|List of cities in Russia|
Kaluga is a rajon-free administrative-territorial unit (city). Within the framework of local self-government, Kaluga and 73 surrounding villages form the urban district of Gorod Kaluga (City of Kaluga).
The area of the actual city of Kaluga is 168.8 km², that of the urban district 543.0 km². The territory of the city is divided into three districts:
(October 14, 2010)
|Leninsky||Ленинский||114.084||named after Lenin|
|Moskovsky||Московский||100,923||named after Moscow|
|Oktyabrsky||Октябрьский||109,691||named after October , based on the October Revolution|
Note: census data
flag and emblem
The city coat of arms shows a white wavy bar for the Oka on a blue background, above it the tsar's crown . The city flag is based on the coat of arms, but still shows a flying satellite of the Sputnik 1 type in a red stripe on the leech , as Kaluga is considered the cradle of Russian space travel.
Kaluga was first mentioned in a document in 1371 as a fortress, the city emerged as a border fortress in the southwest of the Moscow Empire . After 1500 it briefly formed its own independent principality. In 1606/07, Kaluga was the center of the peasant uprising under Ivan Bolotnikov .
From the 17th to the 19th century, Kaluga developed into a trading city as it was on the route between Moscow and Ukraine. In 1718 Peter I had a sailing factory built here and a paper factory in 1720.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, high-ranking opponents of Russia were exiled to Kaluga. This included the last Crimean Khan, Şahin Giray, from 1786 to 1787 after he renounced the Khan's throne. The Avar leader Imam Shamil lived in exile in Kaluga from 1860 to 1869. The Imam and his family lived in a three-story stone house that was built at the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries by the provincial architect Ivan D. Yasnigin for the wholesaler Ivan G. Bilibin. This house at 4 Pushkin Street is now called the “House of Shamil” and houses the exhibition rooms of the local history museum.
With the establishment of a physics institute in 1892, the foundation stone for research activity was laid in Kaluga, its founder Konstantin Ziolkowski is considered the father of Russian space travel , his former home is now a museum that shows how the inventor lived and tinkered with his models. There is also an important space museum in the city. This makes Kaluga the "cradle of cosmonautics".
During the Second World War , Kaluga was occupied by the Wehrmacht during the Battle of Moscow on October 12, 1941 . The American historian Timothy Snyder claims: "After the experiences during the Stalinist purges , numerous residents of the city greeted the advancing units of the Wehrmacht with bread and salt".
But on December 30, 1941, the city was liberated by the Red Army . The residents of the city welcomed the Red Army soldiers with bread and salt. In the following years the POW camp 107 for German prisoners of war of the Second World War existed in the city .
Note: census data
On November 28, 2007, Volkswagen opened an assembly plant in Kaluga in order to save the import duties of 25% by assembling on site. The Volkswagen Group Rus is located in Kaluga (details in this article to the work).
Renault and Volvo ( Renault Trucks has been part of the Volvo Group since 2001) have set up a truck factory in Kaluga. PSA Peugeot Citroën opened a production site in Kaluga together with Mitsubishi in 2010 .
At the beginning of June 2014, the automotive supplier Continental AG opened a new production facility for car tires, engine control units and fuel delivery units in the “Kaluga Süd” industrial park , near the Volkswagen, Volvo and PSA assembly plants. The French supplier Faurecia produces exhaust systems and interior systems for local automobile manufacturers in Kaluga.
The "Kalugaer Turbinenwerk" builds energy machines.
Kaluga is connected to the Russian capital Moscow via the M3 Ukraina highway . Here it is crossed by the R132 , which leads via Tula to Ryazan . Also here starts R92 , connecting the city with Oryol connects.
In football, the city is represented by the FK Kaluga club .
Further educational institutions
- Department of the Northeastern Academy of Public Service Kaluga
- Branch of the International Slavic G.R. Derschawin University
- Branch of the Moscow Agricultural Academy
- Branch of the Moscow State Technical University
- Branch of the A. S. Gribojedow Institute for International Law and Economics
- Branch of the All-Russian Remote Institute of Finance and Economics
- Branch of the Moscow Humanities and Economic Institute
- Kaluga State K. E. Ziolkowski University
The city of Kaluga maintains a city partnership with the following cities :
- Binningen , Switzerland
- Minsk , Belarus since 2015
- Lahti , Finland , since 1994
- Suhl , Germany , since 1969
- / Tiraspol , Republic of Moldova / Transnistria
sons and daughters of the town
- Ivan Kachanow (1825–1909), politician and general in the Russian army
- Jewlalija Kadmina (1853–1881), singer
- David Edelstadt (1866–1892), Yiddish-speaking writer and anarchist
- Boris Wladimirzow (1884–1931), Mongolist, linguist, ethnologist and orientalist
- Nikolai Avilov (1887–1937), politician
- Vasily Glagolew (1896–1947), Colonel General
- Alexander Terenin (1896–1967), physical chemist
- Pavel Voronin (1903-1984), major general
- Nikolai Rakow (1908–1990), composer
- Yuri Smirnow (1921–2007), mathematician
- Kirill Trofimov (1921–1987), Lieutenant General
- Juri Awerbach (* 1922), chess grandmaster
- Alexander Babajew (1923–1985), Colonel General
- Larissa Popugajewa (1923–1977), geologist
- Anatoly Akentjew (* 1939), cross-country skier
- Alexander Saprykin (born 1946), volleyball player
- Mykola Azarov (* 1947), Ukrainian politician, 14th Prime Minister of Ukraine (2010-2014)
- Michail Linge (1958-1994), sprinter
- Stanislaw Lopuchow (* 1972), swimmer
- Valery Kobelew (* 1973), ski jumper and Nordic combined athlete
- Dmitri Kowaljow (* 1976), rower
- Olesja Sykina (* 1980), sprinter
- Julia Tabakowa (* 1980), athlete
- Vladimir Kissenkov (* 1981), football player
- Evgenia Fölsche (* 1983), pianist
- Konstantin Eduardowitsch Ziolkowski (1857–1935), scientist, theoretician of space exploration and travel, founder of modern cosmonautics
- Kaluga soil. The Kaluga's Land. Zemlya Kalushskaya. Image-text tape . Trilingual: Russian, English, German. Moscow 1977
- www.fortunecity.com ( Memento of February 3, 1999 in the Internet Archive )
- Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
- Harvard University: History of the Mongols, from the 9th to the 19th century . London: Longmans, Green, and co., 1876, pp. 602 (English, archive.org [accessed February 24, 2020]).
- Pocket guidebook of Kaluga. Retrieved February 24, 2020 .
- Timothy Snyder : Black Earth. London 2015, p. 195.
- The Liberation of Kaluga, December 1941 (documentary newsreel)
- Maschke, Erich (ed.): On the history of the German prisoners of war of the Second World War. Verlag Ernst and Werner Gieseking, Bielefeld 1962–1977.
- January 29, 2008: Agreement Officially Signed to Build PSA Peugeot Citroën Plant in Kaluga, Russia ( Memento of the original from December 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- PSA and Mitsubishi start Kaluga plant ( memento of the original from September 23, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (April 26, 2010)
- Visite virtual du site de production de Kaluga ( Memento of the original from December 26, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (Movie)
- OCW - Verlag für Außenwirtschaft June 11, 2014: New work: Continental is expanding in Kaluga
-  January 9, 2012: Faurecia to establish two plants in Russia
- Press release August 2008 : the state holding company Atomenergoprom acquires a stake in the turbine plant
- Евлалия Кадмина - забытая гордость Калуги , kp40.ru
- Глаголев Василий Васильевич , warheroes.ru
- Воронин Павел Андреевич , warheroes.ru
- Трофимов Кирилл Николаевич , warheroes.ru
- Бабаев Александр Иванович , warheroes.ru
- Aleksandr Saprykin in the database of Sports-Reference (English)
- Stanislav Lopukhov in the database of Sports-Reference (English)
- Dmitry Kovalyov in the database of Sports-Reference (English)
- Vladimir Kisenkov , soccerway.com
- Vladimir Kisenkov , transfermarkt.it
- Without ISBN, large format, 143 pages