Federal structure of Russia

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The federal structure of Russia looks for in Article 65 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation in addition to the central government level 85 federal subjects (including the internationally controversial classification of the peninsula of Crimea located Republic of Crimea and City federal Ranges Sevastopol ) with varying degree of autonomy before that turn into eight federal districts combined are. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 and the re-establishment of Russia, the borders within the Russian Federation initially remained largely in place, but since 2005 there have been several reforms and changes in the subject structure.

Federal state according to the constitution

In the Tsarist era, Russia was a centralized, unitary state . In Soviet times, the central administration economy ensured strong centralization. At the same time, however, the nationality policy created a federal structure of the USSR based on ethnic principles. After the collapse of the Soviet Union , the Russian government signed a federation treaty with the regions in March 1992, which was signed by the president and central government on the one hand and the heads of almost all regional governments on the other. The respective powers were anchored in it. This division of competencies was then incorporated into the Constitution of the Russian Federation of 1993. It ensures the distribution of competences and responsibilities between the federal central government and the regions. This is intended to ensure the democratic formation of regional authorities as well as the political and economic autonomy of local self-government .

After uncontrolled decentralization in the course of the 1990s, the state administration was recentralized after 2000. It resulted in an increased political and economic dependence of the regions on the center. The regional and local authorities were again more strongly subordinated to the federal center.

Federation districts

Iran Turkmenistan China Kasachstan Usbekistan Mongolei Japan Nordkorea China Norwegen Dänemark Deutschland Schweden Vereinigte Staaten Finnland Kirgistan Georgien Türkei Armenien Aserbaidschan Ukraine Polen Litauen Lettland Estland Weissrussland Norwegen Nordwestrussland Nordwestrussland Sibirien Ural Wolga Zentralrussland Südrussland Nordkaukasus Ferner Osten
The Federal Districts of Russia (Federal District of Southern Russia excluding the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol)

The federal districts are not an additional or even the highest federal level next to or above the federal subjects, but an additional administrative structure: Each federal district is headed by a personal and authorized representative appointed by the President of the Russian Federation , who has a control function over the Heads of federation subjects (usually called governor or president). The historical models are the eight large governorates introduced by Peter I in 1708 , which, however, were divided into many smaller ones with increasing population growth in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The tasks of the presidential representatives in the federal circles, newly created in 2000, include the enforcement of government policy, including the president's personnel policy, the coordination of federal organs in the regions, participation in the regional authorities, the enforcement of presidential decrees and disciplinary reprimands.

Federation subjects

republic city region
area Autonomous Circle Autonomous Oblast

See also: Federation subject

The constitution uses the term “federal subjects” to denote different types of territorial units, such as areas, republics, districts, cities with federal significance, etc.

Russia's 85 federal subjects differ greatly in terms of their population and geographic extent, their resource deposits and the level of their economic development. The regional development strategies in Russia therefore concentrated on the equalization policy. To this end, a transfer system between the central government and the regions was created.

According to the Constitution, all regions are equal members of the Russian Federation. In reality, however, republics rank higher because they have a constitution , while the other regions only have a statute .

The subjects of the federation include (including the internationally controversial classification of the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol, which is part of Ukraine under international law and is located on the Crimean peninsula):

Tasks and competencies at regional level

The federal level has around 700 areas of responsibility, while after the centralization reforms under President Putin between 2000 and 2008, around 50 areas of competence remained with the regions. The reforms concerned the enforcement of federal law through the annulment of regional legal acts and the legal and technical supervision of the governors and regional parliaments.

The central government is solely responsible for defense, customs and foreign policy. In other areas such as B. Real estate and use of land, raw materials, water and other resources, in the health system and in taxation, the central government and regional authorities are jointly responsible. Regarding joint powers, the constitution gives little information about the distribution of power between the central government and the regions. In practice this means that these tasks are carried out by the central government. In principle, the regions are allowed to decide on their own income and expenditure within the framework of national tax regulations. However, the income of the regions often does not cover their expenditure needs, so that many regions are dependent on transfer payments from the central government. The regions are allowed to issue debt securities. The regions alone may exercise powers which are neither exclusively delegated to the central government nor jointly exercised by the central government and the regions.

List of federal subjects

Iran Turkmenistan China Kasachstan Usbekistan Mongolei Japan Nordkorea China Norwegen Dänemark Deutschland Schweden Vereinigte Staaten Finnland Kirgisistan Georgien Türkei Armenien Aserbaidschan Ukraine Polen Litauen Lettland Estland Weißrussland Norwegen Oblast Sachalin Region Kamtschatka Jüdische Autonome Oblast Region Primorje Region Chabarowsk Tuwa Chakassien Oblast Kemerowo Republik Altai Region Altai Oblast Nowosibirsk Oblast Omsk Oblast Tjumen Oblast Tomsk Burjatien Region Transbaikalien Oblast Amur Oblast Magadan Autonomer Kreis der Tschuktschen Oblast Irkutsk Sacha Region Krasnojarsk Autonomer Kreis der Jamal-Nenzen Autonomer Kreis der Chanten und Mansen/Jugra Oblast Swerdlowsk Oblast Tscheljabinsk Oblast Kurgan Oblast Orenburg Autonomer Kreis der Nenzen Republik Komi Baschkortostan Region Perm Oblast Wologda Republik Karelien Oblast Murmansk Oblast Archangelsk Oblast Kaliningrad Sankt Petersburg Oblast Leningrad Tatarstan Udmurtien Oblast Kirow Oblast Kostroma Oblast Samara Oblast Pskow Oblast Twer Oblast Nowgorod Oblast Jaroslawl Oblast Smolensk Moskau Oblast Moskau Oblast Wladimir Oblast Iwanowo Mari El Tschuwaschien Mordwinien Oblast Pensa Oblast Nischni Nowgorod Oblast Uljanowsk Oblast Saratow Oblast Brjansk Oblast Kaluga Oblast Tula Oblast Rjasan Oblast Orjol Oblast Lipezk Oblast Woronesch Oblast Belgorod Oblast Kursk Oblast Tambow Oblast Wolgograd Oblast Rostow Oblast Astrachan Kalmückien Dagestan Adygeja Region Krasnodar Karatschai-Tscherkessien Kabardino-Balkarien Region Stawropol Nordossetien-Alanien Inguschetien Tschetschenien
Federal subjects (Federal District of Southern Russia excluding the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol)
map Federation subject Art Capital Federal district Residents Area (km²) Share of Russians , titular nations and Germans Official language
1 Flag of Adygea.svg Adygea republic Maikop Southern Russia 439.996 7,792 Russians (63.6%), Adygians (25.2%) Russian , Adygean
2 Flag of Bashkortostan.svg Bashkortostan republic Ufa Volga 4,072,292 142,947 Russians (36.1%), Bashkirs (29.5%), Germans (0.1%) Russian , Bashkir
3 Flag of Buryatia.svg Buryatia republic Ulan-Ude far East 972.021 351.334 Russians (66.1%), Buryats (30%), Germans (0.1%) Russian , Buryat
4th Flag of Altai Republic.svg Altai republic Gorno-Altaysk Siberia 206.168 92.903 Russians (56.6%), Altai (33.9%), Germans (0.4%) Russian , Altaic
5 Flag of Dagestan.svg Dagestan republic Makhachkala North Caucasus 2,910,249 50,270 Avars (29.2%), Darginer (16.9%), Kumyks (14.8%), Lesgier (13.2%), Laken (5.5%), Azerbaijanis (4.5%), Tabassarans ( 4.1%), Russians (3.6%), Germans (0.006%) Russian , Aghul , Avar , Azerbaijani , Dargin , Kumyk , Lakish , Lesgic , Nogai , Rutul , Tabassaran , Tatic , Tsachurian , Chechen
6th Flag of Ingushetia.svg Ingushetia republic Magas North Caucasus 412,529 3,628 Ingush (93.5%), Russians (0.8%) Russian , Ingush
7th Flag of Kabardino-Balkaria.svg Kabardino-Balkaria republic Nalchik North Caucasus 859.939 12,470 Cabardians (57%), Russians (22.5%), Balkars (12.6%), Germans (0.2%) Russian , Kabardian , Karachay-Balkar
8th Flag of Kalmykia.svg Kalmykia republic Elista Southern Russia 289,481 74,731 Kalmyks (57.4%), Russians (30.2%), Germans (0.4%) Russian , Kalmuck
9 Flag of Karachay-Cherkessia.svg Karachay Cherkessia republic Cherkessk North Caucasus 477.859 14,277 Karachay (40.7%), Russians (31.4%), Circassians (11.8%) Russian , Karachay-Balkar , Kabardian , Abasin , Nogai
10 Flag of Karelia.svg Karelia republic Petrozavodsk Northwest Russia 643,548 180,520 Russians (78.9%), Karelians (7.1%) Russian , Karelian , Wepsis , Finnish
11 Flag of Komi.svg Komi republic Syktyvkar Northwest Russia 901.189 416.774 Russians (61.7%), Komi (22.5%), Germans (0.6%) Russian , Komi (mainly Komi-Syrian )
12 Flag of Mari El.svg Mari El republic Yoshkar-Ola Volga 696.459 23,375 Russians (45.1%), Mari (41.8%), Germans (0.06%) Russian , Mari (Bergmari, Wiesenmari)
13 Flag of Mordovia.svg Mordovia republic Saransk Volga 834.755 26,128 Russians (53.2%), Mordvins (39.9%) Russian , Ersyan , Mokshan
14th Flag of Sakha.svg Sakha (Yakutia) republic Yakutsk far East 958.528 3,083,523 Yakuts (48.7%), Russians (36.9%), Germans (0.2%) Russian , Yakut
15th Flag of North Ossetia.svg North Ossetia-Alania republic Vladikavkaz North Caucasus 712.980 7,987 Ossetians (64.5%), Russians (20.6%), Germans (0.08%) Russian , Ossetian
16 Flag of Tatarstan.svg Tatarstan republic Kazan Volga 3,786,488 67,847 Tatars (53.2%), Russians (39.7%), Germans (0.06%) Russian , Tatar
17th Flag of Tuva.svg Tuva republic Kyzyl Siberia 307.930 168,604 Tuvins (81.0%), Russians (16.1%) Russian , Tuvinian
18th Flag of Udmurtia.svg Udmurtia republic Izhevsk Volga 1,521,420 42,061 Russians (60%), Udmurten (27, 1%), Germans (0.08%) Russian , Udmurtic
19th Flag of Khakassia.svg Khakassia republic Abakan Siberia 532.403 61,569 Russians (79.6%), Khakass (12%), Germans (1.1%) Russian , Khakass
20th Flag of the Chechen Republic.svg Chechnya republic Grozny North Caucasus 1,268,989 15,647 Chechens (95.1%), Russians (1.9%) Russian , Chechen
21st Flag of Chuvashia.svg Chuvashia republic Cheboksary Volga 1,251,619 18,343 Chuvashes (65.1%), Russians (25.8%) Russian , Chuvash
Flag of Crimea.svg Crimea republic Simferopol Southern Russia 1,889,400 26,080 Russians (58.5%), Ukrainians (24.4%), Crimean Tatars (12.1%), Germans (0.1%) Russian , Ukrainian , Crimean Tatar
22nd Flag of Altai Krai.svg Altai region Barnaul Siberia 2,419,755 167.996 Russians (92%), Germans (3%) Russian
23 Flag of Krasnodar Krai.svg Krasnodar region Krasnodar Southern Russia 5,226,647 75,485 Russians (86.6%), Germans (0.2%) Russian
24 Flag of Krasnoyarsk Krai.svg Krasnoyarsk region Krasnoyarsk Siberia 2,828,187 2,366,797 Russians (88.9%), Germans (1.2%) Russian
25th Flag of Primorsky Krai.svg Primorye region Vladivostok far East 1,956,497 164,673 Russians (88.9%) Russian
26th Flag of Stavropol Krai.svg Stavropol region Stavropol North Caucasus 2,786,281 66,160 Russians (80.9%) Russian
27 Flag of Khabarovsk Krai.svg Khabarovsk region Khabarovsk far East 1,343,869 787.633 Russians (91.8%) Russian
28 Flag of Amur Oblast.svg Amur Oblast Blagoveshchensk far East 830.103 361.913 Russians (93.43%), Germans (0.13%) Russian
29 Flag of Arkhangelsk Oblast.svg Arkhangelsk Oblast Arkhangelsk Northwest Russia 1,227,626 413.103 Russians (93.58%), Germans (0.07%) Russian
30th Flag of Astrakhan Oblast.svg Astrakhan Oblast Astrakhan Southern Russia 1,010,073 49.024 Russians (67.6%) Russian
31 Flag of Belgorod Oblast.svg Belgorod Oblast Belgorod Central Russia 1,532,526 27.134 Russians (91.66%), Germans (0.13%) Russian
32 Flag of Bryansk Oblast.svg Bryansk Oblast Bryansk Central Russia 1,278,217 34,857 Russians (94.67%) Russian
33 Flag of Vladimirskaya Oblast.svg Vladimir Oblast Vladimir Central Russia 1,443,693 29,084 Russians (89.27%) Russian
34 Flag of Volgograd Oblast.svg Volgograd Oblast Volgograd Southern Russia 2.610.161 112,877 Russians (88.47%), Germans (0.39%) Russian
35 Flag of Vologda oblast.svg Vologda Oblast Vologda Northwest Russia 1,202,444 144,527 Russians (92.53%), Germans (0.05%) Russian
36 Flag of Voronezh Oblast.svg Voronezh Oblast Voronezh Central Russia 2,335,380 52,216 Russians (90.97%), Germans (0.06%) Russian
37 Flag of Ivanovo Oblast.svg Ivanovo Oblast Ivanovo Central Russia 1,061,651 21,437 Russians (90.63%) Russian
38 Flag of Irkutsk Oblast.svg Irkutsk Oblast Irkutsk Siberia 2,428,750 774.846 Russians (82.28%), Germans (0.15%) Russian
39 Flag of Kaliningrad Oblast.svg Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Northwest Russia 941.873 15,125 Russians (86.43%), Germans (0.82%) Russian
40 Flag of Kaluga Oblast.svg Kaluga Oblast Kaluga Central Russia 1,010,930 29,777 Russians (85.96%), Germans (0.11%) Russian
42 Flag of Kemerovo oblast.svg Kemerovo Oblast Kemerovo Siberia 2,763,135 95,725 Russians (91.8%), Germans (0.84%) Russian
43 Flag of Kirov Oblast.svg Kirov Oblast Kirov Volga 1,341,312 120,374 Russians (89.44%), Germans (0.08%) Russian
44 Flag of Kostroma Oblast.svg Kostroma Oblast Kostroma Central Russia 667,562 60.211 Russians (93.24%), Germans (0.06%) Russian
45 Flag of Kurgan Oblast.svg Kurgan Oblast Kurgan Ural 910.807 71,488 Russians (90.44%), Germans (0.19%) Russian
46 Flag of Kursk Oblast.svg Kursk Oblast Kursk Central Russia 1,127,081 29,997 Russians (91.97%) Russian
47 Flag of Leningrad Oblast.svg Leningrad Oblast Saint Petersburg (not part of the oblast) Northwest Russia 1,716,868 83.908 Russians (86.55%) Russian
48 Flag of Lipetsk Oblast.svg Lipetsk Oblast Lipetsk Central Russia 1,173,513 24,047 Russians (92.55%), Germans (0.08%) Russian
49 Flag of Magadan Oblast.svg Magadan Oblast Magadan far East 156.996 462.464 Russians (80.2%) Russian
50 Flag of Moscow oblast.svg Moscow Oblast Moscow (not part of the oblast) Central Russia 7,095,120 45,799 Russians (91%) Russian
51 Flag of Murmansk Oblast.svg Murmansk Oblast Murmansk Northwest Russia 795,409 144.902 Russians (80.75%), Germans (0.09%) Russian
52 Flag of Nizhny Novgorod Region.svg Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Nizhny Novgorod Volga 3,310,597 76,624 Russians (93.93%) Russian
53 Flag of Novgorod Oblast.svg Novgorod Oblast Veliky Novgorod Northwest Russia 634.111 54.501 Russians (88.36%), Germans (0.1%) Russian
54 Flag of Novosibirsk oblast.svg Novosibirsk Oblast Novosibirsk Siberia 2,665,911 177.756 Russians (88.74%), Germans (1.16%) Russian
55 Flag of Omsk Oblast.svg Omsk Oblast Omsk Siberia 1,977,665 141.140 Russians (83.34%), Germans (2.53%) Russian
56 Flag of Orenburg Oblast.svg Orenburg Oblast Orenburg Volga 2,033,072 123.702 Russians (74.74%), Germans (0.6%) Russian
57 Flag of Oryol Oblast.svg Oryol Oblast Oryol Central Russia 786.935 24,652 Russians (93.91%), Germans (0.08%) Russian
58 Flag of Penza Oblast.svg Penza Oblast Penza Volga 1,386,186 43,352 Russians (84.09%), Germans (0.06%) Russian
60 Flag of Pskov Oblast.svg Pskov Oblast Pskov Northwest Russia 673.423 55,399 Russians (91.54%), Germans (0.06%) Russian
61 Flag of Rostov Oblast.svg Rostov Oblast Rostov on Don Southern Russia 4,277,976 100,967 Russians (88.72%), Germans (0.1%) Russian
62 Flag of Ryazan Oblast.svg Ryazan Oblast Ryazan Central Russia 1,154,114 39,605 Russians (88.98%), Germans (0.09%) Russian
63 Flag of Samara Oblast.svg Samara Oblast Samara Volga 3,215,532 53,565 Russians (82.26%), Germans (0.21%) Russian
64 Flag of Saratov Oblast.svg Saratov Oblast Saratov Volga 2,521,892 101,240 Russians (85.3%), Germans (0.3%) Russian
65 Flag of Sakhalin Oblast.svg Sakhalin Oblast Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk far East 497.973 87.101 Russians (82.29%), Germans (0.1%) Russian
66 Flag of Sverdlovsk Oblast.svg Sverdlovsk Oblast Ekaterinburg Ural 4,297,747 194,307 Russians (85.74%), Germans (0.35%) Russian
67 Flag of Smolensk oblast.svg Smolensk Oblast Smolensk Central Russia 985,537 49,779 Russians (90.68%), Germans (0.08%) Russian
68 Flag of Tambov Oblast.svg Tambov Oblast Tambov Central Russia 1,091,994 34,462 Russians (94.97%), Germans (0.06%) Russian
69 Flag of Tver Oblast.svg Tver Oblast Tver Central Russia 1,353,392 84.201 Russians (86.6%), Germans (0.1%) Russian
70 Flag of Tomsk Oblast.svg Tomsk Oblast Tomsk Siberia 1,047,394 314.391 Russians (88.1%), Germans (0.83%) Russian
71 Flag of Tula Oblast.svg Tula Oblast Tula Central Russia 1,553,925 25,679 Russians (94.1%), Germans (0.17%) Russian
72 Flag of Tyumen Oblast.svg Tyumen Oblast Tyumen Ural 1,340,608 160.122 Russians (79.52%), Germans (0.9%) Russian
73 Flag of Ulyanovsk Oblast.svg Ulyanovsk Oblast Ulyanovsk Volga 1,292,799 37.181 Russians (69.71%), Germans (0.14%) Russian
74 Flag of Chelyabinsk Oblast.svg Chelyabinsk Oblast Chelyabinsk Ural 3,476,217 88,529 Russians (81.41%), Germans (0.54%) Russian
76 Flag of Yaroslavl Oblast.svg Yaroslavl Oblast Yaroslavl Central Russia 1,272,468 36,177 Russians (92.12%) Russian
77 Flag of Moscow, Russia.svg Moscow City with subject status - Central Russia 11,503,501 2,510 Russians (84.83%), Germans (0.05%) Russian
78 Flag of Saint Petersburg.svg St. Petersburg City with subject status - Northwest Russia 4,879,566 1,431 Russians (89.1%) Russian
Flag of Sevastopol.svg Sevastopol City with subject status - Southern Russia 416.263 864 Russians (81.1%), Ukrainians (14.2%), Crimean Tatars (0.8%) Russian , Ukrainian
79 Flag of the Jewish Autonomous Oblast.svg Jewish Autonomous Oblast Autonomous Oblast Birobidzhan far East 176,558 36,266 Russians (90.7%), Jews (0.9%), Germans (0.14%) Russian
83 Flag of Nenets Autonomous District.svg Nenets Autonomous Circle Naryan-Mar Northwest Russia 42,090 176.810 Russians (62.4%), Nenets (18.7%) Russian , Nenzish
86 Flag of Yugra.svg Chanting and Mansi (Ugra) Autonomous Circle Khanty-Mansiysk Ural 1,532,243 534.801 Russians (63.6%), Chanting (1.2%), Mansi (0.7%), Germans (0.4%) Russian , Chantic , Mansic
87 Flag of Chukotka.svg Chukchi (Chukotka) Autonomous Circle Anadyr far East 50,526 721.481 Russians (51.9%), Chukchi (23.5%) Russian , Chukchi
89 Flag of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District.svg Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Circle Salekhard Ural 522.904 769.250 Russians (59.7%), Nenets (5.7%) Russian , Nenzish
90 Flag of Perm Krai.svg Perm region Perm Volga 2,635,276 160.236 Russians (87.1%), Komi-Permyaks (3.2%), Germans (0.3%) Russian , Komi (Komi-Permyak)
91 Flag of Kamchatka Krai.svg Kamchatka region Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky far East 322.079 464.275 Russians (78.4%), Koryaks (2.1%) Russian , Korjak
92 Flag of Zabaykalsky Krai.svg Transbaikalia region Chita far East 1,107,107 431,892 Russians (89.9%) Russian

Note: The numbers in the table correspond to those in the card.

Changes in the structure of the subject at the federal level

Reforms carried out

Proposed reforms

Organization of the federal subjects

Below the regional level, a distinction is made in Russia between rajons and urban districts . The Rajons roughly correspond to the German rural districts , Austrian political districts or Swiss districts . Most of the Rajons are divided into urban and rural communities (corresponding to gorodskoje posselenije and selskoje posselenije ). Rajons, city districts and municipalities do not form independent political levels, but represent subdivisions on administrative-territorial level or the municipal self-government . The latter is the municipalities by Article 12 of the Constitution guarantees, according to the decisions concerning the management of municipal property, the preparation and implementation of the the municipal budget and the determination of local taxes and duties independently. The funds are earmarked for issues of local importance, e.g. B. the maintenance of communal residential property.

Further subdivision of the federal subjects into rajons and city districts

Web links