President of Russia

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President of the
Russian Federation
Standard of the President
Standard of the President
Vladimir Putin (2017-07-08) .jpg
Acting President
Vladimir Putin
since May 7, 2012
Official seat Senate Palace in Moscow
Term of office 6 years
Creation of office July 10, 1991
Last choice 18th March 2018
Next choice March 2024
Website президент.рф ,

The President of the Russian Federation ( Russian Президент Российской Федерации ) is the head of state of Russia .

The office is the highest position in the Russian system of government . The president is elected by direct election by the Russian people.

The current incumbent is Vladimir Putin , who was elected for the fourth time in the 2018 election.


The main task of the President is to ensure the rights and freedoms of the Russian people guaranteed in the Constitution of Russia . The status of President is set out in Chapter 4 of the Constitution. The president determines domestic and foreign policy. He is the commander in chief of the armed forces . The President is responsible for awarding state awards, he decides on questions of citizenship, and he has the right to grant pardons. The President is supported in his duties by the Presidential Administration .

Requirements and term of office

A presidential candidate must have Russian citizenship, be at least 35 years old and have been living in Russia continuously for at least ten years. The term of office is six years.


Pre-Soviet period

Some historians consider Alexander Kolchak (1874–1920, executed), an admiral and monarchist in the White Army during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1920, to be the first President of Russia. Kolchak was elected head of government with dictatorial powers by the Siberian regional government. He was called the Supreme Ruler of Russia (Верховный Правитель России, Verkhovny Prawitel Rossii).

Soviet Union

The Supreme Soviet of the constituent republic of the Russian SFSR had little autonomy in the Soviet Union until late in the period of perestroika . The executive power was until 1990 in the hands of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR and of the Politburo of the CPSU . In 1990 the newly elected Russian Supreme Soviet split into communists and reformers. Boris Yeltsin was elected chairman in May 1990. Shortly thereafter, Yeltsin left the CPSU and began to build an independent house power within the RSFSR. This was a crucial step in the dissolution of the Soviet Union in late 1991.

In early 1991, the post of Russian President was created and executive power was transferred from the Supreme Soviet of Russia to the President of Russia. The responsibilities of the chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Russia have been reduced to that of a speaker of parliament. In June 1991 Boris Yeltsin won the first presidential election , after which he resigned as chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR. Yeltsin's successor as chairman of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR was Ruslan Khasbulatov (July 10, 1991 to October 1993).

Russian Federation

During the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993 , after Yeltsin had violated the then still valid constitutions of the USSR , the then Vice-President Alexander Ruzkoi was appointed president by the parliament. He acted de facto in opposition to Yeltsin from September 22 to October 4, 1993, the day of his arrest. In the parliamentary elections on December 12, 1993 , Yeltsin's opponents maintained a majority. On February 26, 1994, an amnesty was granted at the request of Vladimir Shirinovsky . Ruzkoi was pardoned by the State Duma chaired by Ivan Rybkin in protest of Yeltsin . The office of vice-president was abolished in the new constitution.

The office of president emerged stronger from the August coup in 1991 and the constitutional crisis in 1993 .

The presidential
plane ,
an Ilyushin Il-96 -300

The Russian presidential election on June 16, 1996 won Yeltsin in a runoff election on July 3 against the leader of the KPRF , Gennady Zyuganov . In the first ballot, Yeltsin received 35.28% and Zyuganov 32.02%. In the second ballot, Yeltsin received 53.82% and Zyuganov 40.31% of the vote.

During a heart operation in Yeltsin in 1996, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin took over the presidential duties from November 5th, 7:00 am to November 6th, 6:00 am, according to Yeltsin's decree № 1534.

When Yeltsin resigned on 31 December 1999, the then became Prime Minister Vladimir Putin constitutionally provisionally the official duties of the President of the Russian Federation until the election of a successor. Yeltsin declared Putin to be the preferred candidate for his successor. On the same day, by decree, Putin granted Yeltsin some privileges for his in-office actions and his family. Four months earlier, investigations by western authorities against the Yeltsin family and Pavel Borodin on suspicion of corruption and money laundering had been published in western newspapers .

On March 26, 2000, Putin won the presidential election in the first round with 52.9% of the vote.

In the presidential election on March 14, 2004 , which the OSCE criticized as being only partially democratic , 71.2% of the voters voted for Putin.

Putin's government reshuffle in mid-November 2005 was widely viewed as the positioning of a possible successor to the 2008 presidency and the start of the presidential campaign. Putin himself opposed an amendment to the constitution that would have allowed him to run for a third term. In the presidential election on March 2, 2008 , the First Deputy Prime Minister, Dmitry Medvedev, received 70.28% of the votes cast. The handover took place at noon on May 7, 2008.

The 2012 presidential election in Russia on March 4, 2012 was the first election in which the President of Russia was appointed for a term of six instead of four years. The basis for this was a law passed at the end of 2008. After Dmitri Medvedev was elected in 2008 - according to the constitution, Putin could not run again after two consecutive terms in office - there was a change in the presidency. Putin won the election and became president again.

Official seat

The presidential residences include the Great Kremlin Palace , the Senate Building and, since 2000, the Novo-Ogarjowo estate . During his stay in Saint Petersburg he used the Constantine Palace as a residence.


After the elected president has taken the oath of office, he is awarded the insignia of office. The insignia show the position of the office and are used on special occasions.

Chain of office

First the chain of office is put on the president . The emblem of the chain of office shows the cross of the Order of Merit for the Fatherland (a red paw cross under the coat of arms of Russia ; on the back of the cross are the words drive, honor and fame in the form of a circle). A gold wreath above the cross connects the emblem with the chain. In the chain of office there are 17 other small emblems, nine show the Russian coat of arms, eight a rosette , also with the motto drive, fame and honor . When Vladimir Putin was inaugurated, the chain was placed on a red cushion on the left side of the podium. According to the information on the President's website, the chain is located in the Kremlin and is only used on certain occasions.


The standard is a gold-trimmed, square version of the flag of Russia with the Russian coat of arms in the middle. Copies of the standard are used in the President's office, the Kremlin, government agencies, and as a national emblem on the front of the President's limousine . A standard with a length ratio of 2: 3 is used when the President is at sea. The standard is the most commonly used symbol to indicate the presence of the President.

Special edition of the constitution

The President owns a special edition of the Russian Constitution that will be used during the swearing-in ceremony. This edition has a solid red leather binding made from the skin of a monitor with gold letters. On the cover is the Russian coat of arms in silver. The special edition is in the President's Library in the Kremlin. As of May 6, 2000, the special edition of the constitution lost its official status as the symbol of presidential power and is only traditionally called that.

Oath of office

The President takes the following oath of office during the inauguration:

"Клянусь при осуществлении полномочий Президента Российской Федерации уважать и охранять права и свободы человека и гражданина, соблюдать и защищать Конституцию Российской Федерации, защищать суверенитет и независимость, безопасность и целостность государства, верно служить народу."

“In exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation, I swear to respect and guarantee the rights and freedoms of people and citizens, to monitor and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty , independence, security and integrity of the state and to serve the citizens faithfully. "


The Russian President receives the atomic suitcase (called Tscheget ), which enables him to authorize a nuclear strike.

Similar to the President of the USA , the President of Russia has a right of veto on all bills and bills in both chambers , which the Duma can overrule with a two-thirds majority .

One of its most powerful executive powers is to rule by decree , which is regulated under Article 90 of the Constitution . With the effect of these decrees, which must correspond to the constitution and are comparable to a “(competing) legislative authority” equivalent to decree power, the President can undermine the Duma in the legislative process.

List of Russian presidents

President of the Russian Federation
No. image Surname Life dates Taking office Resignation Political party Remarks
1 Boris Yeltsin Boris Yeltsin 1931-2007 July 10, 1991 December 31, 1999 Non-party until December 12, 1991 as President of the RSFSR ;

two terms, resignation during the second term.

A * Wladimir Putin Wladimir Putin * 1952 December 31, 1999 May 7, 2000 United Russia After Yeltsin's resignation until his own election
2 May 7, 2000 May 7, 2008 two terms
3 Dmitry Medvedev Dmitry Medvedev * 1965 May 7, 2008 May 7, 2012 first term; no new candidacy
(2) Wladimir Putin Wladimir Putin * 1952 May 7, 2012 officiating

A * = If the President is unable to carry out his duties, the Prime Minister is entrusted with the temporary management of business in accordance with Article 92, Paragraph 3 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

Executive presidents during a presidential term
No. image Surname Life dates Taking office Resignation Political party Remarks
Alexander Ruzkoi Alexander Ruzkoi * 1947 September 22, 1993 4th October 1993 Non-party After Yeltsin allegedly violated the constitution, Ruzkoi was appointed acting president by parliament.

He was later arrested.

Viktor Chernomyrdin Viktor Chernomyrdin 1938-2010 5th November 1996 November 6, 1996 Our house Russia During Yeltsin's operation.

See also


Web links

Commons : Presidents of Russia  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Presidential Residences ( Memento from June 30, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) on the homepage of the Russian President (Russian)
  2. Robert K. Furtak: President - Government - Parliament in France and in Russia: constitutional rule and constitutional practice . In: Zeitschrift für Politikwissenschaft , 6th vol. (1996), no. 4, pp. 945–968, here p. 951.
  3. Petra Jasper: The power of the president . ( Memento from August 19, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) In: Stern , March 11, 2004; Retrieved August 18, 2014.