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Tula ( Russian Ту́ла ) is a city with 501,169 inhabitants (as of October 14, 2010) in Russia . It is the administrative center of the Tula Oblast in the Central Federal District and is located almost 200 km south of Moscow . Today Tula is an important industrial city and one of the centers of the Russian arms industry with its almost 300 year old arms factory and other factories . The city also has over 850 years of history and is an important tourist destination with numerous historical buildings, including the Kremlin from the early 16th century.
Tula is located 193 kilometers south of Moscow. The city is the administrative center of Tula Oblast, one of the 47 oblasts of the Russian Federation. This extends over around 200 km from north to south and 190 km from west to east and borders on the oblasts of Moscow , Ryazan , Lipetsk , Oryol and Kaluga .
The city of Tula lies on both banks of the Upa River , a 345 km long right tributary of the Oka (river system of the Volga ), at an altitude of around 150 to 170 meters above sea level. It is by far the largest city in the oblast and, along with Novomoskowsk, one of its two major cities . The two cities closest to Tula are Bolochowo (18 km southeast of Tula) and Shchokino (23 km south).
As has been the case with many Russian cities since the territorial reforms of the Soviet era , Tula is also subdivided into so-called city rajons, i.e. districts that usually do not correspond to the historical districts or villages, but were mainly formed under geographical or administrative aspects. The Tula city area consists of five such Rajons, each with a population of around 70,000 to 150,000 inhabitants. The Zentralny and Sowetsky Raion mainly comprise the city center, the Saretschensky Raion the northern city, the Proletarsky Raion includes the residential areas on the right bank of the Upa, and the Privoksalny Raion lies west of the railway line to Moscow.
The population of the five urban rajons of Tula is shown in the table below.
Nature and raw materials
Tula is located in the northeastern part of the Central Russian Plate on the northern foothills of the steppe landscape, which is particularly typical for southern Russia . For this reason, the area around the city has relatively little forest areas compared to Moscow Oblast. The existing forests are mainly deciduous forests with a particularly wide distribution of oak , birch and maple . Larger forest areas in the Tula city area can be found northeast and northwest of the city center, also immediately behind the southern city limits, where the remains of the protective walls from the 16th and 17th centuries can be found to this day (see also the history section ).
Tula Oblast is relatively poor in natural resources. Its most important raw materials include lignite , which has been mined south and south-east of Tula since the middle of the 19th century. There are also deposits of iron and strontium ore, peat , clay and limestone .
The city of Tula and its surroundings have a temperate continental climate. The mean annual temperature in the city is 5.2 ° C and the annual rainfall is 601 millimeters. January is the coldest month of the year with an average temperature of -6 ° C during the day and -12.6 ° C at night, the warmest is August with 22.4 ° C and 11.6 ° C, respectively. On average, this also has the highest amount of precipitation with 86 mm, whereas the corresponding value for February is only 30 mm.
As is the case with all other Central Russian regions, a rather cold and snowy, but also dry winter and a moderately warm, sunny summer are typical for Tula and the surrounding area. Although the temperature often falls below –20 ° C in winter, the wind chill factor is relatively low - due to the mostly dry air and moderate wind - so the perceived temperature is higher than the actual temperature.
The following table shows a tabular and graphic overview of the monthly maximum and minimum temperatures as well as amounts of precipitation for the urban area of Tula.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Tula
Source: Russian Federal Hydrometeorological Service
The first documented mention of Tula comes from a chronicle of the year 1146. At this time, at the latest, the first settlements existed at the confluence of the Tuliza river into the Upa , so near today's historic city center. The exact origin of the name of the Tuliza, from which the city name derives, is still unknown, but is likely to be of Old Eastern Slavic origin. In 1382, during the Mongol invasion of Russia , Tula was mentioned again in writing, this time in a document from the Moscow Grand Duke Dmitri Donskoy . There Tula is mentioned as the residence of the wife of the Tatar Khan Dschani Beg .
After Dmitri Donskoy's victory over the Mongol invaders in the Kulikovo Battle of 1380, Tula and the surrounding area belonged to the Ryazan Principality for a good century, until they were conquered and part of the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1503 . The exact historical development of the city before this time has only been handed down very incompletely. It is known, however, that handicrafts and trade had played an important role in Tula since the 14th century.
Tula becomes a fortress city
After Tula joined Moscow in 1503, the city became one of its southern outposts due to its location near the southern borders of the Grand Duchy. For this reason, the then Grand Duke Vasily III. to develop the city into a fortress that could protect Moscow from attacks from the south. For this purpose, a strip of forest was created as a defense system south of the city. The trees in this roughly four-kilometer-wide strip were protected from impact and could be felled to the south in the event of an attack. This impenetrable wooden wall as part of the so-called Verhaulinie was supposed to help, among other things, to repel the Crimean Tatars , who were strong on horseback . The remains of this forest, which originally stretched over 400 km along the southern Russian border, can still be seen today on aerial photographs of the region.
In addition, in order to additionally protect the city center from possible attacks, the construction of a Kremlin typical of old Russian border towns began in 1509 , i.e. a fortress surrounded by stone walls with watchtowers. The resulting Tula Kremlin on the left Upa bank opposite the Tuliza estuary was completed in 1520 and, with its up to 3.2 meters thick wall and nine red brick watchtowers, was one of the safest and most architecturally complex at the time Fortresses on the territory of the Moscow Grand Duchy. As early as 1552, the city was able to successfully repel the attack by the army of the Crimean Tatar Khan Devlet I. Giray . In 1607, the Kremlin served the army of the peasant rebellion leader Ivan Bolotnikov as a refuge for four months. Only through an artificial damming of the Upa with a dam construction made of sandbags, which led to a flooding of the Kremlin grounds, the army of Tsar Vasily IV finally succeeded in bringing the rebels to their knees.
The metalworking trade began to develop in Tula towards the end of the 16th century, mainly due to the rich iron ore deposits in the vicinity of the city. The Tula iron smiths used iron to produce everyday objects and rifles, which quickly became known throughout Russia due to their excellent quality. In 1595, the iron forge founded a special craft settlement near the city, in which from then on a wide variety of iron goods - from small everyday objects to agricultural implements to blades and firearms - were manufactured. At the same time, the Tula blacksmiths were elevated to a privileged guild by the Tsar's decree of Fjodor I , who enjoyed tax exemption and independence from local power structures. This, together with the founding of the iron forge settlement, marks the birth of the Tula armaments industry.
In the course of the 17th century, several iron foundries were built on the banks of the Tuliza , which underpinned the city's reputation as a center of Russian iron processing. Nikita Demidow (1656–1725) was one of the best-known Tula iron smiths at that time. In 1696 he founded a large iron foundry near the city, powered by the artificial water of the Tuliza, and during the war against Sweden the army of Tsar Peter I with rifles manufactured there and supplied cannons. Since Peter appreciated the high quality of Demidov's weapons, in 1702 he gave him extensive plots of land in the Urals to build new arms factories. Demidow then had his production facilities built there, which made him one of the richest industrialists of the 18th century and initiated the industrialization of the Ural region.
Development of industry from the 18th century
After the Moscow state , which had meanwhile expanded into tsarist Russia, expanded south in the course of the 17th century, Tula gradually lost its importance as a border and fortress city. At the same time, its economic role within Russia continued to grow. In addition to Nikita Demidow, several other Tula industrial families from the iron smiths' guild ensured the expansion of the Russian arms industry. Since Peter the Great knew about the great strategic importance of Tula metalworking at least since the war against Sweden, he issued a special ukase on February 15, 1712 for the construction of a large arms factory near the Tula iron forge settlement. This day is still considered to be the founding date of the Tula arms factory , which is still located in the immediate vicinity of the Kremlin and is one of the most famous Russian arms manufacturers. The newly founded factory was equipped with the most modern systems for the time and produced around 22,000 rifles for the Imperial Russian Army as early as 1720 . The factory had particularly high production figures in times of war - for example during the Russo-Ottoman Wars , the Patriotic War of 1812 , the Russo-Japanese War 1904–1905 and the First and Second World Wars . The Mosin-Nagant repeating rifle was also first manufactured in the Tula weapons factory in 1891.
In addition to the armaments industry, civil iron processing also developed to a large extent in Tula in the 18th century. In the factories of the iron forge settlement, high-quality household items, agricultural products and smaller everyday objects were produced, which were exported far beyond the city limits of Tula. The good craftsmanship of the Tula smithy was later recognized in the novel by the important Russian writer Nikolai Leskow The Steel Flea (1881).
1778 saw the birth of the Tula samovar with the establishment of a factory on the right bank of the Upa , which in the course of the following decades became another export hit for the city. The factory was founded by the brothers Iwan and Nasar Lissizyn, whose father was an iron smith and had his own workshop for copper processing . The Lissizyns produced samovars in various shapes and variations and soon sold them beyond the city limits. The lucrative samovar business quickly found imitators in Tula, so that in 1808 there were already eight samovar factories in the city. In addition to the Lissitsyn factory, the factory founded by the merchant Vasily Lomow in 1812 enjoyed a good reputation, which in the 1820s produced up to 1200 samovars a year. In the course of the 19th century, Tula samovar production became so firmly established throughout Russia that even today a common saying " drive to Tula with your own samovar " was created, which corresponds to the German phrase " carry an owl to Athens " - i.e. do something superfluous - corresponds.
With industrialization, the production of accordions also developed in Tula, also known as Garmon in Russia . The Tula accordions became more popular in 1870, after Nikolai Beloborodow (1828–1912), a Tula master of the accordion craft, developed a three-row chromatic harmonica. The date of origin of the Tula Prjaniki , the Russian variant of gingerbread , which, according to written records, was baked in Tula at the end of the 17th century and is still Tula's most famous culinary specialty, is not known exactly . Together with metal processing - for both military and civilian use - the production of samovars, accordions and baked goods had a decisive influence on Tula’s economic life in the 19th century, while other handicrafts played only an insignificant role.
In the course of the administrative reform by Tsarina Catherine the Great at the end of the 18th century, Tula became the capital of a province in 1777, which was renamed the Tula Gouvernement in 1797 . This increased the importance of the city and accelerated the expansion of its infrastructure: A theater (1777), a printing shop (1784), a school (1786) and a public library (1830) were built in Tula for the first time. In the further course of the 19th century the economic upswing of the governorate capital continued unabated: During times of war the armaments industry played a key role in Tula’s economic life, during times of peace the production of samovars, iron products and accordions ensured the prosperity of the city and the surrounding region. In 1868, with the laying of the Moscow – Kursk railway line , Tula received a railway connection and the Moscow railway station is still the most important railway station in the city. At the beginning of the 20th century there were almost 80 schools and three public libraries in Tula. Around 1914, at the beginning of the First World War , Tula’s economic development reached its peak for the time being: the production of samovars alone amounted to over 600,000 pieces annually.
From the October Revolution until today
Like many major Russian cities, Tula was hit by a wave of workers' strikes and uprisings at the beginning of the 20th century , from which the arms factory was not excluded. In 1901, a local committee of the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Russia (SDLP) was founded in Tula , making the city one of the centers of the Russian revolutionary movement. On December 20, 1917, a good month after the October Revolution , Soviet power was proclaimed in Tula . During the Russian Civil War 1918–1922 , the Tula Arms Factory played a leading role in the rearmament of the Red Army .
After the end of the civil war, Tula experienced another economic boom in the late 1920s and 1930s. In 1927, for example, the construction office for device construction was founded, originally a division of the arms factory for the development of small arms, now a leading Russian firearms development company. In the 1930s, two universities emerged in Tula - the Tula State University and the Leo Tolstoy Pedagogical University . In the RSFSR of the Soviet Union , after the dissolution of the Tula Governorate in 1929, Tula was initially incorporated into the Moscow Oblast . When in 1937 an independent administrative unit was founded with the Tula Oblast, Tula received the status of an area capital and has been the administrative center of this oblast ever since.
During the German attack on the Soviet Union in World War II , Tula was the target of Army Group Center under the command of General Guderian in October 1941 , who had previously been able to capture Bryansk and Orjol, 180 km south of Tula, on his way to Moscow. Since hardly any Soviet troops were stationed between Tula and Oryol at that time, the Germans succeeded in advancing right to the southern city limits of Tula, which posed a serious threat to the strategically extremely important arms industry in the city and to Moscow, which is not 200 km further north depicted. The battle for Tula now came . Only after 45 days of bitter fighting with a large number of dead and wounded as well as considerable destruction in the city from frequent artillery shelling and air raids, at the beginning of December 1941, with the help of several Red Army divisions and well-organized arms and supplies, the German troops were finally repelled without them being able to advance into the city itself. Rapid evacuation of the armaments factory also prevented major damage to the Red Army. For this and for the successful defense of Tula, the city was given the honorary title of Hero City in 1976 . A memorial with an eternal flame commemorates the defenders of the city in World War II in the center of Tula on Ploschtschad Pobedy - in German Victory Square .
In the second half of the 20th century, the city, which was partially destroyed in the war, was gradually rebuilt, with a large number of modern, multi-storey residential and commercial buildings that still characterize most of the city's central streets and avenues. The most famous Tula buildings of the post-war period include the building of the Maxim Gorky Drama Theater from 1970, the city administration building on Lenin Square near the Kremlin , built in 1983, and the football stadium from 1959. Tula’s armaments industry continued to develop after the war , among other things through increased development and production of hunting and sporting weapons.
Population development and population
The following table shows the development of the population of Tula at irregular intervals from 1811 to the present day. What is particularly striking here is the rapid increase during industrialization in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and as a result of the forced collectivization of agriculture and the resulting rural exodus in the 1930s -Years. The increase of around 43,000 inhabitants from 2005 to 2006 is due to the incorporation of the former urban settlements Gorelki, Kossaja Gora, Mendeleevsky and Skuratowski. In general, however, the city's population has been falling significantly since the 1990s - as can be seen in many places in Russia.
Note: * Census data (1926 rounded)
The population structure of Tula Oblast is ethnically very homogeneous. In the all-Russian census of 2002, the proportion of ethnic Russians in the oblast population was calculated as 95%. Other nationalities represented here include Ukrainians , Tatars , Armenians and Azerbaijanis ; In 2002 just under 4,700 Germans were counted. The proportion of non-Russians in the city of Tula is slightly higher, which is due, among other things, to foreign students at the universities. In religion, the Russian Orthodox Church has by far the leading role in Tula and the surrounding area. Other denominations are numerically insignificant, including a Jewish community with around 3,000 members, 33 Protestant communities with a total of 1,000 members, and an even smaller number of Muslims and Catholics .
coat of arms
The Tula city coat of arms was established on March 8, 1778 as part of the Russian administrative reform of the 18th century by decree of Catherine the Great . Its symbolism underscores the outstanding importance of iron forging and the armaments industry for Tula: on a red, shield-shaped background, two blades and a silver gun barrel cross between two gold forge hammers. In 2001, the Tula city parliament established the flag of the city of Tula as an additional city symbol. In addition to the symbolism of the coat of arms, it includes an image of the golden star , the highest Soviet award for service in the war, in the upper left corner . With this, the hero city title of Tula should be mentioned in the city symbolism.
Within the Tula Oblast, the city of Tula represents a so-called urban district, i.e. an independent administrative unit that is equivalent to a Rajon - roughly equivalent to the district in Germany. In addition to Tula, two other places in the oblast - the city of Donskoy and the settlement of Nowogurowski - have the status of an urban district, the rest of the oblast is divided into 23 rajons.
The executive power within the city district of Tula lies with the city administration ( Russian: Администра́ция го́рода Ту́лы ), which in turn is subordinate to four territorial administrations of the five city districts (the Priwoksalny and the Sovetsky district have a joint administration). The head of the city administration is confirmed by the city parliament (also called city duma ) and is primarily responsible for economic affairs and the administration of the city budget. The political head of the city district is the mayor (officially the head of the city - called глава́ го́рода ), who at the same time exercises the office of chairman of the city parliament. It is elected directly by the city's citizens every four years, with local elections simultaneously deciding on the composition of the city Duma.
Since 1993 there is a twinning between Tula and the Baden-Württemberg town of Villingen-Schwenningen . It was created by the local association Arbeitskreis Tula e. V. , who has been supporting social work in Tula since 1991: drug prevention, construction and renovation of hospitals or a workshop for the disabled. It was disbanded on July 9, 2014.
In addition, Tula has partnerships with the cities of Albany in the USA (since 1992), Mahiljou in Belarus (since 1998), Barranquilla in Colombia (since 2012) and Kerch on the Crimean peninsula (since 2014).
Culture and sights
Despite the damage caused by the Second World War, a large number of historical buildings from the past centuries have been preserved, especially in the center of Tula.
The most famous sight in Tula is the former fortress of the Tula Kremlin ( Russian Ту́льский кремль ), which is the oldest structure in Tula that has survived to this day. It was built between 1509 and 1520 in order to better protect the city and thus also the northern territories of the Moscow Grand Duchy from attacks from the south. Indeed, over the centuries that followed, the fortress proved to be almost impregnable - even though, unlike fortresses of this type, it was not built on a hill. Architecturally, the Tula Kremlin was essentially based on the model of other Old Russian Kremlins , above all the Moscow Kremlin : A continuous brick wall up to ten meters high, the upper area of which was decorated with tooth-shaped spikes, between which cannons are placed in the event of an attack as well as towers of various shapes and sizes built into the wall. The number of these towers on the Tula Kremlin wall is nine, four of which - one on each side - also served as entrance gates to the Kremlin. The towers without built-in entrance gates served other purposes, such as storage rooms or weapons and ammunition stores in case of a defense.
The Kremlin area, surrounded by a wall that is a good kilometer long and in places more than three meters thick, is around six hectares in size and has an almost exactly rectangular shape. Today it houses an open-air museum that includes several historical structures. However, none of them - apart from the wall and towers - date from the time the Kremlin was founded. The Uspensky Cathedral ( Успенский собор ) was only built in 1762 in place of the wooden Uspensky Church that had stood here since the 16th century. Today the brick cathedral is considered to be the most striking structure within the Tula Kremlin. From the outside it has a rectangular shape and is crowned at the top by a symmetrical construction of five bell towers with onion-shaped tips typical of Russian Orthodox buildings. Also worth seeing is the interior of the cathedral, which was lavishly painted by 36 masters from Yaroslavl shortly after its construction . The second most important building from the ensemble of the Tula Kremlin is the Apparition Cathedral ( Богоявле́нский собо́р ), which is no longer used as a church building today. It was built in 1862 on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of Russia's victory in the war against Napoleon and housed the Tula Arms Museum until 2012. In contrast to other church buildings in Tula, the Apparition Cathedral for Russian Orthodox churches has rather untypical, classical forms.
Church building outside the Kremlin
The second oldest surviving structure in Tula after the Kremlin is the Church of the Annunciation of Our Lady ( Це́рковь Благове́щения Пресвято́й Богоро́дицы ), which is located in the immediate vicinity of the Kremlin, opposite its northwestern wall section. It was built in 1692 according to the old Russian model and, according to documents from that time, served as a replacement for a wooden church that had stood at this point even earlier - probably since the 16th century. The white stone building consists of three parts: the actual church building with five onion domes, which are arranged similarly to those of the Uspenski Cathedral, and a separate bell tower to which a one-story ballroom is attached. Until the 19th century, the spacious basement rooms of the Annunciation Church were often rented by local merchants and used as warehouses.
Also directly at the Kremlin, on today's Lenin Square and directly in front of the city administration building, there are two church buildings that are reminiscent of a former Russian Orthodox monastery - the Uspensky Monastery. This was created almost at the same time as the Kremlin, when the so-called wooden city was built parallel to it south of the Kremlin walls , of which, however, no building has survived today. The monastery was exactly between the Kremlin in the north and the wooden city in the south. The first church in this monastery was built when it was built, but it became dilapidated at the end of the 18th century and had to be demolished. A subsequent building from 1792 only survived until the middle of the 19th century. Today's Uspenski Cathedral (also the Cathedral of Our Lady Dormition , Це́рковь Успе́ния Пресвято́й Богоро́дицы ), a monumental, dark red brick building with black-clad domes, dates back to 1902 and the Agnia owes its existence to the monastery had collected donations for the construction of the church. Right next door is the second church building of the former monastery, the Transfiguration Church ( Це́рковь Спа́са Преображе́ния ). It also had a previous building, the Nikolauskirche, which was dismantled in the early 19th century and in its place it was built around 1845. Outwardly, the Transfiguration Church is very different from the neighboring Uspensky Church: It is much smaller with two floors, has a yellow facade and a large dome that is somewhat reminiscent of the St. Petersburg Trinity Cathedral . The other monastery buildings are no longer preserved as they were destroyed in the 1930s and during World War II.
The Church of the Nativity of Christ and Nicholas in Saretschje ( Нико́ло-Заре́ченская це́рковь Рождества́ Христо́ва ) is closely connected with the name of the Tula pioneer of the arms trade and industrialist Nikita Demidow , which is why it is often referred to as the Demidow Church . It is located exactly where the iron forge settlement was founded in 1595. Initially, a wooden Church of the Nativity has stood in its place since the 17th century, to which Nikita Demidow and his family also went to pray. A century later it fell into disrepair and had to be replaced by a new, stone church. This had Demidow's son Akinfi built in the immediate vicinity of the grave of his father, who had died a few years earlier, in the years 1730–1734 in the Baroque style. When the church was completed, the upper floor was consecrated to the birth of Christ and the lower floor to St. Nicholas of Myra , so the church has a double name. The construction of the church looks asymmetrical from the outside, as the bell tower is separate from the main building. Originally it should be part of the building; after the half-finished tower collapsed during construction, killing several construction workers, it was decided to build the new bell tower away from the church. In 1996 a monument to Nikita Demidov was erected opposite the church.
In total there are over 60 Orthodox churches in Tula today, most of them from the city's heyday in the 17th – 19th centuries. Century. To mention is for example:
- the early classicist All Saints Church ( Це́рковь Всех Святы́х ) built in 1776 , which was expanded in 1825 by an 82 meter high bell tower and next to which a cemetery that has been preserved to this day was laid out at the same time as it was built;
- the former Old Orthodox Church of the Annunciation ( Старообря́дческая це́рковь Благове́щения Пресвято́й Богоро́дицы ), which was founded around 1910 as an office building by an Old Believer samovar manufacturer
- the Twelve Apostles Church inaugurated in 1898 ( Це́рковь Двена́дцати апо́столов ) in the south of Tula;
- the three churches and a chapel of the Shcheglow Monastery of the Holy Mother of God ( Свя́то-Богоро́дичный Щегло́вский монасты́рь ), which was founded in 1868 in thanks for the failure of an assassination attempt on the Tsar Alexander II two years earlier and a school for poor people Children included.
Other known structures
Spread across the historic city center, Tula houses old buildings, most of which were built in the decades after the Russian territorial reform of the 1770s, when Tula - like most other Russian governorate capitals at the time - was increasingly built in a classical style. A relatively dense inventory of buildings from this era can be found near the Kremlin, including on Ulitsa Metallistow ( У́лица Металли́стов , in German Street of the Metal Workers , known in the 19th century as Pyatnitskaya Street ).
Other prominent buildings in the city are:
- the house of the musician and accordion developer Nikolai Beloborodow (1828–1912) from the early 19th century, which now houses a museum in his memory;
- the former house of the Smidowitsch family of doctors, also the birthplace of the writer Wikenti Veressajew (1867–1945);
- the former house of the nobility assembly, which in the 19th century temporarily served as a venue for the Tula drama theater;
- the monument to Tsar Peter the Great next to the arms factory, which was erected in 1912 on the occasion of its 200th anniversary, with the money for this mainly coming from donations from the workers of the factory.
The Tula Arms Museum ( Ту́льский музе́й ору́жия ) is Tula's most famous museum and the only weapons museum of its kind in Russia. It was opened as an exhibition on the premises of the arms factory in 1724 after Peter the Great ordered rare specimens to be kept there. Over the next 200 years the exposition was continuously expanded, but it was not until November 1924 that it was established as a museum open to the public. From 1982 the museum in the Kremlin was located in the former Apparition Cathedral. The new museum building on the banks of the Upa was inaugurated in March 2012. Not only all products of the Tula arms trade from its beginnings in the 16th century to the present day are exhibited here, but also a comprehensive collection of Russian, Western European and Oriental weapons from practically every epoch of human civilization. In addition, the museum has an archive in which all documents and other written documents from the history of the Tula armaments industry can be found, and a library in which books on the history of arms production are collected.
The Tula Gingerbread Museum ( Музе́й «Ту́льский пря́ник» ) opened in 1996, making it one of the youngest museums in the city. Its exposition is all about Tula's most famous culinary specialty, gingerbread , which in Russia is also known as prjanik (plural: prjaniki ). The history of the Tula gingerbread, whose origins are no longer reliable today, is presented, as well as different specimens that have ever been baked, whose diameter ranges from a little over a centimeter to over half a meter. In addition, old and new gingerbread accessories can be viewed here, such as wooden boards with a specially carved surface that were used to print the gingerbread. Attached to the museum is a small bakery, in which freshly baked prjaniki can be tasted with tea, and a gingerbread shop.
A museum in the city is also dedicated to the third specialty of Tula. The Tula Samovar Museum ( Ту́льский музе́й самова́ров ) opened in 1990 and presents the history of the local samovar trade in three halls . The exhibits range from the very first samovars produced in the 1770s from the factory of the Lissizyn brothers to specimens from the Batashov brothers' factory, which were presented at the world exhibitions (including in Paris in 1889 and Chicago in 1893 ) and won medals in the process unusual and rare single copies. You can also see the Russian forerunner of the samovar, the copper jug called Sbitennik, which was used to prepare the Russian hot drink Sbiten in the 18th century .
Art Museum of Tula Oblast
The Art Museum of Tula Oblast ( Ту́льский областно́й худо́жественный музе́й ) is Tula’s most important picture gallery . It was established in 1919 and took over exhibits from several smaller museums as well as from the private collections of the Tula authorities confiscated by the Bolsheviks of the Tula Governors. In the 1920s and 1930s, the inventory of exhibits was significantly expanded, including through donations from the Moscow Rumyantsev Museum and the Tretyakov Gallery . In 1964 the art museum moved into a new building, where paintings by Russian and foreign artists, as well as icons, glass and porcelain products are exhibited in a total of 28 halls. Works by Ivan Aiwasowski , Konstantin Korowin , Boris Kustodijew , Isaak Lewitan , Wassili Polenow , Ilja Repin , Iwan Schischkin , Valentin Serow , Wassili Surikow or Wassili Tropinin can be seen here. A number of Western European painters such as Domenico Fetti , Luca Giordano , Ernest Meissonier , Jan Miense Molenaer , Frans Snyders and Philips Wouwerman are also represented with their works .
Immediately behind Tula's southern city limits is the Yasnaya Polyana museum complex ( Я́сная Поля́на ) on a former estate with extensive parks. Since the acquisition of the property by Prince Nikolai Volkonsky in the 18th century, it has belonged to the Tolstoy family . The famous writer Leo Tolstoy , grandson of Prince Volkonsky, was born there in 1828 . He also spent more than 50 years of his life there and was buried in a simple grave on this estate in 1910. Today the former estate is an open-air museum run by Vladimir Tolstoy, one of the poet's great-great-grandsons. In addition to Tolstoy's birthplace, numerous buildings from the former ensemble of the estate, along with gardens, ponds and picturesque park and forest areas, can be viewed here.
Other well-known museums in Tula are a former torture cellar in the Spasskaya Tower of the Kremlin, in which a large number of instruments of torture and execution from the time of Ivan the Terrible are exhibited, the Tulskije Drewnosti Museum of Local History ( Ту́льские дре́вности ), whose exposition focuses on the historical development of Tula Dedicated to the area from the Stone Age to the 18th century, as well as the Tula Necropolis Museum Complex ( Ту́льский некро́поль ), which includes three historic cemeteries, laid out in 1772, with the graves of well-known Tula citizens and architecturally complex tombs. Since 2014 there has been a pharmacy museum in a former pharmacy founded in 1864.
Theater and cinema
The most famous theater in Tula is today's Maxim Gorky State Academic Drama Theater ( Ту́льский госуда́рственный академи́ческий теа́тр дра́мы и́кмони М. Гогор ). Its beginnings go back to 1777. At that time it was established as the first theater in the newly formed Tula Governorate. In 1787 Tsarina Catherine the Great visited the theater on her trip to central Russia. Apparently she liked the piece she saw, as she sent two renowned actors from Saint Petersburg there shortly afterwards . Over the decades, famous actors such as Maria Yermolowa and Konstantin Stanislawski have made guest appearances there. Leo Tolstoy also came here when one of his pieces was being rehearsed. In the post-war period, the theater was given its current name in honor of the writer and playwright Maxim Gorky , who was and is also performed here several times. In 1970 it moved to its current building with a hall for up to 729 spectators.
The city's cultural offerings are supplemented by the U Tolstowskoi Sastawy Theater, founded in 1992 , a puppet theater, a theater for children and young people, a philharmonic orchestra, a circus and six film theaters.
Nature and green spaces
In the city center, the number of green spaces is relatively small. The most famous centrally located park is the Kremlin Gardens ( Кремлёвский сад ), which stretches along the southeast section of the Kremlin wall. It was built at the end of the 1830s on the site of a previously burned down wooden house district and in the 19th century - at that time still with facilities such as orangeries, fountains and open-air theater - it was considered the most important and popular local recreation area of the people of Tula.
The largest park in the city is the Central Belousov Park ( Центра́льный парк им. Белоу́сова ), which extends southwest of the city center on an area of 142 hectares. It was created in 1893 on the initiative of Tula doctor Pyotr Belousov (1856-1896) based on the model of the Bois de Boulogne city garden in Paris . In addition to extensive forest areas with up to 40 different tree and shrub species, the facility includes three lakes, animal enclosures and an entertainment park with carousels, cafes and ice rinks in winter. With over 40 species of birds and 12 species of mammals, the park is an important biotope of the city.
Since 1987 there has been a public aquarium in Tula with the so-called Zooexotarium of Tula Oblast ( Ту́льский областно́й зооэкзота́риум ) , in which the visitor can view around 420 living reptiles of 50 species, including various snakes, crocodiles, lizards, tarantulas and turtles. The reptile population of the Zoo Exotarium is housed in 40 terrariums , which are spread over four exhibition rooms.
The largest sports facility in the city is the Arsenal Stadium ( Стадио́н "Арсена́л" ) with a total area of 24 hectares and an arena with 20,000 seats. The stadium was built in 1908 and was originally only intended to host cycling races . It was not until the 1950s that plans arose to expand the cycle track into a multi-purpose sports complex based on the model of Moscow's Luzhniki Stadium . The soccer field was completed in 1959, an athletics arena was added in 1966 and a swimming pool in 1972. Since 1994 home games of the Tula football club Arsenal (since 2007 under the name Oruscheinik ) have been played in the stadium, which at times (first in the 2014/15 season ) made it into the top league of Russian professional football. In addition, national and international athletics competitions are often held here, in which excellent performances have been achieved several times, for example in 1960 by Zdzisław Krzyszkowiak in the obstacle course, in 2000 by Jelena Prochorowa in the heptathlon and by Olga Kusenkowa in the hammer throw, 2003 by Julija Petschonkina in the 400- Meter hurdles (world record in 52.34 s), in 2004 by Tatiana Lebedewa in the long jump and Natalja Nazarova in the 400 meter run and in 2005 by Tatiana Andrianova in the 800 meter run.
The other sports facilities in Tula include seven smaller stadiums and over 100 sports halls, there are also three indoor swimming pools and numerous smaller sports facilities such as football, basketball, volleyball and tennis courts in the city.
Economy and Infrastructure
Tula is one of the most important industrial cities in the Central Federal District . A total of around 80 processing companies are active in the city. Metal processing and mechanical engineering play a key role here.
The most famous industrial enterprise in the city area is the Tula arms factory . It was founded in 1712 (see the history section ) and has been a stock corporation since 1993. Today, the plant's production range extends not only to firearms for military use - including the AK-74 model of the Kalashnikov assault rifle - but also to sporting weapons and hunting rifles, as well as souvenir weapons and assembly pistols. In addition to Russia and the successor states of the former Soviet Union, the production of the armaments plant is also sold abroad, including Germany, Finland and Norway. Almost 16% of the production in 2009 was produced on behalf of the Russian state.
Another important company in the city's armaments sector is the Construction Office for Equipment (KBP), which specializes in the development of various weapons for the army. It has existed since 1927 and was originally a department of the armaments plant that was solely responsible for the development of small arms . Today KBP is an independent state-owned company with an annual turnover of around 400 million euros. Among the best known here developed weapons include the machine guns GRYAZEV-SHIPUNOV GSH-23 , GRYAZEV-SHIPUNOV GSH-301 , the anti-tank systems 9K111 Fagot , 9K119 Refleks , 9K115-2 Metis-M , 9K135 Kornet and 9K121 Wichr that precision-guided artillery shell Krasnopol , the air defense systems 2K22 Tunguska and 96K6 Panzir as well as the armored personnel carrier BMP-3 .
Among the other industrial companies in Tula, factories for the preparation and processing of metals are the most represented. Examples include the Stamp household appliance factory founded in 1880 (today also a well-known manufacturer of Tula samovars ), the iron foundry founded in 1897 in the suburban settlement of Kossaja Gora, as well as around 30 mechanical engineering companies that, among other things, produce electrical accessories, systems for oil refineries, medical technology, fire extinguishers, Produce telephone devices, electric stoves, structural engineering or combine harvesters. Other industrial facilities in Tula include four chemical plants, four wood processing plants, factories for the manufacture of building materials, printing plants, textile factories and the Tulskaya Garmon factory for the manufacture of accordions . There are also a total of 13 food factories in Tula, including a branch of the Baltika brewery, a beverage factory of the Wimm-Bill-Dann-Foods group, and two confectionery factories, which also specialize in the production and sales of Tula gingerbread throughout Russia .
In addition to industry, the service sector and trade also play an important role in Tula. The regional Russian energy supply company TGK-4 , which was spun off from the state-owned Unified Energy System , has had its headquarters in Tula since 2005 . As in many other places in Russia, the Tula region experienced a boom in retail in the 2000s. It was mainly during this time that several large shopping centers and various restaurants in various price ranges were built in Tula. Major Russian supermarket chains such as Perekrjostok , Ostrow , Magnit and Kopeika operate stores in Tula, as does the international retail chain Spar , which has now expanded to over 30 stores in Tula Oblast. Tourism has also recently experienced an upswing. Finally, it should be mentioned that Tula is home to more than ten research companies and institutes, which are mainly active in the field of mechanical engineering and IT.
With regard to the economic data, the Tula Oblast - similar to the other central Russian regions - is in the lower midfield when compared to all of Russia. According to the Tula Regional Department of the Russian Federal Statistical Office, in October 2007 the increase in industrial production in the Oblast was 7.8% compared to October 2006 and the inflation rate for the same period was 14.2%. However, in the wake of the economic crisis from 2008 onwards, there was at times a significant drop in production. The average gross monthly wage in the oblast was determined to be 15,600 rubles for September 2010, or around 390 euros; the all-Russian average for the same period was 21,376 rubles.
Tula owes its importance as an important hub for road and rail traffic to its location directly on the traffic route that connects Moscow with regions of southern Russia and with parts of the Ukraine .
Road and air traffic
Tula lies between two important Russian highways: the M 2 from Moscow via Kursk to Belgorod and the M 4 , which leads from Moscow via Lipetsk and Voronezh to Krasnodar and Novorossiysk on the Black Sea . There are also country roads to Alexin , Kaluga and nearby Kireevsk . Within the city, the largest and therefore most important streets are in particular the Prospekt Lenina (in German Lenin Prospect), which connects the city center with the southern suburbs, the Krasnoarmeiski Prospect (Prospect of the Red Army ) and the Wenjowskoje Schosse ( Wenjower Chaussee) in North of the city.
Until 1992 there was also a regional airport in Tula , which mainly served short-haul flights. However, it was shut down during the economic crisis in the early 1990s due to a lack of money and passengers. Today air traffic hardly plays a role in the Tula Oblast; the nearest international airports are in Moscow. However, the construction of a new regional airport in Tula is currently being considered.
Several railway lines cross in Tula . The most important of them is the electrified between Moscow and Oryol - Kursk - Belgorod , which is traveled primarily by long-distance trains. The Tula section of this line from Serpukhov to Oryol was put into operation in 1868 (the section from Moscow to Serpukhov was completed three years earlier). At the same time, the Moscow train station (alternative, often used in timetable information: Tula-1 ), which is still the only long-distance train station in the city, was built on this route west of the historic center of Tula .
Today, between 20 and 30 pairs of long-distance trains and about the same number of local trains are handled daily from the Moscow train station. There are direct long-distance train connections to Moscow, Saint Petersburg , Arkhangelsk , Murmansk , Perm , Kazan , Kirov , Rostov-on-Don , Sochi , Kislovodsk and numerous other Russian cities, as well as to Kharkiv , Sevastopol , Donetsk and Dnipro in Ukraine . Direct local train connections exist primarily to neighboring cities in the Tula Oblast such as Novomoskowsk or Shchokino , as well as to Moscow ( Kursk train station ), Serpukhov, Oryol and Kaluga . The travel time on a local train from Tula to Moscow is two and a half to three and a half hours, depending on the train.
In addition to the Moscow train station, there are four smaller train stations within the city limits of Tula, which are served exclusively by local trains. The main line Moscow – Belgorod is also the only electrified railway line in Tula. The other railway lines that run through the city - such as the lines to Kaluga and Novomoskowsk - are rather insignificant branch lines that are only used a few times a day by diesel-powered trains and rail buses .
From 1905 the narrow-gauge railway Tula-Lichwin was operated, the last section of which was discontinued in 1996.
An important part of Tula local transport is the city's tram . The first tram line Tulas, a connection between the Moscow train station and the southern suburb, opened on November 14, 1927 after a construction period of seven months. The city's tram traffic played an important role during the fighting in autumn 1941, when it was mainly used for the transport of supplies. Today just over 150 wagons are operated from two vehicle depots in single and double traction, which are in use on a total of 11 lines. Most of the wagons are Tatra T3 vehicles , which were still manufactured in the 1980s and are now considered obsolete, especially since the city of Tula barely paid any money for them during the economic decline of the 1990s Had to purchase new vehicles. In 2005 and 2006, the wear and tear of the vehicle fleet could be slowed down somewhat by the purchase of used but modernized Tatra vehicles from Schwerin , in 2008 the first wagon of the type PTMS 71-153 was delivered. The fares for the Tula tram are very low by European standards: at the beginning of 2011 the ticket for a single trip of any length cost 11 rubles, which is the equivalent of around 0.28 euros.
Like many other major Russian cities, Tula also has a network of trolleybus routes . The trolleybus service in Tula was opened on November 4, 1962 with initially two lines. In the following decades the network was continuously expanded. It currently consists of nine lines on which 119 vehicles have been used. All vehicles come from Russian production, with the old stock, some of which still originating from the Soviet era, has been increasingly being replaced by new vehicle types from the manufacturers Trans-Alfa from Vologda and Trolsa from Engels since the mid-2000s . The price of the trolleybus in Tula at the beginning of 2011 was also 11 rubles.
Other means of transport
The tram and trolleybus traffic in Tula is supplemented by city buses and by so-called marshrutkas , a type of shared taxis widely used in Russia that operate on certain routes - both within the city and into the surrounding area. The fares for the marshrutkas are usually only slightly more expensive than those for buses, trolleybuses and trams. Another means of public transport within Tula are the suburban trains that run between the five train stations in the city, but they only play an insignificant role in inner-city traffic.
With Gubernskije Vedomosti , the first regional newspaper of the city of Tula was published in January 1838. Today, the city's range of local print media includes around 20 newspapers and magazines, including the Tulskije Izvestija newspaper, which appears three times a week (circulation: 6,000 copies), the weekly Sloboda (100,000 copies), Tulskaya Panorama (30,160 copies) and Tula ( 9,800 copies) Copies). Regional editions of the most important national Russian newspapers also have significant market shares: Komsomolskaja Prawda (circulation of the local edition Tula: 7,000 copies), Argumenty i Fakty (16,000 copies), Moskovsky Komsomolets (65,000 copies) as well as the classifieds papers Moja Reklama (21,600 copies) and Is ruk w ruki (7800 copies).
The electronic media landscape in Tula consists primarily of the most important national television stations Perwy kanal , Rossija , TWZ and NTW . The broadcaster Rossija also offers a local program for Tula Oblast. The city's media offer is supplemented by the Internet, including regional Tula websites such as the political Internet newspaper pryaniki.org .
The transmission equipment of Tula to the spread of FM and television programs are located at. A 180 m high free-standing steel lattice tower erected in 1963/64 and a 350 m high, guyed steel lattice tower erected in 1975/76 are used as antenna supports.
Compared to other Russian cities of a similar size, Tula has a well-developed infrastructure of educational institutions. There are over 80 schools in the city with a total of around 45,000 children. The school system in Tula includes general schools as well as high schools, lyceums and vocational schools.
The most important secondary educational institutions in Tula are the city's three independent state universities:
- The State University of Tula ( Ту́льский госуда́рственный университе́т / abbreviated ТулГУ ) is the largest university in the city with currently around 17,000 students. It was founded in 1930, originally as the Tula Mechanical Institute with an exclusively technical focus, with a focus on metal processing. The university, which had considerably expanded its range of courses over the decades, received the status of a full university in 1995. Today, the State University of Tula has 12 faculties - including a law, an economics and a medical faculty a total of 70 chairs.
- The State Pedagogical University Lev Tolstoy Tula ( Тульский государственный педагогический университет им. Л. Н. Толстого / abbreviated ТГПУ ) was created in 1938, first as a Pedagogical State University Tula . In 1958 it received the suffix Leo Tolstoy on the occasion of the writer's 130th birthday, and in 1994 the status of a pedagogical university and its current official name. Today it has around 6,500 students and consists of nine departments.
- The oldest university in Tula is the Technical Artillery Institute Tula ( Ту́льский артиллери́йский инжене́рный институ́т / abbreviated ТАИИ ). It was founded as the Tula weapons school by decree of Tsar Alexander II on July 15, 1869 and was primarily intended to prepare young engineers for the weapons factory. The range of courses was later expanded to include military officer training. The institute was given its current name in 1998.
The university offer in Tula is supplemented by branches of some state and private, mainly Moscow universities, including the following:
- Moscow University branch of the Ministry of Interior of Russia
- Branch of Moscow State University of Arts and Culture
- Branch of the Moscow State Trade University
- Branch of the All-Russian Remote Institute of Finance and Economics
- Tula regional branch of the Russian Academy of Law
- Branch of the Russian International Academy of Tourism
- Saokski College of Seventh-day Adventists
- Tula University (TIEI)
Sons and Daughters of the City (selection)
- Nikita Demidow (1656-1725), industrialist
- Konstantin Uschinski (1824–1871), educator
- Gleb Uspenski (1843–1902), writer
- Wikenti Veressajew (1867–1945), writer
- Pyotr Sushkin (1868–1928), zoologist, biogeographer and paleontologist
- Vladimir Basarow (1874–1939), philosopher
- Wassili Degtjarjow (1880–1949), weapons designer
- Valentin Kamenski (1907–1975), architect and town planner
- Algirdas Julien Greimas (1917–1992), linguist and semioticist
- German Galynin (1922–1966), composer
- Valery Legasov (1936–1988), chemist
- Valery Polyakov (* 1942), doctor and former cosmonaut
- Vladimir Mashkov (born 1963), actor
- Irina Kirillowa (* 1965), volleyball player
- Olga Nazarowa (* 1965), sprinter and Olympic champion
- Irina Rodina (* 1973), judoka
- Juri Afonin (* 1977), politician
- Michail Timoshin (* 1980), racing cyclist
- Jelena Saweljewa (* 1984), boxer
- Jelena Possewina (* 1986), rhythmic gymnast and two-time Olympic champion
- Alexei Vorobyov (* 1988), singer and actor
- Igor Frolow (* 1990), road cyclist
- Andrei Kuznetsov (* 1991), tennis player
- Jekaterina Gnidenko (* 1992), racing cyclist
- Nikita Schurschin (* 1993), track cyclist
- Tatiana Kisseljowa (* 1996), cyclist
People related to the city of Tula
- Pseudodimitri I (? –1606), self-proclaimed tsar, temporarily resided in Tula in 1605 on his way to Moscow
- Ivan Bolotnikow (? –1608), leader of a peasant uprising, stayed with his army in the Tula Kremlin for months in 1607
- Wassili Schukowski (1783-1852), poet, went to an elementary school in Tula in the 1790s
- Nikolai Muravjow-Amursky (1809–1881), acting military governor of Tula from 1846 to 1847
- Michail Saltykow-Shchedrin (1826-1889), writer and satirist, worked from 1866 to 1867 in Tula
- Leo Tolstoy (1828–1910), famous writer, lived in Yasnaya Polyana near Tula
- Sergei Mossin (1849–1902), weapons designer (including Mosin-Nagant ), worked in the Tula arms factory and died in Tula
- Dmitri Parski (1866-1921), general
- Fyodor Tokarew (1871–1968), weapons designer at the construction office for equipment construction (including Tokarew TT-33 )
- Dmitri Ulyanov (1874–1943), politician and revolutionary, Lenin's younger brother, politically active in Tula in 1903
- Michail Beresin (1906–1950), weapons designer (including Beresin UB ), lived in Tula from 1935 until his death and worked in the arms factory and in the design office for equipment
- Boris Safonow (1915–1942), fighter pilot, went to school in Tula
- Igor Stechkin (1922–2001), weapon designer
- Alexei Suetin (1926-2001), chess grandmaster, grew up in Tula
- Evgeni Chrunow (1933–2000), cosmonaut, honorary citizen of Tula
- Alexander Lebed (1950–2002), army general and politician, headed the Tula Parachute Division from 1988 to 1991 and ran for the Tula constituency in the 1995 Duma elections
- Anatoli Karpov (* 1951), chess grandmaster, honorary citizen of Tula
- Sergei Saljotin (* 1962), cosmonaut
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