATO area, which has now expanded to include many Central and Eastern European countries.
In the period up to 1990, the task of the Bundeswehr was exclusively to defend its own national territory . This changed when Germany achieved full sovereignty in the course of reunification . Since the beginning of the 1990s, German soldiers have participated in so-called peacekeeping and peacekeeping missions that were carried out in cooperation with the other allies. Bundeswehr missions outside the alliance area (out-of-area missions) are now also being carried out:
- 1992–1996 Operation Sharp Guard : Embargo against the former Yugoslavia in the Adriatic by naval units - there were always two German frigates or destroyers and also maritime patrols .
- 1992–1996 Operation Deny Flight Operation during the Bosnian War , which envisaged the enforcement of the no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina.
- since 1995 SFOR ( Stabilization Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina ); Use of 1,700 German soldiers. The operation was renamed EUFOR in 2004 and adopted by the European Union .
- 1999 Participation in air raids in the war against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Kosovo conflict, Belgrade), with tornado fighter bombers.
- 1999 KFOR ( Kosovo Force ): On June 9, 2011 the German Bundestag extended the mandate of the Bundeswehr, which provides for an upper limit of 1,850 men.
- 2001 Essential Harvest - 600 German soldiers disarm Albanian extremists in Macedonia .
- 2001–2014 ISAF - deployment of German soldiers in Afghanistan; At times, Germany took over the leadership of the NATO contingent.
- Active Endeavor since 2003 - German frigates and speedboats are involved in investigating terrorist threats and protecting maritime traffic in the Mediterranean.
- Resolute Support since 2015 as a follow-up mission to ISAF in Afghanistan, limited to training, advice and support for the national security forces. Germany provides up to 850 soldiers and is the framework nation in Command North .
Domestically, it was controversial whether the Federal Government's approval of the Strategic Concept of 1999 required the approval of the Bundestag. This would have been the case if the 1999 concept had been an amendment to the North Atlantic Pact Treaty. The Federal Constitutional Court denied this in an organ dispute initiated by the PDS parliamentary group, essentially on the grounds that the wording of the treaty would remain unaffected, in particular that the defense mandate continued to exist and the out-of-area operations within the scope of the task described in the NATO treaty to maintain peacekeeping in compliance with international law .
Since 1955, the following Germans have been appointed to central leadership positions at NATO:
- Manfred Wörner was NATO Secretary General from 1988-1993
- General Adolf Heusinger was chairman of the NATO military committee from 1961 to 1964
- General Johannes Steinhoff was the Chairman of the NATO Military Committee from 1971 to 1974
- General Wolfgang Altenburg was the chairman of the NATO military committee from 1985 to 1989
- General Klaus Naumann , 1996–1999 Chairman of the NATO Military Committee
- Günther Johannes Altenburg , 2001–2005 Assistant Secretary General for Political Affairs
- General Harald Kujat , 2002–2005 Chairman of the NATO Military Committee
- Lieutenant General Heinrich Brauß , 2013–2018 Assistant Secretary General for Defense Policy and Force Planning
- Ambassador Bettina Cadenbach , Assistant Secretary General for Political Affairs and Security Policy since 2019
With 122 million euros, Germany contributes over 18% of NATO's military budget, making it the second largest contributor after the USA and ahead of France and the United Kingdom.
Candidates for membership and partnerships
Candidate country Bosnia and Herzegovina
At the summit in Bucharest in April 2008, the heads of state and government of the NATO member states decided to open accession negotiations with Bosnia and Herzegovina . On December 5, 2018, the foreign ministers decided to activate the candidate country action plan (MAP). The ministers had previously rearranged the order of chapters in the accession negotiations.
In 2007 the Parliament of Serbia passed a resolution on military neutrality. From a military point of view, Serbia is currently the strongest country in the Western Balkans . The discussion about membership in the military alliance is both politically and socially contrary. Although Serbia participates in the Partnership for Peace program, and the armed forces of Serbia have a training program with the Ohio National Guard , there is disagreement within the Serbian parties about actual integration into the structures of the military alliance. The then Defense Minister Dragan Šutanovacstated in 2009 that Serbia is unlikely to apply for full membership in NATO, but it intends to strengthen its partnership with the alliance through increased participation in international operations. There is also resistance from the influential Serbian Orthodox Church , which would like to leave this decision to the people, and a traditional pro-Russian sentiment in the Balkan state, which is questioning the country's possible membership of NATO.
In contrast, Kosovo wants to join NATO as soon as possible. Before accession, however, recognition by all member states is necessary so that accession can be ratified.
Georgia wants to join NATO; the United States supported Georgia's acceptance into a membership preparatory program. The Western European NATO countries refused to negotiate this with consideration for Russia, whereas the Eastern European NATO countries wanted to start accession negotiations with Georgia as quickly as possible; they referred to the Caucasus conflict . Germany and France in particular emphasized that Georgia, with its claim to Abkhazia and South Ossetia , which have declared themselves independent with Russia's support, would destabilize NATO.
Ireland , Sweden , Finland , Malta , Austria , Switzerland and Serbia work with NATO in the Partnership for Peace program . In Switzerland, this is seen by some as a gradual rapprochement until joining NATO, which has been controversial for years. For historical reasons, Austria showed no interest in membership in 2008 . In Finland and Sweden, a possible membership in NATO was discussed during the Caucasus conflict .
Under Yulia Tymoshenko , Ukraine also sought quick NATO membership, but after the 2010 presidential election in Ukraine, the new pro-Russian President Viktor Yanukovych withdrew from Ukraine's possible membership of NATO and emphasized its status as a non-aligned country. Yanukovych justified this with the fact that the majority of Ukrainians refuse to join NATO. Since the Euromaidan in 2014 and the election of Volodymyr Zelenskyj as president in 2019, Ukraine has come closer to NATO again. In 2020, an even closer bond was established with the inclusion of Ukraine in the Enhanced Opportunities Programexplains how the country can participate in NATO maneuvers and cooperation projects as well as access to selected secret alliance information. As of 2020, Australia , Finland, Georgia, Jordan and Sweden were participants in the Enhanced Opportunities Program .
Mediterranean Dialogue and Israel
In the course of the expansion of NATO's activities in the Mediterranean region, the Near and Middle East and Central Asia, a number of bodies were set up to promote cooperation between NATO members and their partner countries. This includes the Mediterranean Dialogue , which was founded in 1994 and to which, in addition to the NATO member states, six Arab states and Israel belong.
Because of the Middle East conflict, politicians, especially from the United States, are calling for Israel to join NATO, which they believe could contribute to peace in the region. Israel is a major non-NATO ally of the United States and would particularly like to intensify relations with the EU and NATO. However, Israel did not want to make a final decision on membership in 2005.
End of membership
According to Article 13, the end of membership must be notified to the US government, and the termination is final one year later. " After the contract has been in effect for twenty years, either party may terminate the contract one year after notifying the United States Government of the termination ."
The expulsion of a member is not provided for in the NATO treaty. The treaty also does not regulate the event that a member state starts a war of aggression. In such a case, Article 60, Paragraph 3b of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (WVRK) of May 23, 1969, according to which a “significant violation” of a treaty (here: the NATO treaty) can lead to the exclusion of the accused contracting party, is applicable . In the case of the NATO treaty, this applies in particular to the obligation of all contracting parties to endeavor to resolve disputes peacefully.
Criticism of NATO
Critics on the part of the peace movement point out that peaceful and just solutions or at least compromises in the many conflicts and conflicting interests cannot be achieved through military alliances and war , but only through institutions such as the United Nations and the OSCE . You see in NATO a military alliance which should secure the economic and strategic interests of the West, especially the USA.
In February 2017, Joanathan Power, a columnist for the International Herald Tribune , voted in IPG-Journal, Donald Trump's view that NATO is "obsolete". The alliance cannot solve Europe's current problems. NATO cannot be classified as an alliance of equal partners. “In the case of Ukraine, her hands are tied, and she cannot make any contribution to the refugee crisis either. It cannot change the tensions that arise in the face of dwindling water supplies in the Middle East, which, according to a study by the European Union, can be expected and which will have serious consequences for European economic and security interests. In the fight against terrorism, NATO, as a military organization, cannot do much either. At home, every government is individually confronted with this problem. The operations against Al-Qaeda and the 'Islamic State' in Syria and Iraq are led by the USA,
- STANAG - NATO internal standards
- NATO rank code
- Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps
- Strategic Airlift Capability
- NATO Tiger Meet
- NATO Defense College
- NATO bases in Italy
- NATO IVB - NATO's British communications satellite
- Southern Africa Treaty Organization - SATO
- NATO days in Ostrava
- Bastian Giegerich : NATO (= elements of politics ). Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2012, ISBN 978-3-531-18409-8 .
- Christian Greiner, Klaus A. Maier , Heinz Rebhan: NATO as a military alliance. Strategy, organization and nuclear control in the alliance. 1949 to 1959 (= origin and problems of the Atlantic Alliance , volume 4). On behalf of the Military History Research Office, ed. by Bruno Thoß , Oldenbourg, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-486-56757-8 .
- Gunther Hauser : NATO - transformation, tasks, goals . Lang, Frankfurt am Main [a. a.] 2008, ISBN 978-3-631-57367-9 .
- Mary Ann Heiss, S. Victor Papacosma (Ed.): NATO and the Warsaw Pact - Intrabloc Conflicts . Kent State University Press, Kent 2008, ISBN 978-0-87338-936-5 (English).
- Dieter Krüger: On the edge? The Age of Alliances: North Atlantic Alliance and Warsaw Pact 1947 to 1991. Parzellers Buchverlag, Fulda 2013, ISBN 978-3-7900-0459-5 .
- Heiko Reiter: The new security architecture of NATO. From a defense alliance to a community of interests . In: KJ 2007, pp. 124–143.
- Lennart Taschenbrecker: The international legal evaluation of NATO operations since the end of the Soviet Union from the perspective of the NATO treaty , Berlin (Duncker & Humblot) 2020. ISBN 978-3-428-15860-7 . ISBN 3-428-15860-1 . ISBN 978-3-428-55860-5 .
- Sascha Thamm: NATO's institutional reactions to the crises of the alliance. From the foundation to the NATO double decision . Der Andere Verlag, Osnabrück 2002, ISBN 3-936231-40-0 .
- Johannes Varwick (Ed.): Relations between NATO and the EU. Partnership, competition, rivalry? Barbara Budrich, Leverkusen 2005, ISBN 3-938094-10-9 .
- Official website of the NATO homepage (English)
- NATO Parliamentary Assembly (English)
- NATO manual . (PDF; 1.6 MB) 2006. 405 pages. ISBN 92-845-0178-4 .
- Permanent representation of the Federal Republic of Germany at the North Atlantic Pact Organization Brussels: NATO
- 60 years of NATO on the information portal for political education
- Helmut Steuer: Jens Stoltenberg is the new NATO Secretary General - Politics News - Abroad - DIE WELT. Die Welt, October 1, 2014, accessed October 1, 2014 .
- Appointment of Secretary General designate. NATO, March 28, 2014, accessed October 1, 2014 .
- Nato.int: Germany's accession to NATO - 50 years later , accessed on August 8, 2009.
- NATO's motto. In: NATO. October 20, 2016, accessed June 7, 2018 .
- NATO Headquarters Room 1
- Gaius Sallustius Crispus : De Catilinae coniuratione . 41 BC Chr. ( Online edition [accessed June 7, 2018]). , Chapter 52, sentence 21
- Federal Ministry of Defense: The NATO - Alliance for Security and Values .
- Peter Lauterbach: NATO and its values . welt.de. March 31, 2009.
- NORTH ATLANTIC MILITARY COMMITTEE DECISION ON MC14 / 1. (PDF) Retrieved July 17, 2018 .
- Heinz Rebhan: Structure and organization of the air force 1955 to 1971. In: Bernd Lemke , Dieter Krüger , Heinz Rebhan u. a. (Ed.): The Air Force 1950 to 1970. Concept, structure, integration. Published by the Military History Research Office. Volume 2, Munich 2006, p. 561.
- EG Paulus: The Federal Republic is a member of NATO (article in the Süddeutsche Zeitung of May 10, 1955 via CVCE ).
- Kai F. Hünemörder, The Early History of the Global Environmental Crisis and the Formation of German Environmental Policy (1950–1973) , Franz Steiner Verlag, 2004, ISBN 3-515-08188-7 .
- Lothar Rühl : Is the southeast pillar bursting? - Two allies of the Americans have wavered , The time of August 23, 1974.
- FAZ: Collective Defense Case .
- Declaration ( Memento of September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- see also Latvian SSR , Lithuanian SSR , Estonian SSR .
- Hannes Adomeit: Russian military and security policy in: Heiko Pleines, Hans-Henning Schröder (ed.), Country Report Russia, Federal Center for Political Education, Bonn 2010, ISBN 978-3-8389-0066-7 , pp. 268f.
- Full text (PDF)
- the independent analyst Keir Giles ( CV ) emphasized in February 2010 that NATO was described as a military danger (not a threat ): The Military Doctrine of the Russian Federation 2010 .
- Nato.int, press release of November 20, 2010. Accessed November 21, 2010 .
- ALTBMD PO. ALTBMD programs. NATO, November 17, 2011, archived from the original on January 13, 2012 ; accessed on January 1, 2014 (English).
- Nato.int, press release of November 20, 2010, accessed on November 21, 2010 .
- FAZ , accessed on October 28, 2011.
- Ayla Jean Yackley: Turkey says NATO is option to defend Syrian border. Reuters , accessed February 1, 2013 .
- NATO: NATO support to Turkey: Background and timeline. Retrieved February 1, 2013 .
- NATO: Four Patriot batteries operational in Turkey. Retrieved February 1, 2013 .
- Felix F. Seidler: As the EU Crumbles, Only NATO Can Keep Europe Together. Royal United Services Institute , archived from the original on July 22, 2013 ; Retrieved February 1, 2013 .
- Tobias Armbrüster: Interview with Jan van Aken. Deutschlandfunk , accessed on February 1, 2013 .
- www.nato.int: Readiness Action Plan .
- Statement by NATO Foreign Ministers , accessed April 1, 2014.
- Plans for Eastern Europe adopted: NATO sends thousands of soldiers , on tagesschau.de from June 14, 2016.
- Summit Declaration of Wales ( Memento of October 17, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) p. 22 (PDF; 276 kB); published September 5, 2014, accessed November 2, 2016.
- Warsaw Summit Communiqué: Issued by the Heads of State and Government participating in the meeting of the North Atlantic Council in Warsaw 8-9 July 2016. NATO, August 3, 2016, accessed on February 19, 2017 .
- Scientific Services of the German Bundestag: Brief information: On the application of the NATO alliance case in the conflict between Turkey and the “Islamic State” in Syria . February 16, 2016.
- Fighting in Northern Syria Concern about the NATO alliance case . tagesschau.de. October 14, 2019.
- Northern Syria: 100,000 people on the run because of the Turkish offensive . zeit.de. October 11, 2019.
- Turkey starts ground offensive. tagesschau.de, October 10, 2019.
- Trump hands out again - also against Merkel . n-tv.de. January 16, 2017.
- NATO: A community of values, not a business . zeit.de. November 11, 2016.
- Richard Herzinger: The most dangerous anti-American is Donald Trump himself . welt.de. 4th June 2017.
- Trump no longer considers NATO obsolete . zeit.de. April 13, 2017.
- Merkel sees the USA's position as a superpower dwindling . sueddeutsche.de. 20th July 2018.
- Carsten Luther: Donald Trump's claims to NATO . zeit.de. July 8, 2018.
- Florian Rötzer: US Congress wants to prevent Donald Trump from leaving NATO . heise.de. January 25, 2019.
- Christian Mölling: The two percent illusion of NATO . Science and Politics Foundation, August 2014.
- Alexander Lanoszka: Do Allies Really Free Ride? In: Survival, Volume 57, Number 3, (June-July 2015), pp. 133–151.
- MC 14/3 (Final) (PDF; 186 kB) Overall Strategic Concept for the Defense of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Area . NATO Strategy Documents 1949–1969. Pp. 345-370.
- Flexible Response- the concept of graduated deterrence .
- nato.int ( Memento from October 11, 2003 in the Internet Archive )
- Otfried Nassauer : US nuclear weapons in Germany and Europe , August 2007.
- Matthias Gebauer and John Goetz: Atomwaffen in Deutschland. US Cleared Ramstein Nuclear Arsenal , Spiegel Online , accessed July 9, 2007.
- Rebecca Johnson, Acronym Institute for Disarmament Policy: Time for a Nuclear Weapons Free Europe ( Memento of February 12, 2009 in the Internet Archive ), April 2007.
- Hans M. Kristensen, Natural Resources Defense Council : US Nuclear Weapons Withdrawn From the United Kingdom , accessed June 26, 2008.
- Rebecca Johnson, Nicola Butler, Stephen Pullinger, Acronym Institute for Disarmament Policy: Worse than irrelevant? British nuclear weapons in the 21st century (PDF; 998 kB), 2006.
- NATO: Alliance Maritime Strategy. Retrieved April 23, 2013 .
- Felix F. Seidler: Slowing Alliance - NATO's New Maritime Strategy and the Need for Reform. Royal United Services Institute , archived from the original on July 28, 2013 ; Retrieved April 23, 2013 .
- NATO Topics: The NATO Headquarters (English).
- NATO Pomp and Ceremonies for Trump. Euronews, May 24, 2017, accessed May 26, 2017 .
- Article 9
- NATO Organization: Who's Who? (English).
- NATO Topics: Nuclear Planning Group (English).
- The Defense Planning Committee (Archived ).
- NATO Topics: The NATO Secretary General ( Memento from June 2, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) (English)
- NATO Deputy Secretary General. Retrieved July 26, 2019 .
- NATO Secretary General appoints Mircea Geoana as next Deputy Secretary General. July 17, 2019, accessed July 26, 2019 .
- NATO Topics: NATO Headquarters (English).
- Defense Expenditures of NATO Countries (2008–2015) (PDF; English).
- Secretary General's Annual Report 2017. (PDF) In: nato.int. Pp. 108–109 , accessed on July 11, 2018 (English).
- France: Return to NATO , SZ.de of May 17, 2010; accessed on July 24, 2016.
- Information from the French Foreign Ministry regarding NATO (English) ( Memento from June 29, 2011 in the Internet Archive ).
- diepresse.com March 17, 2009: Parliament approves France's return to NATO .
- Croatia and Albania sign treaties. NATO is expanded by two states ( memento of February 14, 2009 in the Internet Archive ). On: tagesschau.de .
- way for Croatia and Albania to join NATO: According to the US government, Croatia and Albania have cleared the way to join NATO. ( Memento from October 15, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- Before the anniversary summit in Strasbourg, Kehl and Baden-Baden. NATO accepts Albania and Croatia ( memento of April 3, 2009 in the Internet Archive ). On: tagesschau.de .
- Peter Mühlbauer: NATO invites Montenegro to join. Telepolis, December 2, 2015.
- Athens blocks accession - NATO dispute over Macedonia .
- NATO prepares the admission of North Macedonia. In: Zeit Online . February 2, 2019, accessed on February 17, 2020 : “The member countries of the military alliance want to sign the protocol for admission on Wednesday,” General Secretary Jens Stoltenberg announced on Twitter. "We'll make history on February 6th."
- North Macedonia joins NATO as 30th Ally NATO, nato.int, March 27, 2020, accessed March 27, 2020.
- Art. 5 para. 3 of the regulatory agreement of September 12, 1990 ( Federal Law Gazette II p. 1318).
- Bundeswehr mandate in Kosovo extended. Federal Foreign Office , June 9, 2011, accessed December 9, 2012 .
- BVerfG judgment of November 22, 2001 .
- Heinrich Brauss - Assistant Secretary General for Defense Policy and Planning. NATO, October 16, 2013, accessed August 18, 2019 .
- Matthias Kolb: Responsible for Russia and arms control. In: sueddeutsche.de. July 24, 2019, accessed December 12, 2019 .
- Bernd Riegert: NATO summit only decides on a small new round of enlargement. In: Deutsche Welle . April 3, 2008, accessed on February 17, 2020 : "The NATO heads of state and government also decided to start intensive talks with Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro to prepare for membership."
- NATO: New Action Plan for Bosnia-Herzegovina. In: Hürriyet . December 5, 2018, accessed on February 17, 2020 : "The foreign ministers of the alliance states opened the Balkans on Wednesday the opportunity to trigger the action plan for membership."
- Srbija je u ovom trenutku najjača vojna sila na zapadnom Balkanu .
- Šutanovac: NATO više nije neprijatelj ( Memento of February 8, 2010 in the Internet Archive ), Blic Online, February 5, 2010.
- The Euro-Atlantic integrations of Serbia ( Memento of July 26, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), glassrbije.org, February 12, 2009.
- Patriarch Irinej, Blic, January 29, 2010 Nema potrebe da zaziremo od Evropske unije .
- Serbia moves back to center stage , World Politics review, November 19, 2009.
- Aleksandar Kozunin, Ambassador of the Russian Federation in Belgrade: NATO nije jedini put Srbije , in: Vecernje Novosti , February 4, 2010.
- WDR Europa Forum: Thaci confirms that Kosovo is striving for membership in the European Union as well as NATO.
- Accession of Georgia and Ukraine. NATO threatens new dispute , Süddeutsche Zeitung , accessed on May 17, 2010.
- Ukraine and Georgia are initially not allowed in NATO , Welt Online .
- the military - an illusion , interview with security expert Spillmann, swissinfo.ch, April 16, 2010.
- "Austria would still be welcome" , derStandard.at of April 2, 2008.
- Finns and Swedes are considering joining NATO .
- Finland and Sweden discuss joining NATO , in: Berliner Morgenpost from September 1, 2008.
- Item 23: NATO welcomes the Euro-Atlantic efforts of Ukraine and Georgia, who want to join the alliance. We agreed today (April 4th, 2008) that these countries will become NATO members. Both states have made valuable contributions to alliance operations. We welcome the democratic reforms in Ukraine and Georgia and hope for free and fair parliamentary elections in Georgia in May. MAP status is the next step for Ukraine and Georgia on their direct path to membership. Today we make it clear that we support the MAP applications from these countries. We will therefore now enter a phase of intensive engagement at a high political level with both of them in order to resolve the outstanding questions in connection with their MAP applications.Summit Declaration in Bucharest, April 2-4, 2008 Meeting of the North Atlantic Council at the level of heads of state and government ( Memento from January 1, 2015 in the Internet Archive ); MAP means Membership Action Plan, see Hannelore Crolly, Ukraine and Georgia are not allowed in NATO for the time being, Die Welt December 1, 2008, previous note.
- Ukraine moves away from NATO membership , in: Rheinische Post from April 6, 2010.
- Selensky reaffirms Ukraine's pro-Western course in Brussels - NATO pledges further support in the Black Sea , in: Neue Zürcher Zeitung of May 4, 2019.
- DER SPIEGEL: NATO is entering into an even closer partnership with Ukraine - DER SPIEGEL - politics. Retrieved June 12, 2020 .
- Johannes Varwick : The NATO. From a defense alliance to a world police force? , Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-406-56809-1 , p. 111ff.
- Israel in NATO! .
- Israel's ambassador for NATO membership , in: Handelsblatt, January 31, 2008.
- Israel seeks proximity to NATO and the EU , in: Handelsblatt from January 26, 2005.
- Scientific services of the German Bundestag: Legal options for excluding a NATO member state from the NATO alliance . January 25, 2018. p. 7 f.
- Criticism of NATO summits from the peace movement .
- The initiative “No to War - No to NATO”
- Jonathan Power: Trump is right: NATO is obsolete - the military alliance cannot solve Europe's current problems. . IPG journal. February 27, 2017.