United Russia

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Единая Россия
United Russia
United Russia party logo
Party leader Dmitry Medvedev
Party leader Dmitry Medvedev
founding December 1, 2001
Headquarters House 3a
Bannyj pereulok
129110 Moscow
Youth organization Young Guard
Alignment Centrism
catch-all party
Colours) White, blue, red
(Russian tricolor )
State Duma
Area dumen
Number of members 2,073,772
(as of January 1, 2011)
Website er.ru

United Russia ( Russian Единая Россия , transcription Jedinaja Rossija ; other translations: United Russia , United Russia , United Russia ) is the party with the largest number of members in the Russian Federation . It has a two-thirds constituent majority in the Russian parliament . From 2012 to 2020, the party provided Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev , who has also been the chairman of United Russia since 2012 . Russian President Vladimir Putin is not a member of the party. However, the party supports Vladimir Putin's course .

Content profile

United Russia does not have a distinct ideology, but gathers politicians and officials with different political positions and beliefs who support the government. The party primarily appeals to non-ideological voters. It is therefore referred to by political scientists as the catch-all party or “party of power”. It sees itself as a party of the political center that pursues the "national interests" of Russia. Some observers of Russian politics describe the party as more nationally conservative in terms of its orientation . Within Russia, the party is pursuing a centralist course in which the strengthening of central political power is of particular importance. This means that one has successfully counteracted the weakening of the Russian Federation after the collapse of the Soviet Union . The party's stated goals are:

  • Development of the economy
  • Strengthening the state power
  • Improvement of living conditions and social security
  • Ensuring free elections
  • Strengthening the Russian Armed Forces

Election program for the Duma VII election (2016)

The strategic goal is to maintain the country's unity and independence and to develop Russia again into a sovereign global power.

The aim is to overcome the “shock reforms” of 1990 and 1998. In its election manifesto, the United Russia party commemorates the division of the country through the “oligarchic” privatization of the economy and state institutions. This worsened the standard of living of the people, triggered a demographic crisis, and increased corruption and crime. As a result of the “shock reforms”, laws were often disregarded and trust in society was dissolved.

The party sees it as its task to lead the country out of this “total crisis”, to renew statehood and to consolidate the country's sovereignty. In the middle of the 2000 years, decisions were made to implement the national “priority projects” and to overcome the consequences of the economic crisis of 2008-2009 years. This policy is to be continued.

According to this election manifesto, the party's aim is to improve the well-being of the people and promote the development of Russia. Everyone should have a decent standard of living, social security and the development of their skills. A strong, independent, lawful state for all is to be established. This is to be achieved through a consistent course for stability, without revolutions and shocks. The safety of the children should be guaranteed. Everyone should be able to work and live with dignity. Everyone should have the right to learn without fear and to see into the future.

The party supports the realization of the strategic presidential course for the development of the country. This is stated in the fundamental ordinances of the President of Russia Putin of May 7, 2012.

The future must be protected. "Disadvantages" inside and outside the country should not destroy them.

Key projects for the development of the country are to be implemented. The key projects themselves are not mentioned in the election manifesto.

This election manifesto was signed by both Vladimir Putin , who is not a member of the party, and Dmitry Medvedev . According to Russian law, the Russian president is not allowed to be a member of any party.

Inner structure

Party office in Tolyatti

The party has local organizations in all regions and republics of the Russian Federation. With over two million members, it is by far the largest party in the country.

The highest office in the party is that of the party chairman. The party chairman is elected for four years at the party congress.

The Supreme Council determines the strategy for the development of the party. The party leader presides over the Supreme Council.

The General Council has 152 members and is the most important party body in the period between party congresses. The General Council issues declarations on important social and political issues.

The Presidium of the General Council has 23 members and directs the party's political work. It is Z. B. responsible for the preparation of the election campaign program and other programmatic publications. The work of the presidium is directed by the secretary of the presidium.

History of the party

2007 election campaign
Dmitry Medvedev delivers a speech at the 11th United Russia Congress (November 21, 2009)
The 12th United Russia Congress on September 24, 2011

The party was founded on December 1, 2001 as a merger of the factions Unity ( Jedinstwo ) by Sergei Shoigu , and Fatherland - All Russia ( Otetschestvo - wsja Rossija ) by Yuri Luzhkov and Mintimer Schäimijew , who in turn both in 1999 z. Partly from former members of the government-supporting party of the 1990s in Russia, Our House Russia .

The first party chairman was the President of the Duma , Boris Gryzlov . Several ministers in the incumbent Russian government are members of United Russia . During the 2003 presidential election campaign, the party supported Vladimir Putin.

In the 2003 parliamentary election , the party emerged as the strongest force with 37.6% of the vote. After the elections, a number of independent candidates and representatives of other parties also joined the group, so that United Russia finally had 305 out of 450 seats, and thus a two-thirds majority in parliament.

In the 2007 parliamentary elections , the party received 63.5% of the vote and 315 of the 450 seats in the State Duma. The party thus had a two-thirds constituent majority. The electoral list was headed by President Vladimir Putin, who himself is not a member of the United Russia party .

In the 2011 parliamentary election , the party received 49.3% of the vote and thus no longer has a two-thirds majority, but retains an absolute majority.

Member of the Bundestag Christian Kleiminger (SPD), who as a member of the delegation of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE PA) observed the election, then referred to it, referring to the economic and personal superiority of "United Russia" as unfair. The opposition had no real chance.

On April 15, 2008, Vladimir Putin was elected party chairman. Since Putin was not a member of United Russia and was not ready to join the party, the statutes were changed accordingly beforehand. Putin took the chair on May 7th.

At the 12th United Russia Congress, which took place on September 24, 2011, Dmitry Medvedev was nominated as the top candidate for the 2011 parliamentary election. He took over the office of prime minister, which Putin had held since 2008. In return, party leader Vladimir Putin ran for the 2012 presidential election in Russia and became president again.

On May 26, 2012, Dmitry Medvedev was elected chairman of the party at the suggestion of Vladimir Putin. Due to alleged forgery in the parliamentary elections in December 2011, which led to the largest protest rallies in the country's recent history , parts of the population also refer to United Russia as the “party of crooks and thieves”. Putin himself is not a party member. According to experts, Putin wants to distance himself from the party's bad reputation.

Election results

Presidential elections of Russia

Election year candidate 1 round 2nd round
be right Share of votes be right Share of votes supporting party
2000 Wladimir Putin 39,740,467 52.9 ( elected ) unit
2004 Wladimir Putin 49,565,238 71.3 ( elected ) United Russia
2008 Dmitry Medvedev 52,530,712 71.2 ( elected ) United Russia
2012 Wladimir Putin 46,602,075 63.6 ( elected ) United Russia
2018 Wladimir Putin 56,411,688 76.7 ( elected ) United Russia
  • According to Russian law, the Russian president cannot be a member of a party at the same time.

State Duma election

year Party leader be right percent Seats majority
2003 Boris Gryzlov 22,779,279 37.6% 225 of 450 relative majority
2007 Wladimir Putin 44,714,241 64.3% 315 of 450 qualified majority
2011 Dmitry Medvedev 32,448,000 49.3% 238 of 450 relative majority
2016 Dmitry Medvedev 28,271,600 54.2% 343 of 450 qualified majority

Party leaders United Russia

No. Party presidency portrait since to
- joint party chairmanship
Sergei Shoigu , Yuri Luzhkov , & Mintimer Shaimiev
Sergey Shoigu.jpg Yuri Luzhkov 2010 Moscow Unesco 02.jpg RIAN archive 395745 President of the Republic of Tatarstan Mintimer Shaimiyev.jpg
1.12.2001 04/15/2005
1 Boris Gryzlov 04/15/2005 12/31/2007
2 Vladimir Putin as a non-party
12/31/2007 05/30/2012
3 Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Medvedev official large photo -5.jpg

International cooperation

At the international level, United Russia cooperates with the following parties:

Youth organization

The youth organization of the United Russia Party is Molodaja Gwardija (Young Guard). The organization Naschi (Die Ours) was a youth organization founded by the Russian government in 2005 to support the party's political course.


Membership structure

The membership structure of the United Russia party is made up as follows:

  • 26% retirees, students and temporarily not employed
  • 21.2% employed in the education sector
  • 20.9% employed in industry
  • 13.2% employees in the public service or in government bodies
  • 8% employed in the medical sector
  • 4% entrepreneurs, freelancers and artists

Prominent members

Web links

Commons : United Russia  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. The party is an instrument of Putin , Frankfurter Allgemeine, September 20, 2016
  2. ^ Lucan Way: Resistance to Contagion. Sources of Authoritarian Stability in the Former Soviet Union. In: Democracy and Authoritarianism in the Postcommunist World. Cambridge University Press, New York 2010, pp. 229-252, at pp. 246-247.
  3. ^ Derek S. Hutcheson: Political marketing techniques in Russia. In: Global Political Marketing. Routledge, Abingdon (Oxon) / New York 2010, pp. 218-233, at p. 225.
  4. ^ Richard Sakwa: The Crisis of Russian Democracy. The Dual State, Factionalism and the Medvedev Succession. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge / New York 2011, pp. 217-218.
  5. Svetlana S. Bodrunova, Anna A. Litvinenko: New media and political protest. The formation of a public counter-sphere in Russia, 2008-12. In: Russia's Changing Economic and Political Regimes. The Putin years and afterwards. Routledge, 2013, pp. 29-65, at p. 35.
  6. ^ Richard Rose: Understanding Post-Communist Transformation. A bottom up approach. Routledge, Abingdon (Oxon) / New York 2009, p. 131.
  7. ^ Thomas Remington: Patronage and the Party of Power. President — Parliament Relations under Vladimir Putin. In: Power and Policy in Putin's Russia. Routledge, 2013, pp. 81-109, especially p. 106.
  8. Bryon J. Moraski: . The Duma's electoral system Lessons in endogeneity. In: Routledge Handbook of Russian Politics and Society. Routledge, Abingdon (Oxon) / New York 2012, pp. 102–114, at p. 109.
  9. Hans-Henning Schröder: Economic growth, welfare state and spiritual-moral turn - the domestic political agenda of the third Putin administration. In: Dossier Russia. Federal Agency for Civic Education, April 23, 2013.
  10. Предвыборная программа Партии "ЕДИНАЯ РОССИЯ» на выборах депутатов Государственной Думы ФС РФ VII созыва , homepage of the United Russia party
  11. Archive link ( Memento from October 25, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
  12. Russia office of the Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung - “United Russia” party, section “Current situation”, last paragraph ( Memento from January 19, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  13. ^ Federal Agency for Civic Education on the 2011 Duma election
  14. This was definitely an unfair choice , on deutschlandradio.de on December 3, 2007
  15. http://nachrichten.t-online.de/parlamentswahlen-in-russland-osze-sieh-verletzung-demokratischer-grundregel/id_13603010/index
  16. ^ Duma election: Neither fair nor democratic , on focus-online from December 3, 2007
  17. That was an empowerment staging on sueddeutsche.de on December 3, 2007
  18. The opposition had no chance ( Memento of December 4, 2007 in the Internet Archive ), on tagesspiegel.de of December 3, 2007
  19. OSCE countries must raise their voices on Forward-Online December 3, 2007
  20. Medvedev follows Putin: Change party leader at handelsblatt.com, May 26, 2012 (accessed on May 26, 2012).
  21. United Russia to have 238 seats at the new State Duma . itar-tass.com (2011-12-06)
  22. Europe | Putin to lead United Russia party . BBC News (2008-04-15). Retrieved December 6, 2011.
  23. Putin Named Party Chairman | NEWS ( Memento from December 22, 2011 in the Internet Archive ). The Moscow News (April 17, 2008). Retrieved December 6, 2011.
  24. Russia PM Medvedev set to be elected United Russia leader . Bbc.co.uk (2012-05-26). Retrieved June 1, 2012.
  25. ^ Agreement for cooperation between SNS and United Russia . SNS website. September 2011.
  26. Единая Россия договорилась о сотрудничестве с Сербской прогрессивной партией
  27. Archive link ( Memento from September 1, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
  28. Партия регионов будет сотрудничать с Единой Россией
  29. "Новый Азербайджан" и "Единая Россия" обсудили межпартийное сотрудничество
  30. Сотрудничество «Нур Отана» and «Единой России». Новости политических партий России и СНГ
  31. В Гербовом зале Государственной думы прошла торжественная церемония. Партии "Единая Россия" и киргизская "Ар-Намыс" заключили соглашение. In: NTW . September 22, 2010, Retrieved November 5, 2012 (Russian).
  32. Партии Единая Россия и Ар-Намыс подписали соглашение о сотрудничестве // фото, видео
  33. «Единая Россия» подписала договор о сотрудничестве с Монгольской народной партией ( Memento from October 8, 2014 in the web archive archive.today )
  34. Отношения с "Единой Россией" получили новое качество - Республиканская партия Армении
  35. Правящие партии РФ и Таджикистана подписали соглашение о взаимодействии ( ru ) ru.sputnik-tj.com. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
  36. http://osinform.ru/9035-soglashenie-o-mezhpartijjnom-sotrudnichestve.html
  37. "Единая Россия" заключила соглашение с югоосетинской партией "Единство" - Перявый канал, 22 сентябрябал, 22 сентябал
  38. ^ Latvian Election Shows Gains for Pro-Russia Party . The New York Times. Retrieved December 8, 2013.
  39. Центр согласия не станет расторгать договор с Единой Россией (Латвия)
  40. Правляча партія Естонії здобула перемогу на виборах - Радіо Свобода, March 2nd, 2015
  41. Vladimir Socor: Russia and the Moldovan Communists' Red October (Part One). jamestown.org October 4, 2013. https://jamestown.org/program/russia-and-the-moldovan-communists-red-october-part-one/
  42. Margarita Antidze: Pro-Russian party wins a toe-hold in Georgia's new parliament . In: Reuters . October 11, 2016.
  43. ^ Thea Morrison: Pro-Russian Alliance of Patriots Demand More Seats in Parliament . In: Georgia Today . October 26, 2016.
  44. http://www.themoscowtimes.com/stories/2007/11/19/019.html
  45. Lukashenko Backers Form New Party , themoscowtimes.com November 19, 2007 ( Memento from February 17, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  46. a b - ( Memento from February 2, 2017 in the Internet Archive )
  47. http://www.krone.at/oesterreich/fpoe-und-putin-partei-arbeiten-jetzt-z together- besuch-in-moskau-story- 544938
  48. Said Jarsalia: РПП "Единая Абхазия" принимает участие в съезде "Единой России". Apsnypress , June 27, 2016, accessed July 30, 2016 (Russian).
  49. Putin's party fellow Prunskiene is unable to find political support in Lithuania | The Lithuania Tribune The Lithuania Tribune ( Memento of January 3, 2013 in the web archive archive.today )
  50. http://www.rg.ru/2010/05/19/edro.html
  51. russland.RU of September 29, 2010: Luschkow - Those who go too late are punished by life ( Memento from September 14, 2012 in the web archive archive.today )
  52. Чапман: Потеев сдал меня американским спецслужбам , on er.ru of June 27, 2011