|Party leader||Dmitry Medvedev|
|founding||December 1, 2001|
|Youth organization||Young Guard|
|Colours)||White, blue, red
(Russian tricolor )
|Number of members||2,073,772
(as of January 1, 2011)
United Russia ( Russian Единая Россия , transcription Jedinaja Rossija ; other translations: United Russia , United Russia , United Russia ) is the party with the largest number of members in the Russian Federation . It has a two-thirds constituent majority in the Russian parliament . From 2012 to 2020, the party provided Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev , who has also been the chairman of United Russia since 2012 . Russian President Vladimir Putin is not a member of the party. However, the party supports Vladimir Putin's course .
United Russia does not have a distinct ideology, but gathers politicians and officials with different political positions and beliefs who support the government. The party primarily appeals to non-ideological voters. It is therefore referred to by political scientists as the catch-all party or “party of power”. It sees itself as a party of the political center that pursues the "national interests" of Russia. Some observers of Russian politics describe the party as more nationally conservative in terms of its orientation . Within Russia, the party is pursuing a centralist course in which the strengthening of central political power is of particular importance. This means that one has successfully counteracted the weakening of the Russian Federation after the collapse of the Soviet Union . The party's stated goals are:
- Development of the economy
- Strengthening the state power
- Improvement of living conditions and social security
- Ensuring free elections
- Strengthening the Russian Armed Forces
Election program for the Duma VII election (2016)
The strategic goal is to maintain the country's unity and independence and to develop Russia again into a sovereign global power.
The aim is to overcome the “shock reforms” of 1990 and 1998. In its election manifesto, the United Russia party commemorates the division of the country through the “oligarchic” privatization of the economy and state institutions. This worsened the standard of living of the people, triggered a demographic crisis, and increased corruption and crime. As a result of the “shock reforms”, laws were often disregarded and trust in society was dissolved.
The party sees it as its task to lead the country out of this “total crisis”, to renew statehood and to consolidate the country's sovereignty. In the middle of the 2000 years, decisions were made to implement the national “priority projects” and to overcome the consequences of the economic crisis of 2008-2009 years. This policy is to be continued.
According to this election manifesto, the party's aim is to improve the well-being of the people and promote the development of Russia. Everyone should have a decent standard of living, social security and the development of their skills. A strong, independent, lawful state for all is to be established. This is to be achieved through a consistent course for stability, without revolutions and shocks. The safety of the children should be guaranteed. Everyone should be able to work and live with dignity. Everyone should have the right to learn without fear and to see into the future.
The party supports the realization of the strategic presidential course for the development of the country. This is stated in the fundamental ordinances of the President of Russia Putin of May 7, 2012.
The future must be protected. "Disadvantages" inside and outside the country should not destroy them.
Key projects for the development of the country are to be implemented. The key projects themselves are not mentioned in the election manifesto.
This election manifesto was signed by both Vladimir Putin , who is not a member of the party, and Dmitry Medvedev . According to Russian law, the Russian president is not allowed to be a member of any party.
The party has local organizations in all regions and republics of the Russian Federation. With over two million members, it is by far the largest party in the country.
The highest office in the party is that of the party chairman. The party chairman is elected for four years at the party congress.
The Supreme Council determines the strategy for the development of the party. The party leader presides over the Supreme Council.
The General Council has 152 members and is the most important party body in the period between party congresses. The General Council issues declarations on important social and political issues.
The Presidium of the General Council has 23 members and directs the party's political work. It is Z. B. responsible for the preparation of the election campaign program and other programmatic publications. The work of the presidium is directed by the secretary of the presidium.
History of the party
The party was founded on December 1, 2001 as a merger of the factions Unity ( Jedinstwo ) by Sergei Shoigu , and Fatherland - All Russia ( Otetschestvo - wsja Rossija ) by Yuri Luzhkov and Mintimer Schäimijew , who in turn both in 1999 z. Partly from former members of the government-supporting party of the 1990s in Russia, Our House Russia .
The first party chairman was the President of the Duma , Boris Gryzlov . Several ministers in the incumbent Russian government are members of United Russia . During the 2003 presidential election campaign, the party supported Vladimir Putin.
In the 2003 parliamentary election , the party emerged as the strongest force with 37.6% of the vote. After the elections, a number of independent candidates and representatives of other parties also joined the group, so that United Russia finally had 305 out of 450 seats, and thus a two-thirds majority in parliament.
In the 2007 parliamentary elections , the party received 63.5% of the vote and 315 of the 450 seats in the State Duma. The party thus had a two-thirds constituent majority. The electoral list was headed by President Vladimir Putin, who himself is not a member of the United Russia party .
In the 2011 parliamentary election , the party received 49.3% of the vote and thus no longer has a two-thirds majority, but retains an absolute majority.
Member of the Bundestag Christian Kleiminger (SPD), who as a member of the delegation of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE PA) observed the election, then referred to it, referring to the economic and personal superiority of "United Russia" as unfair. The opposition had no real chance.
On April 15, 2008, Vladimir Putin was elected party chairman. Since Putin was not a member of United Russia and was not ready to join the party, the statutes were changed accordingly beforehand. Putin took the chair on May 7th.
At the 12th United Russia Congress, which took place on September 24, 2011, Dmitry Medvedev was nominated as the top candidate for the 2011 parliamentary election. He took over the office of prime minister, which Putin had held since 2008. In return, party leader Vladimir Putin ran for the 2012 presidential election in Russia and became president again.
On May 26, 2012, Dmitry Medvedev was elected chairman of the party at the suggestion of Vladimir Putin. Due to alleged forgery in the parliamentary elections in December 2011, which led to the largest protest rallies in the country's recent history , parts of the population also refer to United Russia as the “party of crooks and thieves”. Putin himself is not a party member. According to experts, Putin wants to distance himself from the party's bad reputation.
Presidential elections of Russia
|Election year||candidate||1 round||2nd round|
|be right||Share of votes||be right||Share of votes||supporting party|
|2000||Wladimir Putin||39,740,467||52.9 ( elected )||unit|
|2004||Wladimir Putin||49,565,238||71.3 ( elected )||United Russia|
|2008||Dmitry Medvedev||52,530,712||71.2 ( elected )||United Russia|
|2012||Wladimir Putin||46,602,075||63.6 ( elected )||United Russia|
|2018||Wladimir Putin||56,411,688||76.7 ( elected )||United Russia|
- According to Russian law, the Russian president cannot be a member of a party at the same time.
State Duma election
|year||Party leader||be right||percent||Seats||majority|
|2003||Boris Gryzlov||22,779,279||37.6%||225 of 450||relative majority|
|2007||Wladimir Putin||44,714,241||64.3%||315 of 450||qualified majority|
|2011||Dmitry Medvedev||32,448,000||49.3%||238 of 450||relative majority|
|2016||Dmitry Medvedev||28,271,600||54.2%||343 of 450||qualified majority|
Party leaders United Russia
|-||joint party chairmanship
|2||Vladimir Putin as a non-party||12/31/2007||05/30/2012|
At the international level, United Russia cooperates with the following parties:
- Srpska Napredna Stranka
- Party of Regions
- New Azerbaijan
- Only Otan
- Mongolian People's Party
- Republican Party of Armenia
- People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan
- Saskaņas Centrs
- Estonian Center Party
- Party of Socialists of Moldova
- Georgia's way
- Alliance of Patriots of Georgia
- Belaya Rus
- Chinese Communist Party (since May 26, 2012)
- Indian National Congress (since May 26, 2012)
- Freedom Party of Austria
- Some Abkhazia
- Lithuanian People's Party
The youth organization of the United Russia Party is Molodaja Gwardija (Young Guard). The organization Naschi (Die Ours) was a youth organization founded by the Russian government in 2005 to support the party's political course.
The membership structure of the United Russia party is made up as follows:
- 26% retirees, students and temporarily not employed
- 21.2% employed in the education sector
- 20.9% employed in industry
- 13.2% employees in the public service or in government bodies
- 8% employed in the medical sector
- 4% entrepreneurs, freelancers and artists
- Sergei Besrukov (actor and people's artist of Russia)
- Georgi Boos (former Governor of Kaliningrad Oblast )
- Boris Gryslow (former party leader and chairman of the Duma)
- Andrei Arshavin (soccer player from Zenit Saint Petersburg )
- Yuri Luzhkov (former mayor of Moscow) - resigned September 29, 2010
- Sergei Shoigu (Deputy Party Chairman and Defense Minister)
- Valentina Tereshkova (first woman in space)
- Nikolai Valujew (former professional boxer)
- Anna Chapman (former Russian agent)
- Alexander Powetkin (professional boxer)
- Anatoly Evgenyevich Karpov (Chess Grandmaster)
- Alsou (singer and actress)
- Alexander Bortnikow (Head of the Russian Domestic Intelligence Service FSB )
- Stanislaw Goworuchin (cinema director and politician)
- Fyodor Jemeljanenko ( Sambo and MMA fighter)
- Alina Kabaeva (athlete, Olympic champion in rhythmic gymnastics at the 2004 Summer Olympics )
- Ramzan Kadyrov (politician and head of the Russian republic of Chechnya since May 2007 )
- Alexander Karelin ( wrestler , Olympic champion 1988, 1992 and 1996)
- Yuri Kuzenko (actor)
- Alexander Rosenbaum ( chanson singer )
- Anton Sicharulidze ( figure skater , Olympic champion 2002)
- Sergei Sobyanin (lawyer and politician; Lord Mayor of Moscow since 2010)
- Alexander Kharitonov ( ice hockey player )
- Party website (Russian)
- The party is an instrument of Putin , Frankfurter Allgemeine, September 20, 2016
- Lucan Way: Resistance to Contagion. Sources of Authoritarian Stability in the Former Soviet Union. In: Democracy and Authoritarianism in the Postcommunist World. Cambridge University Press, New York 2010, pp. 229-252, at pp. 246-247.
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- Archive link ( Memento from October 25, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
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- Federal Agency for Civic Education on the 2011 Duma election
- This was definitely an unfair choice , on deutschlandradio.de on December 3, 2007
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- Единая Россия договорилась о сотрудничестве с Сербской прогрессивной партией
- Archive link ( Memento from September 1, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- Партия регионов будет сотрудничать с Единой Россией
- "Новый Азербайджан" и "Единая Россия" обсудили межпартийное сотрудничество
- Сотрудничество «Нур Отана» and «Единой России». Новости политических партий России и СНГ
- В Гербовом зале Государственной думы прошла торжественная церемония. Партии "Единая Россия" и киргизская "Ар-Намыс" заключили соглашение. In: NTW . September 22, 2010, Retrieved November 5, 2012 (Russian).
- Партии Единая Россия и Ар-Намыс подписали соглашение о сотрудничестве // фото, видео
- «Единая Россия» подписала договор о сотрудничестве с Монгольской народной партией ( Memento from October 8, 2014 in the web archive archive.today )
- Отношения с "Единой Россией" получили новое качество - Республиканская партия Армении
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